Johansen, M. P.*; Carpenter, J. G.*; Charmasson, S.*; Gwynn, J. P.*; McGinnity, P.*; Mori, Airi; Orr, B.*; Simon-Cornu, M.*; Osvath, I.*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 268-269, p.107243_1 - 107243_10, 2023/11
Ota, Masakazu; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nagakubo, Azusa; Hirouchi, Jun; Hayashi, Naho; Abe, Tomohisa; Funaki, Hironori; Nagai, Haruyasu
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 264, p.107198_1 - 107198_15, 2023/08
One of the current major radiation exposure pathways from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident-fallout is inhalation of the re-suspended Cs occurring in air. While wind-induced soil particle resuspension has been recognized as a primary mechanism of Cs resuspension, studies following the FDNPP accident suggested that fungal spores can be a significant source of the atmospheric Cs particularly in the rural areas such as difficult-to-return zone (DRZ). To elucidate the relative importance of the two resuspension phenomena, we propose a model simulating resuspension of Cs as soil particles and fungal spores, and applied it to DRZ. Our model's calculation showed that soil particle resuspension was responsible for the surface-air Cs observed during winter-spring, but could not account for the higher Cs concentrations observed in summer-autumn. The higher concentrations in the summer-autumn were in general reproduced by implementing fungal spore Cs emission, that replenished low soil particle Cs resuspension in that period. According to our model's concept, Cs accumulation in fungal spores and high spore emission rate characterized by the rural environment were likely responsible for the abundance of spore Cs in the air. It was inferred that the influence of the fungal spores on the atmospheric Cs would last longer since un-decontaminated forests still exist in DRZ.
Periez, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kim, K. O.*; Liptak, L.*; Little, A.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; Suh, K. S.*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 261, p.107138_1 - 107138_8, 2023/05
Lagrangian models present several advantages over Eulerian models to simulate the transport of radionuclides in the aquatic environment in emergency situations. A radionuclide release is simulated as a number of particles whose trajectories are calculated along time and thus these models do not require a spatial discretization. In this paper we investigate the dependence of a Lagrangian model output with the grid spacing which is used to calculate concentrations from the final distribution of particles, with the number of particles in the simulation and with the interpolation schemes which are required because of the discrete nature of the water circulation data used to feed the model.
Maurer, C.*; Galmarini, S.*; Solazzo, E.*; Kumierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Bar, J.*; Kalinowski, M.*; Schoeppner, M.*; Bourgouin, P.*; Crawford, A.*; Stein, A.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.106968_1 - 106968_27, 2022/12
After performing multi-model exercises in 2015 and 2016, a comprehensive Xe-133 atmospheric transport modeling challenge was organized in 2019. For evaluation measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from four International Monitoring System stations located in Europe and North America with overall considerable influence of IRE and/or CNL emissions. As a lesion learnt from the 2nd ATM-Challenge participants were prompted to work with controlled and harmonized model set ups to make runs more comparable, but also to increase diversity. Effects of transport errors, not properly characterized remaining emitters and long IMS sampling times (12 to 24 hours) undoubtedly interfere with the effect of high-quality IRE and CNL stack data. An ensemble based on a few arbitrary submissions is good enough to forecast the Xe-133 background at the stations investigated. The effective ensemble size is below five.
Saito, Tatsuo; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Mochizuki, Akihito
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.107035_1 - 107035_14, 2022/12
The seasonal variation of dissolved U (DU) in Lake Biwa was reproduced by the following model and parameter research. The introduced models are the water-DU mass balance, and the ion exchange between UO and H on the lakeshore soil. The optimized parameters were the CEC of the lakeshore, TU as the sum of DU and AU (soil adsorbed U), kads and kdes as the first order reaction rate coefficients during rapid soil adsorption and desorption of U, respectively. Tabulated by the chemical equilibria constituting DU and analyzed the contribution of each chemical species, it is shown that the seasonal variation of DU is caused by the seasonal variation of pH. A correction to the ion-exchange equilibrium to shift to first order rate reaction only when the daily AU ratio increased above kads or decreased below kdes, improved the reproducibility of DU measurements and reproduced the delay of the DU peak from the pH peak.
Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Takeuchi, Erina; Nishimura, Shusaku; Muto, Kotomi*; Matsunaga, Takeshi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106725_1 - 106725_8, 2021/11
To understand the spatial variation in soil Cs inventory in complex mountainous topography, a whole-area investigation of Cs deposition in a broad-leaved forest catchment of a mountain stream was conducted using grid sampling. Across the catchment, organic and surface mineral soil layers were collected at 42 locations in 2013 and 6 locations in 2015. Cs deposition on the forest floor exhibited high spatial heterogeneity and altitude-dependent distribution over the catchment. The Cs retention ratio in the organic layer ranged from 6% to 82% in 2013. The Cs retention ratios had positive correlations with the material inventory in the organic layer and the elevation. The Cs retention ratios in the organic layer were less than 20% in 2015, even at the locations where the retention ratio was higher than 55% in 2013. Although there was spatial variation in the migration speed, Cs migration from the organic layer to mineral soil was almost completed within 4 y of the deposition.
Hashimoto, Shoji*; Tanaka, Taku*; Komatsu, Masabumi*; Gonze, M.-A.*; Sakashita, Wataru*; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nishina, Kazuya*; Ota, Masakazu; Ohashi, Shinta*; Calmon, P.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106721_1 - 106721_10, 2021/11
This study was aimed at analysing performance of models for radiocesium migration mainly in evergreen coniferous forest in Fukushima, by inter-comparison between models of several research teams. The exercise included two scenarios of countermeasures against the contamination, namely removal of soil surface litter and forest renewal, and a specific konara oak forest scenario in addition to the evergreen forest scenario. All the models reproduced trend of time evolution of radiocesium inventories and concentrations in each of the components in forest such as leaf and organic soil layer. However, the variations between models enlarged in long-term predictions over 50 years after the fallout, meaning continuous field monitoring and model verification/validation is necessary.
Kamidaira, Yuki; Uchiyama, Yusuke*; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106724_1 - 106724_16, 2021/11
A three-dimensional oceanic dispersion model considering the migration of radionuclides between seawater and sediments was developed. The migration mechanism of dissolved Cs-137 originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to sediments was investigated. The comparison between the model and the observed data showed that the model can adequately reproduce the ocean structure and the concentration of Cs-137 in seawater and sediments. Cs-137 distribution in the sediment off the Fukushima coast was formed mainly owing to adsorption from the dissolved phase by June 2011, when the impact of the direct oceanic Cs-137 release from FNPP1 was remarkable.
Saito, Tatsuo; Sato, Kazuhiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237, p.106708_1 - 106708_9, 2021/10
We succeeded at numerical reproduction of dissolved U concentrations from column experiments with PO-treated Hanford 300 Area sediment. The time-series curves of dissolved U concentrations under various Darcy flow rate conditions were reproduced by the numerical model in the present study through optimization of the following parameters:(i) the mass of U in mobile domain (on surface soil connected to the stream) and the rest of the total U left as precipitation in immobile domain (isolated in deep soil);(ii) the mixing ratio between immobile and mobile domains, to fit the final recovering curve of concentration; and (iii) the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and equilibrium constant (k) of the exchange reaction of UO and H on simulated soil surface (), to fit the transient equilibrium concentration, forming the bed of the bathtub curve.
Narazaki, Yukinori*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Takahashi, Shunta*; Momoshima, Noriyuki*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237, p.106690_1 - 106690_7, 2021/10
The particle size distributions of airborne aerosols with Be were measured using cascade impactors at Dazaifu, a city in western Japan, in 2018 to observe their seasonal variation. Be was found to be attached to aerosols with a particle size of less than 2.1 m; in general, particles sized 0.43-0.65 m had the highest Be activity concentrations. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of Be was in the range of 0.39-0.52 m, which is the size range of particles that can reach human alveoli, and had an annual mean of 0.430.035 m. The activity concentrations of Be were significantly lower in summer, which affected its activity concentrations in the particle size distributions of Be. The particle size distribution of Be-carrying aerosols was also affected by that of the aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Finally, findings suggest that Be was mainly attached to sulfate aerosols (particularly ammonium sulfate aerosols).
Kadowaki, Masanao; Furuno, Akiko; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Terada, Hiroaki; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; El-Asaad, H.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237, p.106704_1 - 106704_18, 2021/10
The source term of Cs for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident was estimated from the results of local-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations and measurements. To confirm the source term's validity for reproducing the large-scale atmospheric dispersion of Cs, this study conducted hemispheric-scale atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations. In the dispersion simulations, the atmospheric-dispersion database system Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (WSPEEDI)-DB and oceanic dispersion model SEA-GEARN-FDM were used. Compared with the air concentrations of Cs measured by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, overall, the WSPEEDI-DB simulation reproduced the measurements with some overestimation. Furthermore, the deposition amounts of Cs was investigated using concentrations of Cs in seawater. The simulated seawater concentrations of Cs were underestimated regionally in the North Pacific. The overestimation and underestimation could be improved without contradiction between the air and seawater concentrations of Cs using more realistic precipitation in atmospheric dispersion simulations. This shows that the source term validated in this study could reproduce the spatiotemporal distribution of Cs because of the FDNPS accident in both local and large-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations.
Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Okabe, Nobuaki*; Yokoyama, Yusuke*; Yoneda, Minoru*; Shibata, Yasuyuki*; Fujita, Natsuko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 235-236, p.106593_1 - 106593_10, 2021/09
For a contribution to developing the usage of iodine-129 (I) as a tracer of deep-seated fluid, I/I and C were measured for annual bands (AD 1931-1991) of a modern coral collected from Northwestern Australia; the measurements were performed using the JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV for I/I and an AMS facility of the University of Tokyo for C. Results indicate that both I/I and C distinctly increase from 1950s. The C increase can be ascribed to atmospheric nuclear tests, while the I/I increase is due to nuclear-fuel reprocessing as well as atmospheric nuclear tests. These results are in good agreement with previous studies, indicating that the I/I measurement by JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV has been further developed.
Hirouchi, Jun; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshimura, Kazuya
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 232, p.106572_1 - 106572_6, 2021/06
Information on the radioactivity distribution inside and outside houses is useful for indoor external dose assessments. In this study, we collected both soil samples around the target houses and house material samples (i.e., of the floor, inner wall, ceiling, outer wall, and roof). The radioactivity of the samples was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The surface contamination densities of the floor, inner wall, ceiling, outer wall, and roof relative to the ground were 3 107 10, 6 104 10, 7 103 10, 2 101 10, and 4 102 10, respectively. The relative surface contamination densities varied depending on the material, its location, and the orientation of the surface.
Malins, A.; Imamura, Naohiro*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Junko*; Kim, M.; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Shinomiya, Yoshiki*; Miura, Satoru*; Machida, Masahiko
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01
Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Kondo, Akira*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 225, p.106452_1 - 106452_12, 2020/12
This study focused on the uncertainty of the factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and evaluated its impacts on the environmental fate of Cs simulated by a radiocesium transport model in the Abukuma River basin. The USLE has five physically meaningful factors: the rainfall and runoff factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover and management factor (C), and support practice factor (P). The simulation results showed total suspended sediment and Cs outflows were the most sensitive to C and P among the all factors. Therefore, land cover and soil erosion prevention act have the great impact on outflow of suspended sediment and Cs. Focusing on land use, the outflow rates of Cs from the forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields were large. This study indicates that land use, especially forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields, has a significant impact on the environmental fate of Cs.
Sanada, Yukihisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Urabe, Yoshimi*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Katengeza, E. W.*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 223-224, p.106397_1 - 106397_9, 2020/11
Hagiwara, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Hiromi*; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Misono, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Kenso; Kitamura, Akihiro
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 220-221, p.106294_1 - 106294_9, 2020/09
Sun, D.*; Wainwright-Murakami, Haruko*; Oroza, C. A.*; Seki, Akiyuki; Mikami, Satoshi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 220-221, p.106281_1 - 106281_8, 2020/09
We have developed a methodology for optimizing the monitoring locations of radiation air dose-rate monitoring. For the method, we use a Gaussian mixture model to identify the representative locations among multiple environmental variables, such as elevation and land-cover types. Next, we use a Gaussian process model to capture and estimate the heterogeneity of air-dose rates across the domain. Our results have shown that this approach allows us to select monitoring locations in a systematic manner such that the heterogeneity of air dose rates is captured by the minimal number of monitoring locations.
Yoshimura, Kazuya; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kurikami, Hiroshi
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 217, p.106213_1 - 106213_6, 2020/06
Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Furuno, Akiko; Kadowaki, Masanao; Kakefuda, Toyokazu*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 213, p.106104_1 - 106104_13, 2020/03
In order to assess the radiological dose to the public resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan, the spatial and temporal distribution of radioactive materials in the environment is necessary to be reconstructed by computer simulations with the atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition model (ATDM) and source term of radioactive materials discharged into the atmosphere is essential. In this study, we carried out refinement of the source term and improvement of ATDM simulation by using an optimization method based on Bayesian inference with various measurements (air concentration, surface deposition, and fallout). We also constructed the spatiotemporal distribution of some major radionuclides in the air and on the surface (optimized dispersion database) by using the optimized release rates and ATDM simulations which is used for the comprehensive dose assessment by coupling with the behavioral pattern of evacuees from the accident.