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Journal Articles

A Study of evaluation method for buffer material erosion in vertical in-hole emplacement

Kikuchi, Hirohito*; Uda, Toshiaki*; Hayashi, Daisuke*; Emori, Minoru*; Kimura, Shun

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 31(1), p.11 - 20, 2024/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Human resource development for decommissioning of JAEA's facilities

Takiya, Hiroaki

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 30(2), p.66 - 71, 2023/12

A half of unclear facilities in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been transferred to decommissioning phase because of achieving the expected goals for the research and development, aging of buildings and equipment, etc. JAEA must safely, efficiently, and rationally implement back-end measures related to decommissioning, from the dismantling of nuclear facilities to the processing and disposal of radioactive waste generated by dismantling. The decommissioning and radioactive waste management head office collaborates with each JAEA's site to plan and promote comprehensive back-end measures and promote near surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities, and to work on research and development aimed at solving common issues related to back-end measures, human resource development, etc. Since decommissioning is a long-term project, it is important to secure specialized human resources for the future. This article presents a summary of human resource development for decommissioning.

Journal Articles

Basics of nuclear fuel cycle and environment

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 30(1), p.15 - 18, 2023/06

The entire process of nuclear power generation is called the nuclear fuel cycle, and each process generates various types of radioactive waste. These radioactive wastes are generated from the operation and decommissioning of these facilities, and are treated and disposed of appropriately according to their radioactivity concentrations and properties. This paper describes the basic outline of the nuclear fuel cycle and the fundamentals of the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste (including radioactive waste from the use of radioactive materials in facilities other than the nuclear fuel cycle), called the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle.

Journal Articles

Effect of collapse behavior on changes in swelling pressure of bentonite during swelling pressure test

Takayama, Yusuke; Sato, Daisuke*; Kikuchi, Hirohito*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 29(2), p.101 - 111, 2022/12

Swelling pressure tests have been conducted to understand the swelling properties of bentonite which is planned to be used as a buffer material in repositories for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. It has been reported that the swelling pressure obtained by swelling pressure test increases monotonically or temporarily decreases after increasing with the passage of the time depending on the initial water content. In this study, swelling pressure tests were conducted under several different initial water content conditions, and the change in wet density distribution inside the specimen during the swelling pressure tests was observed by X-ray CT measurement. It was confirmed that the presence or absence of collapse behavior and its magnitude affect the shape of the change in swelling pressure. When the collapse deformation was large, the amount of temporary decrease in swelling pressure was large. On the other hand, swelling pressure increased monotonically when there was no deformation due to collapse.

Journal Articles

Study on investigation method of fracture distribution based on data obtained at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, central Japan

Sasao, Eiji

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 29(2), p.112 - 118, 2022/12

Since fractures in granite act as pathways for groundwater flow and mass transport, understanding of fracture distribution is an important subject for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Fracture data obtained through the borehole investigation from ground surface contains errors due to the crossing angle between boreholes and fractures. I studied method of borehole investigation that can effectively characterize the fracture distribution based on fracture information obtained from geological investigation of shaft wall at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. As a result, it was found that inclined boreholes captured larger number of fractures than vertical boreholes. Therefore, inclined boreholes are preferable for efficient characterization of the fractures. Fracture orientation at surface exposure is well concordant with that at the shaft, which implies that the drilling direction should be determined based on the result of surface fracture mapping.

Journal Articles

Effect of different interlayer counter-ions on montmorillonite swelling; Key controlling factors evaluated by molecular dynamic simulations

Yotsuji, Kenji*; Tachi, Yukio; Sakuma, Hiroshi*; Kawamura, Katsuyuki*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 29(2), p.63 - 81, 2022/12

The understanding of the swelling phenomenon of montmorillonite is essential to predict the physical and chemical behavior of clay-based barriers in radioactive waste disposal systems. This study investigated the key factors controlling crystalline swelling behavior of montmorillonite with different interlayer counter-ions by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. On the basis of the comparisons between MD simulated and experimental results, the water content in the interlayer in five homoionic (Na$$^{-}$$, K$$^{-}$$, Cs$$^{-}$$, Ca$$^{-}$$ and Sr$$^{-}$$) montmorillonite was strongly correlated to the hydration number and the preference of an outer- or inner-sphere complex of each counter-ion. The detailed analysis for these results offer insights that the hydration number is controlled by the hydration free energy, the volume and the distribution of each interlayer counter-ion. The systematic MD simulations with virtually variable parameters clarified that the hydration free energy and the charge of interlayer counter- ions compete as influencing factors, and the control the formation rate of an outer-sphere complex of each counter-ion. The empirical relationships between these key factors will allow essential insights into predicting the swelling behavior of montmorillonite with different interlayer counter-ions.

Journal Articles

Development of stabilization treatment technology for radioactive aluminum waste

Seki, Misaki; Fujita, Yoshitaka; Fujihara, Yasuyuki*; Zhang, J.*; Yoshinaga, Hisao*; Sano, Tadafumi*; Hori, Junichi*; Nagata, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Kaoru; Omori, Takazumi; et al.

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 29(1), p.2 - 9, 2022/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Brief introduction to research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

Yamaguchi, Masaaki

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 29(1), p.38 - 41, 2022/06

This presentation outlined the framework and background of Japan's geological disposal research that has been underway since the 1970s and outlined research and development on the engineering technology of geological disposal and the performance assessment of geological disposal systems in the research and development fields. Specific assessment methods used in both R & D fields and recent research topics were also explained.

Journal Articles

Characteristics of radioactive waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

Sakai, Akihiro

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 29(1), p.48 - 54, 2022/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Efforts to Risk Communication at Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

Osawa, Hideaki; Matsui, Hideki

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 28(2), p.18 - 25, 2021/12

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency had offered visitor's tour to the underground and surface facilities of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the Tono Geoscience Center in order to promote the understanding of the R&D of geological disposal technology and geological disposal for the public. We analyzed questionnaires distributed after visiting these facilities from FY2010 to FY2019, except for FY2016, in the hopes of using risk communication for geological disposal. Results suggest that visiting these facilities is a valuable experience to understand geological disposal because some people, knew even just a little bit about it, have positively evaluated appropriateness of geological disposal by a tour of the Mizunami URL. While some people who have negatively evaluated safety of geological disposal are highly interested in issues of nuclear power and site selection, some people who have positively evaluated safety of geological disposal are highly interested in public understanding of geological disposal. Furthermore, both these groups believe that long-term safety is a technical issue.

Journal Articles

Development methodology on determination of instant release fractions for generic safety assessment for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel

Kitamura, Akira; Akahori, Kuniaki; Nagata, Masanobu*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(2), p.83 - 93, 2020/12

Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in deep underground repositories (hereafter "direct disposal") is a concept that disposal canisters stored fuel assemblies dispose without reprocessing. Behavior of radionuclide release from SNF must be different from that from vitrified glass. The present study established a methodology on determination of instant release fraction (IRF) of radionuclides from SNF, which is the one of the parameters on radionuclide release based on the latest safety assessment reports in other countries, especially for IRF values proportional to a fission gas release ratio (FGR). Recommended and maximum values of FGR have been estimated using the fuel performance code FEMAXI-7 after collecting FGR values on Japanese SNFs. Furthermore, recommended and maximum values of IRF for Japanese SNFs used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) have been estimated using the presently obtained FGR values and experimentally obtained IRF values on foreign SNFs. The recommended and maximum IRF values obtained in the present study have been compared with those of the latest safety assessment reports in other countries.

Journal Articles

Analytical tool of evolution of topography and repository depth to assess impacts of uplift and erosion for HLW disposal

Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji*; Makino, Hitoshi

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(2), p.72 - 82, 2020/12

An efficient analytical tool to calculate temporal change of topography and repository depth due to uplift and erosion was developed for use in performance assessment of high level radioactive waste geological disposal. The tool was developed as ArcGIS model, incorporating simplified landform development simulation, to enable trial calculation of various conditions such as initial topography, uplift rate and its distributions, and repository location. This tool enables to support decision on which processes, features, and their changes should be taken into account for performance assessment, by calculating topography change and repository depth change under various conditions.

Journal Articles

Methodology development and determination of solubility-limiting solid phases for a performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes

Kitamura, Akira; Yoshida, Yasushi*; Goto, Takahiro*; Shibutani, Sanae*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(2), p.58 - 71, 2020/12

Evaluation and estimation of solubility values are required for a performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes. Selection of solubility-limiting solid phases (SSPs) that control the solubility of radionuclides is necessary for the evaluation and estimation of solubility values. The authors have developed a methodology for selection of the SSP through a calculation of saturation indices (SIs) using thermodynamic database to show a transparent procedure for the selection. Literature survey should be performed to confirm decision of the SSP from candidate SSPs which generally have larger SIs from realistic point of view for precipitation and solubility control. The authors have selected the SSPs for the elements of interest for the latest Japanese performance assessment in bentonite and cement porewaters after grouping various water compositions.

Journal Articles

Comparison of field data and numerical simulation of nitrate evolution in groundwater using the model of nitrate evolution

Abe, Toru*; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.3 - 11, 2020/06

Degradation of TRU waste in a geological disposal facility may cause the formation of a nitrate plume. A Nitrate Evolution model due to mineral reactions, microbial activity, and metal corrosiON (NEON) has therefore been developed to evaluate the safety case for geological disposal of TRU waste. Small scale laboratory experiments can be reproduced satisfactorily, however, it is necessary to demonstrate the applicability of the NEON model on scales relevant to the geological disposal of TRU waste. In the current study, an industrial analogue of a nitrate plume from the pollution of groundwater from nitrate fertilizers used on Ikuchi Island, Japan was selected to test the applicability of the NEON model. Concentration profiles of nitrate ions in the groundwater were successfully reproduced over the hundreds of meters scale demonstrating the applicability of the NEON model in evaluating the chemical behavior of a nitrate plume derived from the geological disposal of TRU waste.

Journal Articles

Brief introduction of repository design and engineering technology, and safety assessment on the geological disposal of radioactive waste

Hirano, Fumio

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.37 - 39, 2020/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Method for groundwater monitoring on the disposal of radioactive waste

Murakami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Nishiyama, Nariaki*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.22 - 33, 2020/06

Geological disposal of radioactive waste requires the large amounts of fundamental technical knowledge throughout the project. Monitoring is carried out to collect site-relevant information for the creation of an environmental database, to assist in the decision-making process, etc. We summarized the current technical level and problems of the groundwater monitoring in the world. Through the research and technology development so far, the technologies have been developed for drilling borehole in the geological environment survey prior to monitoring and the selection of the monitoring site. However, the following technical developments are remaining issues: long-term operation method of monitoring equipment, retrieving method of monitoring equipment after long-term operation, transport method of backfill material for borehole sealing, technical basis for the sealing performance when the borehole-protective casing and strainer tube are left.

Journal Articles

A Study on applicability of elasto-plastic constitutive model to mechanical behavior of buffer material in salt water conditions

Takayama, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Hirohito*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.12 - 21, 2020/06

In this study, an applicability of the modified Cam clay model to the buffer material under saltwater conditions was examined. First, consolidated-undrained triaxial test was conducted using NaCl solution and artificial seawater. Based on the consolidated-undrained triaxial compression test results and the existing consolidation test results, the difference in the mechanical behavior of the buffer material under distilled water and saltwater condition was clarified. In particular, there was a difference in the unloading behavior in the consolidation test. Through reproducibility analysis of these experimental data, it was confirmed that the mechanical behavior of the buffer material can be roughly reproduced by setting the swelling index according to the salt concentration.

Journal Articles

The Current status on analysis of radioactive waste at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Koma, Yoshikazu

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 26(2), p.133 - 136, 2019/12

At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive waste has been generated due to progress of decommissioning. This review outlines analysis of the waste at the site for R&D concerning waste management technologies.

Journal Articles

Current status of low level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 26(2), p.127 - 132, 2019/12

JAEA has promoted near surface disposal project for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities after receiving project approval from the government in 2009. This kind of low level radioactive wastes which were arising from the 1940s are still keeping in each storage buildings. For immediate treatment and disposal of the wastes, technical issue and commercialization of the disposal project are studied by JAEA. The outline of current status of the disposal project of JAEA and some approach to push forward rational treatment and disposal system are presented.

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