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Creation of quark-gluon plasma droplets with three distinct geometries

Aidala, C.*; 長谷川 勝一; 今井 憲一; 佐甲 博之; 佐藤 進; 谷田 聖; PHENIX Collaboration*; 他312名*

Nature Physics, 15(3), p.214 - 220, 2019/03

 被引用回数:130 パーセンタイル:99.25(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Experimental studies of the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies have established the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a state of hot, dense nuclear matter in which quarks and gluons are not bound into hadrons. In this state, matter behaves as a nearly inviscid fluid that efficiently translates initial spatial anisotropies into correlated momentum anisotropies among the particles produced, creating a common velocity field pattern known as collective flow. In recent years, comparable momentum anisotropies have been measured in small-system proton-proton and proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions, despite expectations that the volume and lifetime of the medium produced would be too small to form a QGP. Here we report on the observation of elliptic and triangular flow patterns of charged particles produced in proton-gold (p+Au), deuteron-gold (d+Au) and helium-gold ($$^{3}$$He+Au) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy $$sqrt{s_{{mathrm{NN}}}}$$ = 200 GeV. The unique combination of three distinct initial geometries and two flow patterns provides unprecedented model discrimination. Hydrodynamical models, which include the formation of a short-lived QGP droplet, provide the best simultaneous description of these measurements.


Characterization of the shape-staggering effect in mercury nuclei

Marsh, B. A.*; Day Goodacre, T.*; 角田 佑介*; Andreyev, A. N.; 他41名*

Nature Physics, 14(12), p.1163 - 1167, 2018/12

 被引用回数:72 パーセンタイル:96.45(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In rare cases, the removal of a single proton (Z) or neutron (N) from an atomic nucleus leads to a dramatic shape change. These instances are crucial for understanding the components of the nuclear interactions that drive deformation. The mercuryisotopes (Z = 80) are a striking example: their close neighbours, the lead isotopes (Z = 82), are spherical and steadily shrink with decreasing N. The even-mass (A = N + Z) mercury isotopes follow this trend. The odd-mass mercury isotopes $$^{181,183,185}$$Hg, however, exhibit noticeably larger charge radii. Due to the experimental difficulties of probing extremely neutron-deficient systems, and the computational complexity of modelling such heavy nuclides, the microscopic origin of this unique shape staggering has remained unclear. Here, by applying resonance ionization spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and nuclear spectroscopy as far as $$^{177}$$Hg, we determine $$^{181}$$Hg as the shape-staggering endpoint. By combining our experimental measurements with Monte Carlo shell model calculations, we conclude that this phenomenon results from the interplay between monopole and quadrupole interactions driving a quantum phase transition, for which we identify the participating orbitals. Although shape staggering in the mercury isotopes is a unique and localized feature in the nuclear chart, it nicely illustrates the concurrence of single-particle and collective degrees of freedom at play in atomic nuclei.


Spin pumping from nuclear spin waves

塩見 雄毅*; Lustikova, J.*; 渡辺 真悟*; 廣部 大地*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治

Nature Physics, 15(1), p.22 - 26, 2018/10

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:59.11(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Various spintronic phenomena originate from the exchange of angular momentum between the spin of electrons and other degrees of freedom in crystalline materials. Many degrees of freedom, such as magnetization and mechanical motion, have already been united into this exchange framework. However, the nuclear spin -a key angular momentum- has yet to be incorporated. Here we observe spin pumping from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in which nuclear spin dynamics emits a spin current, a flow of spin angular momentum of electrons. By using the canted antiferromagnet MnCO$$_3$$, in which typical nuclear spin-wave formation is established due to the reinforced hyperfine coupling, we find that a spin current is generated from an NMR. Nuclear spins are indispensable for quantum information technology and are also frequently used in various sensors, such as in magnetic resonance imaging. The observed NMR spin pumping allows spin-current generation from nuclei and will enable spintronic detection of nuclear spin states.


Thermodynamic evidence for nematic superconductivity in Cu$$_{x}$$Bi$$_{2}$$Se$$_{3}$$

米澤 進吾*; 田尻 兼悟*; 中田 勝*; 永井 佑紀; Wang, Z.*; 瀬川 耕司*; 安藤 陽一*; 前野 悦輝*

Nature Physics, 13(2), p.123 - 126, 2017/02

 被引用回数:181 パーセンタイル:99.14(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



One-dimensional spinon spin currents

廣部 大地*; 佐藤 正寛*; 川股 隆行*; 塩見 雄毅*; 内田 健一*; 井口 亮*; 小池 洋二*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治

Nature Physics, 13(1), p.30 - 34, 2017/01

 被引用回数:81 パーセンタイル:96.62(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Quantum spin fluctuation in a low-dimensional or frustrated magnet breaks magnetic ordering while keeping spin correlation. Such fluctuation has been a central topic in magnetism because of its relevance to high-Tc superconductivity and topological states. However, utilizing such spin states has been quite difficult. In a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, a particle-like excitation called a spinon is known to be responsible for spin fluctuation in a paramagnetic state. Spinons behave as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low energy, and the spin system is often called a quantum spin chain. Here we show that a quantum spin chain generates and carries spin current, which is attributed to spinon spin current. This is demonstrated by observing an anisotropic negative spin Seebeck effect along the spin chains in Sr$$_{2}$$CuO$$_{3}$$. The results show that spin current can flow even in an atomic channel owing to long-range spin fluctuation.


Spin hydrodynamic generation

高橋 遼*; 松尾 衛; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 中堂 博之; 岡安 悟; 家田 淳一; 高橋 三郎*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治

Nature Physics, 12, p.52 - 56, 2016/01

 被引用回数:88 パーセンタイル:95.81(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.


Colossal thermomagnetic response in the exotic superconductor URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$

山下 卓也*; 下山 祐介*; 芳賀 芳範; 松田 達磨*; 山本 悦嗣; 大貫 惇睦; 住吉 浩明*; 藤本 聡*; Levchenko, A.*; 芝内 孝禎*; et al.

Nature Physics, 11(1), p.17 - 20, 2015/01

 被引用回数:44 パーセンタイル:89.13(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Observation of a colossal Nernst signal is reported. URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$ is known as a heavy fermion superconductor. The superconductivity coexists with the so-called hidden-order phase. The Nernst coefficient is enhanced by as large as million times over the theoretically expected value within the standard framework of superconducting fluctuations. Moreover, contrary to the conventional wisdom, the enhancement is more significant with the reduction of the impurity scattering rate. This anomalous Nernst effect intimately reflects the highly unusual superconducting state in URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$.


Degenerate Fermi and non-Fermi liquids near a quantum critical phase transition

神戸 振作; 酒井 宏典; 徳永 陽; Lapertot, G.*; 松田 達磨*; Knebel, G.*; Flouquet, J.*; Walstedt, R. E.*

Nature Physics, 10(11), p.840 - 844, 2014/11

 被引用回数:18 パーセンタイル:72.76(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Bipartite magnetic parent phases in the iron oxypnictide superconductor

平石 雅俊*; 飯村 壮史*; 小嶋 健児*; 山浦 淳一*; 平賀 晴弘*; 池田 一貴*; Miao, P.*; 石川 喜久*; 鳥居 周輝*; 宮崎 正範*; et al.

Nature Physics, 10(4), p.300 - 303, 2014/04

 被引用回数:100 パーセンタイル:95.92(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

High-temperature (high-$$T_{rm c}$$) superconductivity appears as a consequence of the carrier-doping of an undoped parent compound exhibiting antiferromagnetic order; thereby, ground-state properties of the parent compound are closely relevant to the superconducting state. On the basis of the concept, a spin-fluctuation has been addressed as an origin of pairing of the superconducting electrons in cuprates. Whereas, there is growing interest in the pairing mechanism such as an unconventional spin-fluctuation or an advanced orbital-fluctuation due to the characteristic multi-orbital system in iron-pnictides. Here, we report the discovery of an antiferromagnetic order as well as a unique structural transition in electron-overdoped LaFeAsO$$_{1-x}$$H$$_x$$ ($$x sim 0.5$$), whereby another parent phase was uncovered, albeit heavily doped. The unprecedented two-dome superconducting phases observed in this material can be interpreted as a consequence of the carrier-doping starting from the original at $$x sim 0$$ and advanced at $$x sim 0.5$$ parent phases toward the intermediate region. The bipartite parent phases with distinct physical properties in the second magnetic phase provide us with an interesting example to illustrate the intimate interplay among the magnetic interaction, structural change and orbital degree of freedom in iron-pnictides.


Polaron spin current transport in organic semiconductors

渡邉 峻一郎*; 安藤 和也*; Kang, K.*; Mooser, S.*; Vaynzof, Y.*; 紅林 秀和*; 齊藤 英治; Sirringhaus, H.*

Nature Physics, 10(4), p.308 - 313, 2014/04

 被引用回数:155 パーセンタイル:97.92(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In spintronics, pure spin currents play a key role in transmitting, processing and storing information. A pure spin current is a flow of electron spin angular momentum without a simultaneous flow of charge current. It can be carried by conduction electrons or magnons and has been studied in many inorganic metals, semiconductors and insulators, but not yet in organic semiconductors. Charge carriers in $$pi$$-conjugated organic materials are localized spin-1/2 polarons which move by hopping, but the mechanisms of their spin transport and relaxation are not well understood. Here we use ferromagnetic resonance spin pumping in a ferromagnet/conjugated polymer/nonmagnetic spin-sink trilayer to demonstrate the ability of polarons to carry pure spin currents over hundreds of nanometres with long spin relaxation times of up to a millisecond and to exhibit Hanle precession. By systematically comparing charge and spin transport on the same trilayer we show that spin-orbit coupling mediates spin relaxation at room temperature.


Emergent rank-5 nematic order in URu$$_2$$Si$$_2$$

池田 浩章*; 鈴木 通人; 有田 亮太郎*; 瀧本 哲也*; 芝内 孝禎*; 松田 祐司*

Nature Physics, 8(7), p.528 - 533, 2012/07

 被引用回数:128 パーセンタイル:96.3(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Charge-induced vortex lattice instability

Mounce, A. M.*; Oh, S.*; Mukhopadhyay, S.*; Halperin, W. P.*; Reyes, A. P.*; Kuhns, P. L.*; 藤田 和博*; 石角 元志; 内田 慎一*

Nature Physics, 7(2), p.125 - 128, 2011/02

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:48.38(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Quasiparticle interference and superconducting gap in Ca$$_{2-x}$$Na$$_x$$CuO$$_2$$Cl$$_2$$

花栗 哲郎*; 幸坂 祐生*; Davis, J. C.*; Lupien, C.*; 山田 幾也*; 東 正樹*; 高野 幹夫*; 大石 一城; 小野 雅紀*; 高木 英典*

Nature Physics, 3(12), p.865 - 871, 2007/12

 被引用回数:136 パーセンタイル:95.68(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

High-transition-temperature (high-$$T_c$$) superconductivity is ubiquitous in the cuprates containing CuO$$_2$$ planes, but each cuprate has its own character. The study of the material dependence of the $$d$$-wave superconducting gap (SG) should provide important insights into the mechanism of high-$$T_c$$ superconductivity. However, because of the "pseudogap" phenomenon, it is often unclear whether the energy gaps observed by spectroscopic techniques really represent the SG. Here, we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to image nearly optimally doped Ca$$_{2-x}$$Na$$_x$$CuO$$_2$$Cl$$_2$$ (Na-CCOC) with $$T_c=25 sim 28$$ K. It enables us to observe the quasiparticle interference effect in this material, through which we obtain unambiguous information on the SG. Our analysis of quasiparticle interference in Na-CCOC reveals that the SG dispersion near the gap node is almost identical to that of Bi$$_2$$Sr$$_2$$CaCu$$_2$$O$$_y$$ (Bi2212) at the same doping level, despite the $$T_c$$ of Bi2212 being three times higher than that of Na-CCOC. We also find that the SG in Na-CCOC is confined in narrower energy and momentum ranges than Bi2212, which explains $$-$$ at least in part $$-$$ the remarkable material dependence of $$T_c$$.


Itinerant to localized transition of $$f$$ electrons in the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd$$_2$$Al$$_3$$

藤森 伸一; 斎藤 祐児; 岡根 哲夫; 藤森 淳*; 山上 浩志*; 芳賀 芳範; 山本 悦嗣; 大貫 惇睦*

Nature Physics, 3(9), p.618 - 622, 2007/09

 被引用回数:44 パーセンタイル:83.39(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Spin-lattice instability to a fractional magnetization state in the spinel HgCr$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$

松田 雅昌; 植田 浩明*; 吉川 明子*; 田中 良和*; 勝又 紘一*; 鳴海 康雄*; 稲見 俊哉; 上田 寛*; Lee, S.-H.*

Nature Physics, 3(6), p.397 - 400, 2007/06

 被引用回数:100 パーセンタイル:93.37(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

フラストレート反強磁性体は、磁性と構造の自由度が相互に深くかかわり合い、興味ある現象を示すことが大きな特徴である。特にACr$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$(A=Hg, Cd)は磁場中の広い領域で磁化1/2のプラトー状態を示すことが磁化の研究から明らかになっている。この現象はスピン格子相互作用に起因していることが理論的研究から示唆されていたが、実験はまだ行われていなかった。われわれは、HgCr$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$粉末を用いて磁場中での中性子回折実験とX線回折実験を行った。その結果、プラトー状態ではP4$$_{3}$$32の対称性を持つ磁気構造が安定になるように結晶構造もP4$$_{3}$$32の対称性を持つ構造に転移することを明らかにした。これは、フラストレート反強磁性体における強いスピン-格子相互作用をあらわす重要な結果である。


Achievement of robust high-efficiency 1 MW oscillation in the hard-self-excitation region by a 170 GHz continuous-wave gyrotron

坂本 慶司; 春日井 敦; 高橋 幸司; 南 龍太郎*; 小林 則幸; 梶原 健

Nature Physics, 3(6), p.411 - 414, 2007/06

 被引用回数:191 パーセンタイル:97.41(Physics, Multidisciplinary)


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