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Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross-sections of copper and iron for proton with kinetic energies in the range 0.4 - 3 GeV

Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(10), p.1141 - 1151, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:19.53(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To estimate the structural damages of materials in accelerator facilities, displacement per atom (dpa) is widely employed as a damage index, calculated based on the displacement cross-section obtained using a calculation model. Although dpa is applied as standard, the experimental data of the displacement cross-section for a proton in the energy region above 20 MeV are scarce. Among the calculation models, difference of about factor 8 exist, so that the experimental data of the cross-section are crucial to validate the model. To obtain the displacement cross-section, we conducted experiments at J-PARC. The displacement cross-section of copper and iron was successfully obtained for a proton projectile with the kinetic energies, 0.4 - 3 GeV. The results were compared with those obtained using the widely utilized Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model and the athermal-recombination-corrected (arc) model based on molecular dynamics. It was found that the NRT model overestimates the present displacement cross-section by 3.5 times. The calculation results obtained using with the arc model based on the Nordlund parameter show remarkable agreement with the experimental data. It can be concluded that the arc model must be employed for the dpa calculation for the damage estimation of copper and iron.

Journal Articles

Investigation of high-temperature chemical interaction of calcium silicate insulation and cesium hydroxide

Rizaal, M.; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Saito, Takumi*; Osaka, Masahiko; Okamoto, Koji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(9), p.1062 - 1073, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The interaction of cesium hydroxide and a calcium silicate insulation material was experimentally investigated at high temperature conditions. A thermogravimetry equipped with differential thermal analysis was used to analyze thermal events in the samples of mixed calcium silicate and cesium hydroxide under Ar-5%H$$_{2}$$ and Ar-4%H$$_{2}$$-20%H$$_{2}$$0 with maximum temperature of 1100$$^{circ}$$C. Prior being mixed with cesium hydroxide, a part of calcium silicate was pretreated at high temperature to evaluate the effect of possible structural changes of this material due to a preceding thermal history and also the sake of thermodynamic evaluation to those available ones. Based upon the initial condition (preliminary heat treatment) of calcium silicate, it was found that if the original material consisted of xonotlite (Ca$$_{6}$$Si$$_{6}$$0$$_{17}$$(0H)$$_{2}$$), the endothermic reaction with cesium hydroxide occurred over the temperature range 575-730$$^{circ}$$C meanwhile if the crystal phase of original material was changed to wollastonite (CaSi0$$_{3}$$), the interaction occurred over temperature range 700-1100$$^{circ}$$C. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction analyses have indicated on both type of pretreated calsils that regardless of Ar-5%H$$_{2}$$ and Ar-4%H$$_{2}$$-20%H$$_{2}$$0 atmosphere, cesium aluminum silicate, CsAlSi0$$_{4}$$ was formed with aluminum in the samples as an impurity or adduct.

Journal Articles

Application of photoluminescence microspectroscopy; A Study on transfer of uranyl and europium ions on dry silica gel plate

Kusaka, Ryoji; Watanabe, Masayuki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(9), p.1046 - 1050, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

A Linear Equation of characteristic time profile of power in subcritical quasi-steady state

Yamane, Yuichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.926 - 931, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An equation of power in subcritical quasi-steady state has been derived based on one-point kinetics equations for the purpose of utilizing it for the development of timely reactivity estimation from complicated time profile of neutron count rate. It linearly relates power, $$P$$, to a new variable $$q$$, which is a function of time differential of the power. It has been confirmed by using one-point kinetics code, AGNES, that the calculated points ($$q, P$$) are perfectly in a line described by the new equation and that points ($$q, P$$) calculated from transient subcritical experiments by using TRACY made a line with a slope indicated by the new equation.

Journal Articles

Generation of nuclear data using Gaussian process regression

Iwamoto, Hiroki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.932 - 938, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We present a new approach to generate nuclear data from experimental cross section data by Gaussian process regression. This paper focuses on generating proton-induced nuclide production cross sections for nickel target. Our results provide reasonable fitting curves together with their uncertainties and suggest that this approach appears to be effective in generating or evaluating the nuclear data. Besides, our results suggest that our approach could be available for experimental design in terms of reducing the generated nuclear data uncertainty.

Journal Articles

Seven-year temporal variation of caesium-137 discharge inventory from the port of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; Continuous monthly estimation of caesium-137 discharge in the period from April 2011 to June 2018

Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Iwata, Ayako; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Watanabe, Masahisa; Funasaka, Hideyuki; Morita, Takami*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.939 - 950, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

After direct discharges of highly contaminated water of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) from April to May 2011, Kanda suggested that relatively small amounts of run-off of radionuclides from the 1F port into the Fukushima coastal region subsequently continued by his estimation method. However, the estimation period was limited to up to September 2012. Therefore, this paper estimates the discharge inventory up to June 2018. In the missing period, the Japanese government and Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings have continued efforts to stop the discharge, and consequently, the radionuclide concentration in seawater inside the 1F port has gradually diminished. We show the monthly discharge inventory of $$^{137}$$Cs up to June 2018 by two methods, i.e., Kanda method partially improved by the authors and a more sophisticated method using Voronoi tessellation reflecting the increase in the number of monitoring points inside the 1 F port. The results show that the former always yields overestimated results compared with the latter, but the ratio of the former to the latter is less than one order of magnitude. Using these results, we evaluate the impact of the discharge inventory from the 1F port into the coastal area and radiation dose upon fish ingestion.

Journal Articles

Mechanical and thermal properties of Zr-B and Fe-B alloys

Sun, Y.*; Abe, Yuta; Muta, Hiroaki*; Oishi, Yuji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.917 - 925, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Four-point-bend tests on high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes after exposure to simulated LOCA conditions

Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.782 - 791, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Low temperature heat capacity of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$

Suzuki, Eriko; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko; Oishi, Yuji*; Muta, Hiroaki*; Kurosaki, Ken*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.852 - 857, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The low temperature heat capacity of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$, which is one of the cesium chemisorbed compounds onto stainless steel during severe accident of the light water nuclear reactor, was experimentally determined for the first time in the temperature range of 1.9 - 302 K. The experimentally determined heat capacity, $$C_{p}$$$$^{o}$$ (298.15K), and the standard entropy, $$S^{o}$$ (298.15K), were 249.4 $$pm$$ 1.1 J K$$^{-1}$$ mol$$^{-1}$$ and 322.1 $$pm$$ 1.3 J K$$^{-1}$$ mol$$^{-1}$$, respectively. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$ at high temperatures, $$Delta$$$$_{f}$$$$G^{o}$$($$T$$), were reevaluated by using the presently obtained $$S^{o}$$ (298.15K) and the previously reported experimental results of the standard enthalpy of formation, $$Delta$$$$_{f}$$$$H^{o}$$ (298.15K), and the standard enthalpy increments at high temperatures, $$H^{o}$$($$T$$)-$$H^{o}$$ (298.15K).

Journal Articles

Chemical forms of uranium evaluated by thermodynamic calculation associated with distribution of core materials in the damaged reactor pressure vessel

Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Washiya, Tadahiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.704 - 718, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To suggest efficient process of the fuel debris treatment after the retrieval from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F), thorough investigation is indispensable on potential source of U in the fuel debris. Estimation on the fuel debris accumulated in the reactor pressure vessel is specifically important due to its limited accessibility. The present study aims to estimate the chemical forms of U in the in-vessel fuel debris, especially in the minor phases such as metallic phases, by performing the thermodynamic calculation considering the material relocation and changing environment during the accident progression in the 1F Unit 2. Input conditions for the thermodynamic calculation such as composition, temperature, and oxygen amount were assumed mainly based on the results of severe accident analysis. The chemical form of U varied depending on the local amount of Fe and O. In regions of low steel content, the U-containing metallic phase was dominated by $$alpha$$-(Zr,U)(O), while regions of high steel content were dominated by Fe$$_{2}$$(Zr,U) (Laves phase). A few percent of U was transferred to the metallic phases under reducing conditions, raising challenging issues on the chemical removal of nuclear material from fuel debris.

Journal Articles

Remote detection of radioactive hotspot using a Compton camera mounted on a moving multi-copter drone above a contaminated area in Fukushima

Sato, Yuki; Ozawa, Shingo*; Terasaka, Yuta; Minemoto, Kojiro*; Tamura, Satoshi*; Shingu, Kazutoshi*; Nemoto, Makoto*; Torii, Tatsuo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.734 - 744, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:19.53(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Atmospheric-dispersion database system that can immediately provide calculation results for various source term and meteorological conditions

Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tanaka, Atsunori*; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Kadowaki, Masanao

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.745 - 754, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have estimated source term and analyzed processes of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident by the Worldwide version of System for Environmental Emergency Dose Information. On the basis of this experience, we developed an dispersion calculation method that can respond to various needs in a nuclear emergency and provide useful information for emergency-response planning. By this method, if a release point is known, it is possible to immediately obtain the prediction results by applying provided source term to the database of dispersion-calculation results prepared in advance. With this function, it is easy to compare results by applying various source term with monitoring data, and to find out the optimum source term, which was applied for the source term estimation of the FDNPS accident. By performing this calculation with past meteorological-analysis data, it is possible to immediately get dispersion-calculation results for various source term and meteorological conditions. This database can be used for pre-accident planning, such as optimization of a monitoring plan and understanding of events to be supposed in considering emergency countermeasures.

Journal Articles

Application of multiple $$gamma$$-ray detection to long-lived radioactive nuclide determination in environmental samples

Oshima, Masumi*; Goto, Jun*; Haraga, Tomoko; Kin, Tadahiro*; Ikebe, Yurie*; Seto, Hirofumi*; Bamba, Shigeru*; Shinohara, Hirofumi*; Morimoto, Takao*; Isogai, Keisuke*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.663 - 670, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Gamma-gamma coincidence measurement utilized in $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy experiments is well known to be effective for the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio in a $$gamma$$-ray spectrum. We study its applicability to determination of long-lived radioactive nuclides in environmental samples. The $$gamma$$-ray simulation code Geant 4.10.2 was used. We took up 35 nuclides which need to be determined for the evaluation of fission product leakage at the nuclear accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plants. Among them five nuclides of $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{94}$$Nb, $$^{134}$$Cs, $$^{152}$$Eu and $$^{154}$$Eu can be the objectives of the multiple $$gamma$$-ray detection method. The simulation results indicate that the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved by a factor between 9.8 and 283, and the detection limit by a factor between 2.7 and 8.5 relative to the singles measurement, implying that the method can be well applied to the determination of the long-lived radioactive nuclides.

Journal Articles

Fracture-mechanics-based evaluation of failure limit on pre-cracked and hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding tube under biaxial stress states

Li, F.; Mihara, Takeshi; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.633 - 645, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Vertical distributions of Iodine-129 and iodide in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea

Miwa, Kazuji; Obata, Hajime*; Suzuki, Takashi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.537 - 545, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:53.3(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This study investigated the vertical distribution of Iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) which is mainly produced by European nuclear reprocessing plants in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea. $$^{129}$$I was found to be distributed almost uniformly in fallout level, and an increasing in $$^{129}$$I concentration levels caused by high $$^{129}$$I water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean was not observed. Additionally, we revealed the vertical distribution of iodide, one chemical form of iodine, from the Bering Shelf area to the Chukchi Sea for the first time. The increasing tendency of iodide near sea bottom was observed.

Journal Articles

Water leakage due to the welding defect and improvement to reach 1-MW beam operation in the mercury target of J-PARC

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.487 - 494, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Neutron flux per pulse reached world record at neutron source in the J-PARC. In the J-PARC, mercury target system is used as a spallation neutron source. A target vessel has the multi-walled protection system that comprises a mercury vessel enclosed with a double-walled water shroud. This is to prevent the leakage of the mercury outside the mercury vessel. The multi-walled structure needed to be complicated with a lot of welding lines. However, during the operation, we faced an unscheduled shutdown due to water leakage to the intermediate layer between the mercury vessel and water shroud. An investigation on the cause of the leakage was carried out. It is deduced that the leakage path was formed due to the crack propagation from welding defects that is caused by the complicated multi-walled structure. The crack propagation is attributed to the repeated stress by pressure waves generated in the mercury target. Based on the investigation results, the design was improved to remove the welding line on the complicated structure and to realize the stable operation with 1 MW proton beam.

Journal Articles

New research programme of JAEA/CLADS to reduce the knowledge gaps revealed after an accident at Fukushima-1; Introduction of boiling water reactor mock-up assembly degradation test programme

Pshenichnikov, A.; Kurata, Masaki; Bottomley, D.; Sato, Ikken; Nagae, Yuji; Yamazaki, Saishun

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.370 - 379, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:25.23(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Determination of humic substances in deep groundwater from sedimentary formations by the carbon concentration-based DAX-8 resin isolation technique

Terashima, Motoki; Endo, Takashi*; Miyakawa, Kazuya

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.380 - 387, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Predictability of a short-term emergency assessment system of the marine environmental radioactivity

Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takuya

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.472 - 485, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of the Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) to predict the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides in the ocean around Japan. The purpose of this study is to validate the predictability of STEAMER using oceanographic forecast and reanalysis data, which were saved for past several years. Results of oceanic dispersion simulations that are driven by oceanographic reanalysis data are assumed to be true solutions. Oceanic dispersion simulations are conducted for Cs-137 released hypothetically from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The predictability of STEAMER is quantitatively examined for the length of the forecast period. Ensemble forecast simulations are also conducted to successfully improve the predictability of STEAMER.

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal-neutron capture cross-section of cesium-135 by applying mass spectrometry

Nakamura, Shoji; Shibahara, Yuji*; Kimura, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.388 - 400, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The thermal-neutron capture cross-section ($$sigma_{0}$$) and resonance integral(I$$_{0}$$) were measured for the $$^{135}$$Cs(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{136}$$Cs reaction by an activation method and mass spectrometry. We used $$^{135}$$Cs contained as an impurity in a normally available $$^{137}$$Cs standard solution. An isotope ratio of $$^{135}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs in a standard $$^{137}$$Cs solution was measured by mass spectrometry to quantify $$^{135}$$Cs. The analyzed $$^{137}$$Cs samples were irradiated at the hydraulic conveyer of the research reactor in Institute for Integral Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University. Wires of Co/Al and Au/Al alloys were used as neutron monitors to measure thermal-neutron fluxes and epi-thermal Westcott's indices at an irradiation position. A gadolinium filter was used to measure the $$sigma_{0}$$, and a value of 0.133 eV was taken as the cut-off energy. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure induced activities of $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{136}$$Cs and monitor wires. On the basis of Westcott's convention, the $$sigma_{0}$$ and I$$_{0}$$ values were derived as 8.57$$pm$$0.25 barn, and 45.3$$pm$$3.2 barn, respectively. The $$sigma_{0}$$ obtained in the present study agreed within the limits of uncertainties with the past reported value of 8.3$$pm$$0.3 barn.

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