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Journal Articles

Oxidation behavior of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes in high-temperature steam

Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(7), p.650 - 660, 2019/07

Journal Articles

Study on B$$_{4}$$C decoupler with burn-up reduction aiming at 1-MW pulsed neutron source

Oi, Motoki; Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Ikeda, Yujiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(7), p.573 - 579, 2019/07

In pulsed neutron sources, a neutron absorber called decoupler is attached to the moderator to sharpen the neutron pulses for achieving good neutron energy resolutions. Cadmium and boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) are widely used as the decoupler materials. However, it is difficult to use B$$_{4}$$C in MW-class spallation neutron sources owing to high burn-up, which decreases cut-off energy and increase of helium gas swelling. To solve these issues, we introduce the concept of pre-decoupler to reduce neutron absorption in the B$$_{4}$$C decoupler, which is sandwiched by appropriate neutron absorption materials. Then, we study impacts of the pre-decouplers on B$$_{4}$$C decoupler in terms of burn-up by performing simplified model calculations. It is shown that neutron absorption in B$$_{4}$$C is reduced by 60% by using a Cd pre-decoupler without neutron intensity penalty. Moreover, helium gas swelling in B$$_{4}$$C is restrained to be one-third of the value when not using the pre-decoupler.

Journal Articles

Measurements of the $$^{243}$$Am neutron capture and total cross sections with ANNRI at J-PARC

Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Terada, Kazushi*; Nakao, Taro*; Mizuyama, Kazuhito*; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu; Harada, Hideo; Katabuchi, Tatsuya*; Igashira, Masayuki*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.479 - 492, 2019/06

Journal Articles

Visualizing an ignition process of hydrogen jets containing sodium mist by high-speed imaging

Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya*; Uno, Masayoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.521 - 532, 2019/06

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal-neutron capture cross-section and resonance integral of neptunium-237

Nakamura, Shoji; Kitatani, Fumito; Kimura, Atsushi; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.493 - 502, 2019/06

The thermal-neutron capture cross-section($$sigma_{0}$$)and resonance integral(I$$_{0}$$) were measured for the $$^{237}$$Np(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{238}$$Np reaction by an activation method. A method with a Gadolinium filter, which is similar to the Cadmium difference method, was used to measure the $$sigma_{0}$$ with paying attention to the first resonance at 0.489 eV of $$^{237}$$Np, and a value of 0.133 eV was taken as a cut-off energy. Neptunium-237 samples were irradiated at the pneumatic tube of the Kyoto University Research Reactor in Institute for Integral Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University. Wires of Co/Al and Au/Al alloys were used as monitors to determine thermal-neutron fluxes and epi-thermal Westcott's indices at an irradiation position. A $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy was used to measure activities of $$^{237}$$Np, $$^{238}$$Np and neutron monitors. On the basis of Westcott's convention, the $$sigma_{0}$$ and I$$_{0}$$ values were derived as 186.9$$pm$$6.2 barn, and 1009$$pm$$90 barn, respectively.

Journal Articles

Model updates and performance evaluations on fuel performance code FEMAXI-8 for light water reactor fuel analysis

Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.461 - 470, 2019/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Melting behavior and thermal conductivity of solid sodium-concrete reaction product

Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya; Uno, Masayoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.513 - 520, 2019/06

This study revealed melting points and thermal conductivities of four samples generated by sodium-concrete reaction (SCR). We prepared the samples using two methods such as firing mixtures of sodium and grinded concrete powder, and sampling depositions after the SCR experiments. In the former, the mixing ratios were determined from the past experiment. The latter simulated the more realistic conditions such as the temperature history and the distribution of Na and concrete. The thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA) measurement showed the melting points were 865-942$$^{circ}$$C, but those of the samples containing metallic Na couldn't be clarified. In the two more realistic samples, the compression moldings in a furnace were observed. The observation revealed the softening temperature was 800-840$$^{circ}$$C and the melting point was 840-850$$^{circ}$$C, which was 10-20$$^{circ}$$C lower than the TG-DTA results. The thermodynamics calculation of FactSage 7.2 revealed the temperature of the onset of melting was caused by melting of the some components such as Na$$_{2}$$SiO$$_{3}$$ and/or Na$$_{4}$$SiO$$_{4}$$. Moreover, the thermal conductivity was $$lambda$$=1-3W/m-K, which was comparable to xNa$$_{2}$$O-1-xSiO$$_{2}$$ (x=0.5, 0.33, 0.25), and those at 700$$^{circ}$$C were explained by the equation of $$NBO/T$$.

Journal Articles

Calculation of low-energy electron antineutrino spectra emitted from nuclear reactors with consideration of fuel burn-up

Riyana, E. S.*; Suda, Shoya*; Ishibashi, Kenji*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Katakura, Junichi*; Sun, G. M.*; Katano, Yoshiaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.369 - 375, 2019/05

Nuclear reactors produce a great number of electron antineutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may have information on fuel burn-up and may be detected in future with advanced measurement technology. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectra from various reactors such as typical PWR reactor and others types of reactors for comparison. Our result shows the electron antineutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel by accumulated nuclides with low Q values in beta decay.

Journal Articles

The effect of hydride morphology on the failure strain of stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding with an outer surface pre-crack under biaxial stress states

Li, F.; Mihara, Takeshi; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.432 - 439, 2019/05

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Phenomenological level density model with hybrid parameterization of deformed and spherical state densities

Furutachi, Naoya*; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.412 - 424, 2019/05

A phenomenological level density model that has different level density parameter sets for the state densities of the spherical and the deformed states, and the optimization of the parameters using the experimental data of the average s-wave neutron resonance spacing are presented. The transition to the spherical state from the deformed one is described using the parameters derived from a microscopic nuclear structure calculation. The nuclear reaction calculation has been performed by the statistical model using the present level density. Resulting cross sections for various reactions with the spherical, deformed and transitional target nuclei shows a fair agreement with the experimental data, which indicates the effectiveness of the present model. The role of the rotational collective enhancement in the calculations of those cross sections is also discussed.

Journal Articles

Estimating internal dose coefficients of short-lived radionuclides in accordance with ICRP 2007 Recommendations

Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.385 - 393, 2019/05

At high energy accelerator facilities, various radionuclides are produced by nuclear reactions of high energy particles with structure and/or ambient air of the facilities. Consequently, the radionuclides are potential sources of internal exposure for works of the facilities. However, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) do not provide dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per intake, for the short-lived radionuclides whose half-lives are shorter than 10 minutes in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. Then, we estimated the dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of these short-lived radionuclides in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. In addition, we compared the dose coefficients with those in accordance with the ICRP 1990 Recommendations. As a result, a decreasing tendency was shown in the dose coefficients for inhalation cases; an increasing tendency was observed in those for ingestion cases. It was found that these changes in dose coefficients were mainly caused by the revision of the dose calculation procedures, alimentary tract models. The result of this study will be useful for planning of radiation protection at the high energy facilities.

Journal Articles

An Interpretation of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 plant data covering the two-week accident-progression phase based on correction for pressure data

Sato, Ikken

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.394 - 411, 2019/05

Water columns were adopted in the pressure measurement system of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit-3. Part of these water columns evaporated during the accident condition jeopardizing correct understanding on actual pressure. Through comparison of RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) and S/C pressures with D/W pressure, such water-column effect was evaluated. Correction for this effect was developed enabling clarification of slight pressure difference among RPV, S/C and D/W. This information was then integrated with other available data such as, water level, CAMS and environmental dose rate, into an interpretation of accident focusing on RPV and PCV pressurization/depressurization and radioactive material release to environment. It is suggested that dryout of in-vessel and ex-vessel debris was likely causing pressure decrease. S/C water poured into pedestal heated by relocated debris was the likely cause of pressurization. Cyclic reflooding of pedestal debris and dryout was likely.

Journal Articles

Effect of re-oxidation rate of additive cations on corrosion rate of stainless steel in boiling nitric acid solution

Irisawa, Eriko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Ban, Yasutoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(4), p.337 - 344, 2019/04

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Estimation method of systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo particle transport simulation based on analysis of variance

Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(4), p.345 - 354, 2019/04

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Particle transport simulations based on the Monte Carlo method have been applied to shielding calculations. Estimation of not only statistical uncertainty related to the number of trials but also systematic one induced by unclear physical quantities is required to confirm the reliability of calculated results. In this study, we applied a method based on analysis of variance to shielding calculations. We proposed random- and three-condition methods. The first one determines randomly the value of the unclear quantity, while the second one uses only three values: the default value, upper and lower limits. The systematic uncertainty can be estimated adequately by the random-condition method, though it needs the large computational cost. The three-condition method can provide almost the same estimate as the random-condition method when the effect of the variation is monotonic. We found criterion to confirm convergence of the systematic uncertainty as the number of trials increases.

Journal Articles

Visualized measurement of extremely high-speed droplets in Venturi scrubber

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yutaka*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(3), p.278 - 290, 2019/03

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Venturi scrubber (VS) has been installed in NPPs as one of the components of filtered venting systems. It can eliminate fine aerosol particles including fission products from polluted gas. Under extremely high-velocity conditions during severe accident, the data related to the droplet in the VS, which affects decontamination performance, is insufficient. This objective is to obtain the diameter of the extremely high-speed droplets and clarify an applicability of the existing correlations for the diameter. To visualize the extremely high-velocity droplet, an optical system with high frame rate and high resolution was developed. Visualization experiment using the VS under air-water condition was conducted, and droplet diameter distributions and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were obtained. By comparing experimental data with values evaluated by existing correlations, it was clarified that the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation can evaluate the SMD with good accuracy in the gas velocity range 82-250 m/s.

Journal Articles

Chemical reaction kinetics dataset of Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H system for evaluation of fission product chemistry under LWR severe accident conditions

Miyahara, Naoya; Miwa, Shuhei; Horiguchi, Naoki; Sato, Isamu*; Osaka, Masahiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(2), p.228 - 240, 2019/02

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to improve LWR source term under severe accident conditions, the first version of a fission product (FP) chemistry database named "ECUME" was developed. The ECUME is intended to include major chemical reactions and their effective kinetic constants for representative SA sequences. It is expected that the ECUME can serve as a fundamental basis from which FP chemical models in the SA analysis codes can be elaborated. The implemented chemical reactions in the first version were those for representative gas species in Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H system. The chemical reaction kinetic constants were evaluated from either literature data or calculated values using ab-initio calculations. The sample chemical reaction calculation using the presently constructed dataset showed meaningful kinetics effects at 1000 K. Comparison of the chemical equilibrium compositions by using the dataset with those by chemical equilibrium calculations has shown rather good consistency for the representative Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H species. From these results, it was concluded that the present dataset should be useful to evaluate FP chemistry in Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H system under LWA SA conditions.

Journal Articles

Effect of seawater components on corrosion behavior of SUS316L in nitric acid solution containing metal ions

Ambai, Hiromu; Nishizuka, Yusuke*; Sano, Yuichi; Uchida, Naoki; Iijima, Shizuka; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(2), p.193 - 200, 2019/02

During the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, a large volume of seawater was introduced as coolant into the storage pools for spent nuclear fuel. If this fuel is reprocessed, some components of seawater will be mixed with the nitric acid solution containing metal ions in the reprocessing process where stainless steels are used as structural material. In this study, we investigated the effect of seawater components in high active liquid waste (HAW) containing nitric acid and metal ions as fission products on the corrosion behavior of SUS316L stainless steel. Corrosion tests were conducted in surrogate HAW containing artificial seawater (ASW). Intergranular corrosion was observed in the HAW with ASW, where Ru increased the corrosion potential to the transpassive region. An increase in the amount of ASW led to a decrease in the corrosion rate and suppression of intergranular corrosion. Interactions between Ru ions and seawater components, such as chloride ions, were indicated by the results of extended Xray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analyses of the solution containing ASW and HAW.

Journal Articles

Unified description of the fission probability for highly excited nuclei

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(2), p.160 - 171, 2019/02

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We present a new model to describe the fission probability of the high-energy fission model, as deduced from the intranuclear cascade calculation with the Intra-Nuclear Cascade model of Li$`{e}$ge (INCL) version 4.6 and Prokofiev's phenomenological systematics of the proton-induced fission cross sections. This model is implemented in the de-excitation model of the Generalized Evaporation Model (GEM), and applied to Monte Carlo spallation reaction simulation using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Comparing with experimental data for subactinide nuclei shows that this model can provide a unified prediction of the proton-, neutron-, and deuteron-induced fission cross sections with markedly improved accuracy. The calculated fission fragments tend to shift to higher mass numbers. To account for the isotopic distributions of fission fragments within the framework of a coupled INCL/GEM, modification of INCL is required, especially for description of the highly-excited states of residual nuclei.

Journal Articles

Improvement of steam generator tube failure propagation analysis code LEAP for evaluation of overheating rupture

Uchibori, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Hideki*; Takata, Takashi; Kurihara, Akikazu; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(2), p.201 - 209, 2019/02

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Evaluation of occurrence possibility of tube failure propagation under sodium-water reaction accident is an important issue. In this study, a numerical analysis method to predict occurrence of failure propagation by overheating rupture was developed to expand application range of an existing computer code. Applicability of the method was demonstrated through the numerical analysis of the experiment on water vapor discharging in liquid sodium.

Journal Articles

Development of a stochastic biokinetic method and its application to internal dose estimation for insoluble cesium-bearing particles

Manabe, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Masaki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(1), p.78 - 86, 2019/01

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

If an insoluble cesium-bearing particle is incorporated into the human body, the radioactivity will move as a single particle. In this case, it is impossible to estimate the number of disintegrations by considering the average behavior of countless nuclei. Then, a method was developed to simulate the behavior of the particle stochastically; and a biokinetic model was constructed to consider the characteristics of insoluble particles. Combination of the method and the model enables to estimate the number of disintegrations, and consequently the internal doses considering the stochastic behavior of the single cesium particle. We evaluated a probability density function of committed equivalent and effective doses and its 99th percentile value and arithmetic mean by repeating the above described procedure, and compared them to the reference values based on the existing models. As a result, the 99th percentile value of committed effective doses was 70 times the reference value when the number of incorporated particles was one, and consequently the dose level was quite low. When the exposure level is 1 mSv in committed effective dose, the uncertainty originating in the insolubility of cesium particles was negligibly small.

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