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Journal Articles

Velocity distribution in the subchannels of a pin bundle with a wrapping wire; Evaluation of the Reynolds number dependence in a three-pin bundle

Aizawa, Kosuke; Hiyama, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Masahiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ishida, Katsuji*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(4), p.20-00547_1 - 20-00547_11, 2021/08

A sodium-cooled fast reactor has been designed to attain a high burn-up core in commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. The sodium-cooled fast reactor adopts a wire spacer between fuel pins. The wire spacer performs functions of securing the coolant channel and the mixing between subchannels. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, the fuel pin deformation due to swelling and thermal bowing may decrease the local flow velocity in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, understanding the flow field in a wire-wrapped pin bundle is important. This study performed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements using a wire-wrapped three-pin bundle water model to grasp the flow field in the subchannel under conditions, including the laminar to turbulent regions. In the region away from the wrapping wire, the maximum flow velocity was increased by decreasing the Re number. Accordingly, the PIV measurements using the three-pin bundle geometry without the wrapping wire were also conducted to understand the effect of the wrapping wires on the flow field in the subchannel. The results confirmed that the mixing due to the wrapping wire occurred, even in the laminar condition. These experimental results are useful not only for understanding the pin bundle thermal hydraulics, but also for the code validation.

Journal Articles

Formulation of plastic strain distribution derived from long-distance travel of temperature distribution based on residual stress required for elastic shakedown behavior

Okajima, Satoshi

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(4), p.21-00080_1 - 21-00080_15, 2021/08

It was reported that the long distance travel of temperature distribution causes a new type of thermal ratcheting, even in the absence of primary stress. When the distance of temperature travel is moderate, the accumulation of the plastic strain due to this mechanism is finally saturated. We have found the strong relationship between hoop-membrane distributions of accumulated plastic strain and residual stress in this saturated case. Focusing on this relationship, we have aimed to predict the saturated distribution of the plastic strain based on the residual stress distribution that is required for the elastic shakedown behavior. In this paper, based on classical shell theory, we formulated the plastic strain distribution that brings uniform hoop-membrane stress in the given region. The formulated strain distribution was validated by the comparison with the accumulated plastic strain distribution obtained by finite element analyses using an elastic-perfectly plastic material.

Journal Articles

Kinetic study on eutectic reaction between boron carbide and stainless steel by differential thermal analysis

Kikuchi, Shin; Nakamura, Kinya*; Yamano, Hidemasa

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(4), p.20-00542_1 - 20-00542_13, 2021/08

In a postulated severe accidental condition of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), eutectic melting between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) may take place. Thus, kinetic behavior of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting is one of the important phenomena to be considered when evaluating the core disruptive accidents in SFR. In this study, for the first step to obtain the fundamental information on kinetic feature of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting, the thermal analysis using the pellet type samples of B$$_{4}$$C and Type 316L SS as different experimental technique was performed. The differential thermal analysis endothermic peaks for the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting appeared from 1483K to 1534K and systematically shifted to higher temperatures when increasing heating rate. Based on this kinetic feature, apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting were determined by Kissinger method. It was found that the kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis were comparable to the literature values.

Journal Articles

Thermophysical properties of austenitic stainless steel containing boron carbide in a solid state

Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yamano, Hidemasa

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(4), p.20-00540_1 - 20-00540_11, 2021/08

In a core disruptive accident scenario, boron carbide, which is used as a control rod material, may melt below the melting temperature of stainless steel owing to the eutectic reaction with them. The eutectic mixture produced is assumed to extensively relocate in the degraded core, and this behavior plays an important role in significantly reducing the neutronic reactivity. However, these behaviors have never been simulated in previous severe accident analysis. To contribute to the improvement of the core disruptive accident analysis code, the thermophysical properties of the eutectic mixture in the solid state were measured, and regression equations that show the temperature (and boron carbide concentration) dependence are created.

Journal Articles

Preventing nuclear fuel material adhesion on glove box components using nanoparticle coating

Segawa, Tomomi; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Suzuki, Masahiro; Tachihara, Joji; Takato, Kiyoto; Okita, Takatoshi; Satone, Hiroshi*; Suzuki, Michitaka*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(3), p.21-00022_1 - 21-00022_9, 2021/06

To reduce the hold-up of the nuclear fuel materials in the glove box and the external exposure dose, the technology of the MOX powder adhesion prevention by the nanoparticle coating to the acrylic panels of the glove box has been developed. The surface analysis by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the acrylic test piece surface coated with nanoparticles had a higher root mean square roughness value than that non-coated with nanoparticles. Due to the formation of nano-sized tiny rugged surface, the nanoparticle coating reduced the minimum adhesion force between the UO$$_{2}$$ particles and the acrylic test piece surface with the smallest particle size of about 5 $$mu$$m where desorption was observed, by about one-tenth. Moreover, the nanoparticle coating reduced the amount of the MOX powder adhering to the acrylic test piece to about one-tenth. In this study, it was found that applying the nanoparticle coating to the acrylic panels of glove box can prevent the adhesion of nuclear fuel materials. This method is effective for reducing the hold-up of the nuclear fuel materials in the glove box, the external exposure dose and improving the visibility of the acrylic panels.

Journal Articles

Analytical study of perforation damage in reinforced concrete slabs subjected to oblique impact by projectiles with different nose shapes

Kang, Z.; Okuda, Yukihiko; Nishida, Akemi; Tsubota, Haruji; Li, Y.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(1), p.20-00331_1 - 20-00331_16, 2021/02

Considerable research has been carried out to establish a rational assessment method for nuclear power plants against local damage caused by an accidental projectile impact. Most of the empirical formulas that have been proposed seek to quantitatively investigate local damage to reinforced concrete (RC) structures caused by a rigid projectile impact. These formulas have been derived based on impact tests performed normal to the target structure, while only a few impact tests oblique to the target structure have been studied. This study aims to propose a new formula for evaluating local damage to RC structures caused by oblique impact based on experimental and simulation results. At present, we have validated an analytical method via comparison with experimental results and have conducted simulation analyses of oblique impact assessments on RC slabs using projectile with flat nose shape. In this study, the same analytical method will be used to investigate perforation damage to RC slabs subjected to oblique impact by projectiles with hemispherical nose shapes. In this paper, the effects of projectiles' nose shapes on perforation damage to RC slabs, the residual velocity of projectiles and the time history of energy transmission will be discussed.

Journal Articles

Room-temperature adsorption behavior of cesium onto calcium silicate insulation

Rizaal, M.; Saito, Takumi*; Okamoto, Koji*; Erkan, N.*; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00563_1 - 19-00563_10, 2020/06

The adsorption of cesium (Cs) on calcium silicate insulation of primary piping system is postulated to contribute in high dose rate of surrounding pedestal area in Fukushima Daiichi NPP unit 2. In this study, room-temperature experiment of Cs adsorption on calcium silicate has been studied as an initial approach of Cs adsorption behavior toward higher temperature condition. As the result of analyzing of Cs adsorption kinetics, it was expected that the underlying adsorption mechanism is chemisorption. Furthermore, analysis of adsorption isotherm suggested unrestricted monolayer formation followed by multilayer formation.

Journal Articles

Uncertainty analysis of toxic gas leakage accident in cogeneration high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00332_1 - 19-00332_11, 2020/06

An uncertainty analysis method for control room habitability under toxic gas leakage accidents in cogeneration HTGR is proposed to support risk-informed design of the plant. The method is applied to representative toxic gas leakage accidents in a IS process hydrogen production plant coupled to the HTTR gas turbine test plant. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties for each variable parameter are identified and are propagated using Latin hypercube sampling. The analyses show that the suggested method can successfully characterize and quantify uncertainties in the toxic gas concentration in control room. The results lead us to the conclusion that toxic gas dispersion behavior analysis should combine two evaluation methods: dense gas dispersion model and computational fluid dynamics simulation.

Journal Articles

Study on loss-of-cooling and loss-of-coolant accidents in spent fuel pool; Confirmation of fuel temperature calculation function with oxidation reaction in the SAMPSON code

Suzuki, Hiroaki*; Morita, Yoshihiro*; Naito, Masanori*; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00450_1 - 19-00450_17, 2020/06

In this study, the SAMPSON code was modified to evaluate severe accidents in a spent fuel pool (SFP). Air oxidation models based on oxidation data obtained on the Zircaroy-4 cladding (ANL model) and the Zircaroy-2 cladding (JAEA model) were included in the modified SAMPSON code. Experiments done by Sandia National Laboratory using simulated fuel assemblies equivalent to those of an actual BWR plant were analyzed by the modified SAMPSON code to confirm the functions for analysis of the severe SFP accidents. The rapid fuel rod temperature rise due to the Zr air oxidation reaction could be reasonably evaluated by the SAMPSON analysis. The SFP accident analyses were conducted with different initial water levels which were no water, water level at bottom of active fuel, and water level at half of active fuel. The present analysis showed that the earliest temperature rise of the fuel rod surface occurred when there was no water in the SFP and natural circulation of air became possible.

Journal Articles

On the degradation progression of a BWR control blade under high-temperature steam-starved conditions

Pshenichnikov, A.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00503_1 - 19-00503_10, 2020/06

Journal Articles

Validation study of SAS4A code for the unprotected loss-of-flow accident in an SFR

Ishida, Shinya; Kawada, Kenichi; Fukano, Yoshitaka

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00523_1 - 19-00523_17, 2020/06

The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) approach was applied to the validation of SAS4A code in order to indicate the reliability of SAS4A code sufficiently and objectively. Based on this approach, issue and objective were clarified, plant design and scenario were defined, FOM and key phenomena were selected, and the code validation test matrix was completed with the results of investigation about analysis models and test cases. The results of the test analysis corresponding to this matrix show that the SAS4A models required for the IP evaluation were sufficiently validated. Furthermore, the validation with this matrix is highly reliable, since this matrix represents the comprehensive validation that also considers the relation between physical phenomena. In this study, the reliability and validity of SAS4A code were significantly enhanced by using PIRT approach to the sufficient level for CDA analyses in SFR.

Journal Articles

Gamma detector response simulation inside the pedestal of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi; Matsumura, Taichi; Sakamoto, Masahiro

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00543_1 - 19-00543_8, 2020/06

Journal Articles

Development of fission product chemistry database ECUME for the LWR severe accident

Miwa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Miyahara, Naoya; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Suzuki, Eriko; Horiguchi, Naoki; Liu, J.; Miradji, F.; Imoto, Jumpei; Mohamad, B. A.; et al.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00537_1 - 19-00537_11, 2020/06

We constructed the fission product (FP) chemistry database named ECUME for LWR severe accident. This version of ECUME is equipped with dataset of the chemical reactions and their kinetics constants for the reactions of cesium(Cs)-iodine(I)-boron(B)-molybdenum(Mo)-oxygen(O)-hydrogen(H) system in gas phase, the elemental model for the high temperature chemical reaction of Cs with stainless steel applied as the structural material in a reactor, and thermodynamic data for CsBO$$_{2}$$ vapor species and solids of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$ and CsFeSiO$$_{4}$$ for these chemical reactions. The ECUME will provide estimation of Cs distribution due to the evaluation of effects of interaction with BWR control material B and stainless steel on Cs behavior in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

Journal Articles

Study on chemisorption model of cesium hydroxide onto stainless steel type 304

Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro*; Suzuki, Eriko; Osaka, Masahiko

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00564_1 - 19-00564_14, 2020/06

A large amount of cesium (Cs) chemisorbed onto stainless steel is predicted to be present especially in the upper region of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during light water reactor severe accident (LWR SA) and a chemisorption model was developed for estimation of such amounts of Cs for stainless steel type 304 (SS304). However, this existing chemisorption model cannot accurately reproduce experimental results. Therefore, in this study, a modified Cs chemisorption model which accounts for silicon content in SS304 and concentration of cesium hydroxide (CsOH) in gaseous phases was constructed by combining penetration theory for gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction and mass action law for CsOH decomposition at interface between gaseous and solid phases. As a result, it was found that the modified model was able to reproduce the experimental data more accurately than the existing model.

Journal Articles

Influence evaluation of sampling methods of the nondestructive examination on failure probability of piping based on probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis

Mano, Akihiro; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00567_1 - 19-00567_11, 2020/06

Non-destructive examinations (NDEs) have an important role in assurance of the structural integrity of nuclear components including pipe lines. In Japanese nuclear power plants, NDEs are performed for welds in piping in accordance with the rules such as the Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. For the welds where stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is not postulated, NDEs are performed in each 10-year interval. For each interval, the extent of examination is specified in the rules. In general, there are two kinds of sampling method for selecting welds to be examined in each interval considering the specified extent of examination. The first method is the fixed location sampling method, in which welds for NDEs are same as those examined in the last interval. The second method is the random location sampling method, in which welds for NDEs are selected from those not examined in the last interval. The selection of the sampling method is important to assure the structural integrity of piping. Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is one of rational structural integrity assessment methods can quantitatively calculate failure probability of welds in piping considering aging degradation mechanisms such as SCC and fatigue as well as crack detections and repair of cracked welds through NDE. In this study, to clarify the influence of the sampling methods on structural integrity of piping, we evaluated the failure probability of a typical nuclear piping considering NDEs based on the two sampling methods through PFM analysis. From the results, we clarified the quantitative influence of two sampling methods on failure probability of piping.

Journal Articles

Establishment of reasonable 2-D model to investigate heat transfer and flow characteristics by using scale model of vessel cooling system for HTTR

Takada, Shoji; Ngarayana, I. W.*; Nakatsuru, Yukihiro*; Terada, Atsuhiko; Murakami, Kenta*; Sawa, Kazuhiro*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00536_1 - 19-00536_12, 2020/06

In this study reasonable 2D model was established by using FLUENT for start-up of analysis and evaluation of heat transfer flow characteristics in 1/6 scale model of VCS for HTTR. By setting up pressure vessel temperature around 200$$^{circ}$$C about relatively high ratio of heat transfer via natural convection in total heat removal around 20-30%, which is useful for code to experiment benchmark in the aspect to confirm accuracy to predict temperature distribution of components which is heated up by natural convection flow. The numerical results of upper head of pressure vessel by the $$kappa$$-$$omega$$-SST intermittency transition model, which can adequately reproduce the separation, re-adhesion and transition, reproduced the test results including temperature distribution well in contrast to those by the $$kappa$$-$$varepsilon$$ model in both cases that helium gas is evacuated or filled in the pressure vessel. It was emerged that any local hot spot did not appear on the top of upper head of pressure vessel where natural convection flow of air is separated in both cases. In addition, the plume of high temperature helium gas generated by the heating of heater was well mixed in the upper head and uniformly heated the inner surface of upper head without generating hot spots.

Journal Articles

Recent verification activities on probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code PASCAL4 for reactor pressure vessel

Lu, K.; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.; Miyamoto, Yuhei*; Hirota, Takatoshi*; Itabashi, Yu*; Nagai, Masaki*; Suzuki, Masahide*; Kanto, Yasuhiro*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00573_1 - 19-00573_14, 2020/06

Journal Articles

Impact simulations on local damage of reinforced concrete panel influenced by projectile nose shape

Kang, Z.; Nishida, Akemi; Okuda, Yukihiko; Tsubota, Haruji; Li, Y.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00566_1 - 19-00566_20, 2020/06

Most impact research has been presented on the basis of impact tests and numerical analysis performed by rigid projectile impact perpendicular to the target structure. On the other hand, there are only few reports on impacts at an oblique angle. To evaluate more realistic conditions regarding issues related to oblique impacts to reinforced concrete (RC) structures, we have proposed an analytical method to estimate the local damage to RC structures by an oblique impact and have validated the evaluation approach by comparison with experimental results. At present, we have finalized simulation analyses of oblique impact assessments on RC panels using rigid/soft projectiles with a flat nose shape utilizing the validated approach. Furthermore, in this study, we focus on impacts caused by rigid/soft projectiles with a hemispherical nose shape. The same analytical method is applied to simulate the structural damage caused by an RC panel due to a rigid/soft projectile with a hemispherical nose shape. Results on the penetration depth of the RC structure and the energy-contribution ratio are presented. By comparing the results of local damage to an RC structure caused by projectiles with flat and hemispherical nose shapes, the influence of the nose shape of the projectile on local damage of the RC panel has been investigated.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation in the recycling of removed soil for land reclamation

Shimada, Asako; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00569_1 - 19-00569_17, 2020/06

After treatments such as sieve classification and washing of decontamination soil taken in Fukushima prefecture, recycling of the treated soil in which radioactivity concentration level is relatively low to public engineering works is invented to reduce the amount of the decontamination soil that must be disposed of. In the present study, dose estimation for workers and the public was conducted from the viewpoint of application of recycling material of decontamination soil for land reclamation by considering exposure pathways from the construction to the servicing of the land as a greenery-covered area. In the case of revegetation with trees, uptake of Cs into trees was considered and the exposure from trees, trimmed or thinned trees, and organic deposit made from litter fall were evaluated. From the results, the concentration levels of radiocesium, $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs, for which the annual effective exposure dose does not exceed 1 mSv/y was calculated. In addition, the thickness of the cover soil required to maintain the exposure dose lower than 10 $$mu$$Sv/y for the public during servicing was ascertained. Furthermore, disasters were considered; for instance, by considering that tsunamis, fires, and concentrated heavy rain can increase exposure doses based on changes in the conditions of the reclamation land, we confirmed that the additional exposure dose during disaster and rehabilitation is lower than 1 mSv/y. Based on these evaluation results, we determined the concentration levels amenable to recycling.

Journal Articles

Expansion of high temperature creep test data for failure evaluation of BWR lower head in severe accident

Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Osaka, Masahiko; Li, Y.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00560_1 - 19-00560_12, 2020/06

Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, we have been developing a failure evaluation method that considers creep damage mechanisms using detailed three-dimensional finite element analysis model of lower head including penetration, stub tubes, and weld parts, etc., for the early completion of the decommissioning of the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi. For the finite element analysis, we have been obtaining material properties for which no data are provided in existing databases or in the literature. In particular, creep data corresponding to the high temperature region near the melting point of materials is important in evaluating creep deformation under severe accident conditions. In this study, we obtained the uniaxial tensile and creep properties for low-alloy steel, stainless steel, and Ni-based alloy. In particular, creep test data with long rupture times at high temperatures are expanded using a tensile test machine that can measure the elongation of test specimens in a noncontact measurement system. The parameters related to the failure evaluation were improved on the basis of the expanded creep database.

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