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Journal Articles

Promising neutron irradiation applications at the high temperature engineering test reactor

Ho, H. Q.; Honda, Yuki*; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takada, Shoji; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021902_1 - 021902_6, 2020/04

Journal Articles

A Study on sodium-concrete reaction in presence of internal heating

Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya*; Uno, Masayoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021305_1 - 021305_9, 2020/04

Sodium-concrete reaction (SCR) is one of the important phenomena during severe accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) owing to the generation of large sources of hydrogen and aerosols in the containment vessel. In this study, SCR experiments with an internal heater were performed to investigate the chemical reaction beneath the internal heater (800$$^{circ}$$C), which was used to simulate the obstacle and heating effect on SCR. Furthermore, the effects of the internal heater on the self-termination mechanism were discussed. The internal heater on the concrete hindered the transport of Na into the concrete. Therefore, Na could start to react with the concrete at the periphery of the internal heater, and the concrete ablation depth at the periphery was larger than under the internal heater. The high Na pool temperature of 800$$^{circ}$$C increased largely the Na aerosol release rate, which was explained by Na evaporation and hydrogen bubbling, and formed the porous reaction product layer, whose porosity was 0.54-0.59 from the mass balance of Si and image analyzing EPMA mapping. They had good agreement with each other. The porous reaction products decreased the amount of Na transport into the reaction front. The Na concentration around the reaction front became about 30wt.% despite the position of the internal heater. It was found that the Na concentration condition was one of the dominant parameters for the self-termination of SCR, even in the presence of the internal heater.

Journal Articles

Development of experimental technology for simulated fuel-assembly heating to address core-material-relocation behavior during severe accident

Abe, Yuta; Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Ikken; Nakagiri, Toshio; Ishimi, Akihiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021113_1 - 021113_9, 2020/04

Journal Articles

Improvement of probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code PASCAL-SP with regard to PWSCC

Mano, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 5(3), p.031505_1 - 031505_8, 2019/07

Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis is expected as a rational method for the structural integrity assessment because it can consider the uncertainties of various influence factors and can evaluate the quantitative value such as failure probability of a cracked component as the solution. In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, a PFM analysis code PASCAL-SP has been developed for the structural integrity assessment of piping welds in nuclear power plants. In the latest few decades, a number of cracks due to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) have been detected in the nickel-based alloy welds in the primary piping of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Thus the structural integrity assessment taking account of PWSCC has become important. In this paper, we improved PASCAL-SP for the assessment considering PWSCC by introducing the several analytical functions such as the evaluation models of crack initiation time, crack growth rate and probability of crack detection. By using improved PASCAL-SP, the failure probabilities of pipes with a circumferential crack or an axial crack due to PWSCC were evaluated as numerical examples. We also evaluated the influence of a leak detection and a non-destructive examination on the failure probabilities. On the basis of the numerical results, we concluded that the improved PASCAL-SP is useful for evaluating the failure probability of pipe taking PWSCC into account.

Journal Articles

Subchannel analysis of thermal-hydraulics in a fuel assembly with inner duct structure of a sodium-cooled fast reactor

Kikuchi, Norihiro; Imai, Yasutomo*; Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Doda, Norihiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 5(2), p.021001_1 - 021001_12, 2019/04

In the design study of an advanced loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan, a specific fuel assembly (FA) named FAIDUS (Fuel Assembly with Inner DUct Structure) has been considered as one of the measures to enhance safety of the reactor during the core disruptive accident. In this study, thermal-hydraulics in FAIDUS was investigated with the in-house subchannel analysis code named ASFRE. Before the application to FAIDUS, applicability of ASFRE to FAs was confirmed through the numerical simulations for the experiments of simulated FA. Through the comparisons between the numerical results of thermal-hydraulic analyses of FAIDUS and a typical FA without the inner duct, it was indicated that significant asymmetric temperature distribution would not occur in FAIDUS at both high and low flow rate conditions.

Journal Articles

Development and validation of SAS4A code and its application to analyses on severe flow blockage accidents in a sodium-cooled fast reactor

Fukano, Yoshitaka

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 5(1), p.011001_1 - 011001_13, 2019/01

Local subassembly faults (LFs) have been considered to be of greater importance in safety evaluation in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) because fuel elements were generally densely arranged in the subassemblies (SAs) in this type of reactors, and because power densities were higher compared with those in light water reactors. A hypothetical total instantaneous flow blockage at the coolant inlet of an SA (HTIB) gives most severe consequences among a variety of LFs. Although an evaluation on the consequences of HTIB using SAS4A code was performed in the past study, SAS4A code was further developed by implementing analytical model of power control system in this study. An evaluation on the consequences of HTIB in an SFR by this developed SAS4A code clarified that the conclusion in the past study was almost same as that in this study. Furthermore SAS4A code was newly validated using four in-pile experiments which simulated HTIB events. The validity of SAS4A application to safety evaluation on the consequence of HTIB was further enhanced in this study. Thus the methodology of HTIB evaluation was established in this study together with the past study and is applicable to HTIB evaluations in other SFRs.

Journal Articles

Mechanical properties of cubic (U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$

Kitagaki, Toru; Hoshino, Takanori; Yano, Kimihiko; Okamura, Nobuo; Ohara, Hiroshi*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; Koizumi, Kenji

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 4(3), p.031011_1 - 031011_7, 2018/07

Journal Articles

Uncertainty analysis for source term evaluation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor under accident conditions; Identification of influencing factors in loss-of-forced circulation accidents

Honda, Yuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 4(3), p.031013_1 - 031013_11, 2018/07

There is growing interest in uncertainty analysis for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The focus of this research is to propose and trial investigate the new approach which identify influencing factors for uncertainty in a systematic manner for High Temperature Gas -cooled Reactor (HTGR). As a trial investigation, this approach is tested to evaluation of maximum fuel temperature in a depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (DLOFC) accident and failure of mitigation systems such as control rod systems from the view point of reactor dynamics and thermal hydraulic characteristics. As a result, 16 influencing factors are successfully selected in accordance with the suggested procedure. In the future, the selected influencing factors will be used as input parameter for uncertainty propagation analysis.

Journal Articles

Comprehensive seismic evaluation of HTTR against the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

Ono, Masato; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shimizu, Atsushi; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Toshinari; Kojima, Keidai; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 4(2), p.020906_1 - 020906_8, 2018/04

On March 11th, 2011, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred. When the great earthquake occurred, the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) had been stopped under the periodic inspection and maintenance of equipment and instruments. A comprehensive integrity evaluation was carried out for the HTTR facility because the maximum seismic acceleration observed at the HTTR exceeded the maximum value of design basis earthquake. The concept of comprehensive integrity evaluation is divided into two parts. One is the "visual inspection of equipment and instruments". The other is the "seismic response analysis" for the building structure, equipment and instruments using the observed earthquake. All equipment and instruments related to operation were inspected in the basic inspection. The integrity of the facilities was confirmed by comparing the inspection results or the numerical results with their evaluation criteria. As the results of inspection of equipment and instruments associated with the seismic response analysis, it was judged that there was no problem for operation of the reactor, because there was no damage and performance deterioration. The integrity of HTTR was also supported by the several operations without reactor power in cold conditions of HTTR in 2011, 2013 and 2015. Additionally, the integrity of control rod guide blocks was also confirmed visually when three control rod guide blocks and six replaceable reflector blocks were taken out from reactor core in order to change neutron startup sources in 2015.

Journal Articles

Application of nontransfer type plasma heating technology for core-material-relocation tests in boiling water reactor severe accident conditions

Abe, Yuta; Sato, Ikken; Nakagiri, Toshio; Ishimi, Akihiro; Nagae, Yuji

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 4(2), p.020901_1 - 020901_8, 2018/04

A new experimental program using non-transfer type plasma heating is under consideration in JAEA to clarify the uncertainty on core-material relocation (CMR) behavior of BWR. In order to confirm the applicability of this new technology, authors performed preparatory plasma heating tests using small-scale test pieces (107 mm $$times$$ 107 mm $$times$$ 222 mm (height)). An excellent perspective in terms of applicability of the non-transfer plasma heating to melting high melting-temperature materials such as ZrO$$_{2}$$ has been obtained. In addition, molten pool was formed at the middle height of the test piece indicating its capability to simulate the initial phase of core degradation behavior consistent with the real UO$$_{2}$$ fuel Phebus-FPT tests. Furthermore, application of EPMA, SEM/EDX and X-ray CT led to a conclusion that the pool formed consisted mainly of Zr with some concentration of oxygen which tended to be enhanced at the upper surface region of the pool. Based on these results, an excellent perspective in terms of applicability of the non-transfer plasma heating technology to the Severe Accident (SA) experimental study was obtained.

Journal Articles

Loss of core cooling test with one cooling line inactive in Vessel Cooling System of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

Fujiwara, Yusuke; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tochio, Daisuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Takada, Shoji

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(4), p.041013_1 - 041013_8, 2017/10

In HTTR, the test was carried out at the reactor thermal power of 9 MW under the condition that one cooling line of VCS was stopped to simulate the partial loss of cooling function from the surface of RPV in addition to the loss of forced cooling flow in the core simulation. The test results showed that temperature change of the core internal structures and the biological shielding concrete was slow during the test. Temperature of RPV decreased several degrees during the test. The temperature decrease of biological shielding made of concrete was within 1$$^{circ}$$C. The numerical result simulating the detail configuration of the cooling tubes of VCS showed that the temperature rise of cooling tubes of VCS was about 15$$^{circ}$$C, which is sufficiently small, which did not significantly affect the temperature of biological shielding concrete. As the results, it was confirmed that the cooling ability of VCS can be kept in case that one cooling line of VCS is lost.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on cavitation of a liquid lithium jet for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Wakai, Eiichi; Knaster, J.*

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(4), p.041005_1 - 041005_11, 2017/10

A liquid-Li free-surface stream flowing at 15 m/s under a high vacuum of 10$$^{-3}$$ Pa is to serve as a beam target (Li target) for the planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) or other intense fusion neutron sources. This study focuses on cavitation-like acoustic noise which was detected in a conduit downstream from the Li target. This noise was measured by using acoustic-emission (AE) sensors that were installed at several locations of the conduit via acoustic wave guides. As a result, we found that cavitation occurred only in a narrow area where the Li target impinged on the downstream conduit.

Journal Articles

Saturated pool nucleate boiling on heat transfer surface with deposited sea salts

Uesawa, Shinichiro; Koizumi, Yasuo; Shibata, Mitsuhiko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(4), p.041002_1 - 041002_13, 2017/10

Journal Articles

Burn-up dependency of control rod position at zero-power criticality in the high-temperature engineering test reactor

Honda, Yuki; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(1), p.011013_1 - 011013_4, 2017/01

The operating data of the HTTR with burn-up is very important for developments of HTGRs. There is a temperature distribution in a core in full power operation. The temperature distribution in a core makes it difficult to validate of calculation code. On the other hands, the data of the control rod position at criticality at zero power have been measured at the beginning of each operation cycle. The temperature distribution in a core at zero power is uniform. Therefore, the data at zero power are suitable for validation of calculation code. In this study, the calculated control rod positions at zero power criticality with burn-up are compared with the experimental data with correlation of core temperature. The calculated results of criticality control rod position at zero power show good agreement to the experimental data. It means that calculated result shows appropriate decrease in uranium and accumulation in plutonium decrease in burnable absorber with burn-up.

Journal Articles

Study on sensitivity of control rod cell model in reflector region of high-temperature engineering test reactor

Honda, Yuki; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(1), p.011005_1 - 011005_6, 2017/01

In the HTTR, a two-step control rods insertion method for reactor scram is adopted. In the method, control rods at reflector region are inserted at the scram signal is initiated. The core should keep its subcriticality by reflector region control rods. Therefore, precise evaluation of control rods reactivity worth for reflector region is necessary. However, all cross section of control rods has been prepared for control rod in fuel region because the reactivity value of control rods in the fuel region is larger than that of control rods in the reflector region. This paper proposed the revised method of preparing the control rod cross section for first step control rod in reflector region.

Journal Articles

Investigation of countermeasure against local temperature rise in vessel cooling system in loss of core cooling test without nuclear heating

Ono, Masato; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kondo, Makoto; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Tochio, Daisuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.044502_1 - 044502_4, 2016/10

In the loss of forced core cooling test using High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the forced cooling of reactor core is stopped without inserting control rods into the core and cooling by Vessel Cooling System (VCS) to verify safety evaluation codes to investigate the inherent safety of HTGR be secured by natural phenomena to make it possible to design a severe accident free reactor. The VCS passively removes the retained residual heat and the decay heat from the core via the reactor pressure vessel by natural convection and thermal radiation. In the test, the local temperature was supposed to exceed the limit from the viewpoint of long-term use at the uncovered water cooling tube by thermal reflectors in the VCS, although the safety of reactor is kept. Through a cold test, which was carried out by non-nuclear heat input from gas circulators with stopping water flow in the VCS, the local higher temperature position was specified although the temperature was sufficiently lower than the maximum allowable working temperature, and natural circulation of water had insufficient cooling effect on the temperature of water cooling tube below 1$$^{circ}$$C. Then, a new safe and secured procedure for the loss of forced core cooling test was established, which will be carried out soon after the restart of HTTR.

Journal Articles

Nuclear heat supply fluctuation tests by non-nuclear heating with HTTR

Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sekita, Kenji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Honda, Yuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.041001_1 - 041001_7, 2016/10

The nuclear heat utilization systems connected to High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) will be designed on the basis of non-nuclear grade standards in terms of the easier entry of chemical plant companies and the construction economics of the systems. Therefore, it is necessary that the reactor operations can be continued even if abnormal events occur in the systems. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a calculation code to evaluate the absorption of thermal load fluctuations by the reactors when the reactor operations are continued after such events, and has improved the code based on the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) operating data. However, there were insufficient data on the transient temperature behavior of the metallic core side components and the graphite core support structures corresponding to the fluctuation of the reactor inlet coolant temperature for further improvement of the code. Thus, nuclear heat supply fluctuation tests with the HTTR were carried out in non-nuclear heating operation to focus on thermal effect. In the tests, the coolant helium gas temperature was heated up to 120$$^{circ}$$C by the compression heat of the gas circulators in the HTTR, and a sufficiently high fluctuation of 17$$^{circ}$$C by devising a new test procedure was imposed on the reactor inlet coolant under the ideal condition without the effect of the nuclear power. Then, the temperature responses of the metallic core side components and the graphite core support structures were investigated. The test results adequately showed as predicted that the temperature responses of the metallic components are faster than those of the graphite structures, and the mechanism of the thermal load fluctuation absorption by the metallic components was clarified.

Journal Articles

Development of the prediction technology of cable disconnection of in-core neutron detector for the future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Taiki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Shinohara, Masanori; Honda, Yuki; Katsuyama, Kozo; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.041008_1 - 041008_5, 2016/10

Maintenance technologies for the reactor system have been developed by using the high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). One of the important purposes of development is to accumulate the experiences and data to satisfy the availability of operation up to 90% by shortening the duration of the periodical maintenance for the future HTGRs by shifting from the time-based maintenance to condition-based maintenance. The technical issue of the maintenance of in-core neutron detector, wide range monitor (WRM), is to predict the malfunction caused by cable disconnection to plan the replacement schedule. This is because that it is difficult to observe directly inside of the WRM in detail. The electrical inspection method was proposed to detect and predict the cable disconnection of the WRM by remote monitoring from outside of the reactor by using the time domain reflectometry and so on. The disconnection position, which was specified by the electrical method, was identified by non-destructive and destructive inspection. The accumulated data is expected to be contributed for advanced maintenance of future HTGRs.

Journal Articles

HTTR demonstration program for nuclear cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity

Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, X.; Sumita, Junya; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(3), p.031010_1 - 031010_6, 2016/07

This paper explains the outline of HTTR demonstration program with a plant concept of the heat application system directed at establishing an HTGR cogeneration system with 950$$^{circ}$$C reactor outlet temperature for production of power and hydrogen as recommended by the task force. Commercial deployment strategy including a development plan for the helium gas turbine is also presented.

Journal Articles

Application of the system based code concept to the determination of in-service inspection requirements

Takaya, Shigeru; Asayama, Tai; Kamishima, Yoshio*; Machida, Hideo*; Watanabe, Daigo*; Nakai, Satoru; Morishita, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 1(1), p.011004_1 - 011004_9, 2015/01

A new process for determination of inservice inspection (ISI) requirements was proposed based on the System Based Code concept to realize effective and rational ISI by properly taking into account plant specific features. The proposed process consists of two complementary evaluations, one focusing on structural integrity and the other one on detectability of defects before they would grow to an unacceptable size in light of plant safety. If defect detection was not feasible, structural integrity evaluation would be required under sufficiently conservative hypothesis. The applicability of the proposed process was illustrated through an application to the existing prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju.

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