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Thermal conductivity measurement of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide doped with Nd/Sm as simulated fission products

堀井 雄太; 廣岡 瞬; 宇野 弘樹*; 小笠原 誠洋*; 田村 哲也*; 山田 忠久*; 古澤 尚也*; 村上 龍敏; 加藤 正人

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 588, p.154799_1 - 154799_20, 2024/01

MOX燃料の照射により生成する主要なFPであるNd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$及びSm$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$、模擬FPとして添加したMOXの熱伝導率を評価した。MOX中の模擬FPの均質性の観点から熱伝導率を評価するため、ボールミル法及び溶融法で作製した2種類の粉末を用いて、Nd及びSmの均質性が異なる試料を作製した。模擬FPが均質に固溶した試料では含有量が増加するにしたがってMOXの熱伝導率が低下するが、不均質な模擬FPは影響を及ぼさないことが分かった。熱伝導率に対するNd及びSmの影響を古典的フォノン輸送モデル$$lambda$$=(A+BT)$$^{-1}$$を用いてNd/Sm依存性を定量的に評価した結果、A(mK/W)=1.70$$times$$10$$^{-2}$$ + 0.93C$$_{Nd}$$ + 1.20C$$_{Sm}$$, B(m/W)=2.39$$times$$10$$^{-4}$$と表された。


Uranium-plutonium-americium cation interdiffusion in polycrystalline (U,Pu,Am)O$$_{2 pm x}$$ mixed oxides

Vauchy, R.; 松本 卓; 廣岡 瞬; 宇野 弘樹*; 田村 哲也*; 有馬 立身*; 稲垣 八穂広*; 出光 一哉*; 中村 博樹; 町田 昌彦; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 588, p.154786_1 - 154786_13, 2024/01

Diffusion couples made of dense polycrystalline (U,Pu,Am)O$$_{2 pm x}$$ oxides were annealed in various thermodynamic conditions (temperature, oxygen partial pressure), and for different durations. The associated actinide redistribution was quantified using Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA). Average diffusion profiles were obtained from elemental U, Pu, and Am X-ray maps and the resulting interdiffusion coefficients were calculated, then analyzed at the light of our model of point defect chemistry.


Oxidation and embrittlement behavior of FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

成川 隆文; 近藤 啓悦; 藤村 由希; 垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊; 根本 義之

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 587, p.154736_1 - 154736_8, 2023/12

To evaluate the oxidation and embrittlement behavior of an oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl (FeCrAl-ODS) cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, we conducted isothermal oxidation and ring-compression tests on unirradiated, stress-relieved FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube specimens. Further, we discussed the loss of coolable geometry of the reactor core loaded with the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tubes under LOCA conditions, using data from the ring-compression tests in this study and the integral thermal shock tests from our previous study. The results reveal that oxidation kinetics of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube at 1523 K is four orders of magnitude lower than that of a conventional Zircaloy cladding tube, which highlights the exceptional oxidation resistance of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube. The breakaway oxidation of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was observed at 1623 K for durations equal to or exceeding 6 h, and melting was observed at 1723 K. The ring-compression and the integral thermal shock tests indicate that, depending on the oxidation time, the ductile to brittle transition threshold - as determined by the ring-compression test - exists between 1623 K and 1723 K. Meanwhile, the fracture threshold - established through the integral thermal shock test - falls between 1573 K and 1673 K. Therefore, taking a conservative approach based on available data, the fracture and non-fracture results from the integral thermal shock tests can define the lower and upper boundaries of the threshold for the loss of coolable geometry of the reactor core during a LOCA.


Effect of molybdenum release on UO$$_{2}$$/MOX fuel oxidation under severe light water reactor accident conditions

Liu, J.; 三輪 周平; 唐澤 英年; 逢坂 正彦

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 37, p.101532_1 - 101532_5, 2023/12

To investigate the Mo release behavior and its influence on the fuel oxidation, the oxidation and evaporation behaviors of Mo powders and their influencing mechanism on the oxygen partial pressure around powders were researched by using a thermogravimetric analysis technique. The results revealed that during Mo oxidation and evaporation, the oxygen partial pressure around powders can be dramatically decreased to ensure the mass balance of oxygen. Under guidance of this finding, the oxygen consumption rate by Mo release and the oxidation rate of nuclear fuel in accident conditions were estimated and compared. It is suggested that Mo release can retard the oxidation progress of fuel.


Decontamination and solidification treatment on spent liquid scintillation cocktail

渡部 創; 高畠 容子; 小木 浩通*; 大杉 武史; 谷口 拓海; 佐藤 淳也; 新井 剛*; 梶並 昭彦*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 585, p.154610_1 - 154610_6, 2023/11

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02

Treatment of spent scintillation cocktail generated by analysis of radioactivity is one of important tasks for management of nuclear laboratories. This study proposed a procedure consists of adsorption of radioactivity and solidification of residual liquid wastes, and fundamental performance of each step was experimentally tested. Batch-wise adsorption showed excellent adsorption performance of Ni onto silica-based adsorbent, and chelate reaction was suggested as the adsorption mechanism by EXAFS analysis. Alkaline activate material successfully solidified the liquid waste, and TG/DTA and XRD analyses revealed that the organic compounds exist inside the matrix. Only 1% of the loaded organic compounds were leaked from the matrix by a leaching test, and most of the organic compounds should be stably kept inside the matrix.


Cryogenic impact fracture behavior of a high-Mn austenitic steel using electron backscatter diffraction and neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging

Wang, Y. W.*; Wang, H. H.*; Su, Y. H.; 徐 平光; 篠原 武尚

Materials Science & Engineering A, 887, p.145768_1 - 145768_13, 2023/11

A unique impact fracture behavior is found in a high-Mn austenitic steel (24Mn-4Cr-0.4C-0.3Cu) in this work. The steel exhibits concurrent twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect and the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. By analyzing the load-deflection curves recorded during Charpy impact testing, the resistance to crack initiation and propagation is quantified from the absorbed energy. The high-Mn steel demonstrates good resistance to crack initiation at 273 K and 77 K. However, as the temperature decreases from 273 K to 77 K, there is an accelerated transition from stable crack growth to unstable crack growth during impact, resulting in the deterioration of resistance to crack propagation. The plastic deformation of the impact-tested samples, especially in the region close to the crack-path profile was quantitatively analyzed using neutron Bragg-edge transmission (BET) imaging. The deformation zones, divided by using the width of the 200 Bragg edge, exhibit good agreement with the impact absorbed energy characteristics obtained from dynamic load-deflection curves. Moreover, the unstable growth transition point was roughly determined on the impact-tested sample. Then, the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique is employed to examine the deformation microstructure along the crack-path in the impact-tested samples. The results revealed the dual roles of TRIP effect in impact toughness of the high-Mn steel. On one hand, the TRIP effect plays a positive role in improving resistance to crack initiation and propagation. On the other hand, the excessive accumulation of brittle $$varepsilon$$/$$alpha$$'-martensite caused by the enhanced TRIP effect at 77 K leads to quasi-cleavage fracture, thereby playing a negative role. Finally, we discussed the prominent toughening mechanisms associated with the TWIP and TRIP effects, which greatly impact the impact fracture behavior.


First-principles calculations of hydrogen trapping energy on incoherent interfaces of aluminum alloys

山口 正剛; 海老原 健一; 都留 智仁; 板倉 充洋

Materials Transactions, 64(11), p.2553 - 2559, 2023/11



Lattice parameters of fluorite-structured uranium-americium mixed oxides

Vauchy, R.; 廣岡 瞬; 渡部 雅; 横山 佳祐; 村上 龍敏

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 584, p.154576_1 - 154576_11, 2023/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The room temperature lattice parameters of stoichiometric U1-yAmyO$$_{2}$$ uranium-americium mixed oxides were re-evaluated at the light of our hybrid crystallographic model. The complex charge compensation mechanisms that take place in this solid solution were also considered to shed light on the available experimental unit-cell values.


Alloy design and characterization of a recrystallized FeCrAl-ODS cladding for accident-tolerant BWR fuels; An Overview of research activity in Japan

鵜飼 重治; 坂本 寛*; 大塚 智史; 山下 真一郎; 木村 晃彦*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 583, p.154508_1 - 154508_24, 2023/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:97.55(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Following the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, FeCrAl-ODS claddings have been developed in Japan. This paper presents an overview of the alloy design and the process used to manufacture the recrystallized cladding, together with an analysis of the applicability of these alloys as BWR fuel cladding and a summary of the simulated severe accident performance. It was verified that core excess reactivities affected by the increased neutron absorption by Fe, Cr, Al can be compensated by reducing the thickness to half that of Zircaloy cladding, while maintaining mechanical integrity. A simulated design basis LOCA event with assessment of post-LOCA ductility confirmed that FeCrAl-ODS cladding provided a greater safety margin. The SA code analysis indicated that melting of the Zircaloy core could be slightly accelerated due to release of the huge amount of exothermic reaction heat, whilst the water injection always acts toward cooling the FeCrAl-ODS core.


Cavitation damage prediction in mercury target for pulsed spallation neutron source using Monte Carlo simulation

涌井 隆; 高岸 洋一*; 二川 正敏

Materials, 16(17), p.5830_1 - 5830_16, 2023/09

水銀ターゲット容器は、陽子ビームの入射に伴い、キャビテーション損傷を受けるため、キャビテーションバブルの位置や衝撃圧力分布の不確実さを考慮して、モンテカルロ・シミュレーションを用いたキャビテーション損傷を予測する手法を提案した。本手法では、個々のキャビテーション気泡の崩壊に起因する衝撃圧力の分布はガウス分布とし、衝撃圧力の最大値の確率密度分布は3種類の分布: デルタ関数、ガウス分布、ワイブル分布と仮定した。衝撃圧力の分布を記述する方程式の2つのパラメータについて、実験から得られたキャビテーション損傷の分布とシミュレーションから得られた累積塑性ひずみの分布を比較し、ベイズ最適化を使用して推定することができた。また、ワイブル分布を用いて得られた結果が、他の結果に比べて、実際のキャビテーションエロージョン現象を再現することが分かった。


Key role of temperature on delamination in solid-state additive manufacturing via supersonic impact

Wang, Q.*; Ma, N.*; Huang, W.*; Shi, J.*; Luo, X.-T.*; 冨高 宙*; 諸岡 聡; 渡邊 誠*

Materials Research Letters (Internet), 11(9), p.742 - 748, 2023/09

Cold spray (CS) has emerged as a representative of solid-state additive manufacturing (AM) via supersonic impact. It enables a high deposition rate of solid-state microparticles. Delamination, however, tends to occur when depositing too thick; this remains to be conquered. Here, a CS-like process, warm spray (WS), was presented. Interestingly, it was found that the appropriate increase in particle temperature can effectively reduce the residual stress amplitude, relieving the concentrated tensile stress and safeguarding the additively manufactured components from interfacial delamination even when depositing too thick. The key role of temperature on delamination was identified in solid-state AM via supersonic impact.


Effect of interlayer K ordering on water intercalation behavior in $$delta$$-type layered manganese dioxide

岡本 範彦*; 吉迫 大輝*; 市坪 哲

Energy Storage Materials, 61, p.102912_1 - 102912_9, 2023/08

Layered manganese dioxide (birnessite) that contains K cations and water molecules at interlayers exhibits reversible heat storage properties via a water-intercalation mechanism (0.5 mol H$$_{2}$$O per K$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{2}$$). However, a certain amount of an irreversible capacity of water intercalation is observed after the initial thermal cycle, which limits the reversibly available energy density of the material for the subsequent cycles. In this study, crystal structures of the K-containing birnessite, K$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{2}$$, was analyzed before and after heat treatment, by electron diffraction and atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, to elucidate the origin of the initial irreversible capacity (0.83 mol per K$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{2}$$).


Behavior of FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

成川 隆文; 近藤 啓悦; 藤村 由希; 垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊; 根本 義之

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 582, p.154467_1 - 154467_12, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:98.57(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To evaluate the behavior of an oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl (FeCrAl-ODS) cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions of light-water reactors (LWRs), the following two laboratory-scale LOCA-simulated tests were performed: the burst and integral thermal shock tests. Four burst and three integral thermal shock tests were performed on unirradiated, stress-relieved FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube specimens, simulating ballooning and rupture, oxidation, and quenching, which were postulated during a LOCA. The burst temperature of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was 200-300 K higher than that of the Zircaloy cladding tube, and the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube's maximum circumferential strain was smaller than or equal to the Zircaloy-4 cladding tube. These results indicate that the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube has higher strength at high temperatures than the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube. The FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube did not fracture after being subjected to an axial restraint load of $$sim$$5000 N, which is more than 10 times higher than the axial restraint load estimated for existing LWRs, during quenching, following isothermal oxidation at 1473 K for 1 h. The FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was hardly oxidized during this isothermal oxidation condition. However, it melted after a short oxidation at 1673 K and fractured after abnormal oxidation at 1573 K for 1 h. Based on these results, the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube should not fracture in the time range expected during LOCAs below 1473 K, where no melting or abnormal oxidation occurs.


Time-lapse observation of crevice corrosion in grade 2205 duplex stainless steel

青木 聡; Engelberg, D. L.*

Materials, 16(15), p.5300_1 - 5300_13, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0



First-principles atomic level stresses; Application to a metallic glass under shear

Lobzenko, I.; 都留 智仁; 椎原 良典*; 岩下 拓哉*

Materials Research Express (Internet), 10(8), p.085201_1 - 085201_12, 2023/08



Non-stoichiometric $$fcc$$-base GdO$$_{x}$$ precipitations in a Mg-Zn-Gd alloy

伊東 祐斗*; 江草 大佑*; 山口 正剛; 阿部 英司*

Materials Transactions, 64(8), p.2022 - 2025, 2023/08

走査型透過電子顕微鏡によるその場観察で、Mg$$_{97}$$Zn$$_{1}$$Gd$$_{2}$$ (at.%)合金を623Kで加熱すると、面心立方($$fcc$$)系のGdナノ粒子がダイナミックに析出することを発見した。5.32${AA}$という観察された格子定数は、密度汎関数理論(DFT)計算による純粋な$$fcc$$-Gdの5.06${AA}$よりも大きいため、酸素原子が四面体の格子間サイトに部分的に挿入されているためである可能性が高いことがわかった。体系的なDFT計算により、四面体あるいは八面体の格子間サイトを占有することで、広い不定比性範囲を持つ$$fcc$$-Gd系酸化物相が出現する可能性があり、GdO$$_{x}$$として表現できることが分かった。


Oxygen potential of neodymium-doped U$$_{0.817}$$Pu$$_{0.180}$$Am$$_{0.003}$$O$$_{2 pm x}$$ uranium-plutonium-americium mixed oxides at 1573, 1773, and 1873 K

Vauchy, R.; 砂押 剛雄*; 廣岡 瞬; 中道 晋哉; 村上 龍敏; 加藤 正人

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 580, p.154416_1 - 154416_11, 2023/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:82.84(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Oxygen potentials of U$$_{0.817}$$Pu$$_{0.180}$$Am$$_{0.003}$$O$$_{2 pm x}$$ incorporating 10 and 20 mol% of neodymium (Nd/Metal) were investigated by thermogravimetry at 1573, 1773, and 1873 K. The presence of neodymium induced an increase in the oxygen potential of the U-Pu mixed oxide. The correlation between oxygen partial pressure pO$$_{2}$$ and deviation from stoichiometry x was analyzed, and a model of defect chemistry was proposed. Finally, the crystal structure of these mixed oxides was discussed at the light of the mechanisms of possible Nd(III)/U(V) charge compensation, and deviation from stoichiometry.


Dynamic interaction between dislocations and obstacles in BCC iron based on atomic potentials derived using neural networks

森 英喜*; 都留 智仁; 奥村 雅彦; 松中 大介*; 椎原 良典*; 板倉 充洋

Physical Review Materials (Internet), 7(6), p.063605_1 - 063605_8, 2023/06



Revision of the criticality safety handbook in light of the reality of the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan; With a view to transportation and storage of fuel debris

須山 賢也; 植木 太郎; 郡司 智; 渡邉 友章; 荒木 祥平; 福田 航大

Proceedings of 20th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials (PATRAM22) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2023/06



Laser-induced creation of antiferromagnetic 180-degree domains in NiO/Pt bilayers

Meer, H.*; Wust, S.*; Schmitt, C.*; Herrgen, P.*; Fuhrmann, F.*; Hirtle, S.*; Bednarz, B.*; Rajan, A.*; Ramos, R.*; Ni$~n$o, M. A.*; et al.

Advanced Functional Materials, 33(21), p.2213536_1 - 2213536_6, 2023/05

The antiferromagnetic order in heterostructures of NiO/Pt thin films can be modified by optical pulses. After the irradiation with laser light, the optically induced creation of antiferromagnetic domains can be observed by imaging the created domain structure utilizing the X-ray magnetic linear dichroism effect. The effect of different laser polarizations on the domain formation can be studied and used to identify a polarization-independent creation of 180$$^{circ}$$ domain walls and domains with 180$$^{circ}$$ different N$'e$el vector orientation. By varying the irradiation parameters, the switching mechanism can be determined to be thermally induced. This study demonstrates experimentally the possibility to optically create antiferromagnetic domains, an important step towards future functionalization of all optical switching mechanisms in antiferromagnets.

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