Satou, Akira; Wada, Yuki; Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 354, p.110164_1 - 110164_10, 2019/12
JAEA has conducted a series of experimental researches on the Post-boiling transition heat transfer, transient critical heat flux and rewetting for BWRs. Experimental data bases covering the anticipated operational conditions was developed; the significance of the precursor cooling was identified. This paper presents approaches of the present research focusing on the anticipated transient without scram, effects of the spacer and physical understanding of the phenomena for development of mechanistic model together with promising results obtained so far.
Nishida, Akemi; Kang, Z.; Nagai, Minoru*; Tsubota, Haruji; Li, Y.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 350, p.116 - 127, 2019/08
Many empirical formulas have been proposed for evaluating local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impacts of rigid missiles. Most of these formulas have been derived based on tests involving impact normal to target structures. Thus far, few tests with oblique impact onto target structures have been carried out. As a final goal of this research, we aim to propose a new formula for evaluating the local damage caused by oblique impact based on previous experimental and simulation results. In this study, we perform simulation analyses for evaluating the local damage to reinforced concrete panels subjected to oblique impacts with various angle by soft missiles under various impact velocities using a simulation method that was validated using the results of previous impact experiments. In this paper, the investigated results and obtained knowledges from them are shown.
Ezure, Toshiki; Ito, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kameyama, Yuri*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 350, p.90 - 97, 2019/08
This paper reports the results of an experiment on surface vortex-type gas entrainment, which occurs in a shear flow area where flow passes besides the stagnation region. The relationship between the free surface dimple shape and the velocity distribution around the free surface vortex was simultaneously grasped under several horizontal and suction velocity conditions by a combination of visualization and particle image velocimetry measurements. The circulation and the vertical velocity gradient were also evaluated from the velocity distributions at a plane just below the free surface and the middle plane between the free surface and suction nozzle. Quantitative relationships between the circulation, vertical velocity gradient, and gas core length were obtained in time-trends as fundamental data to develop the evaluation method of gas entrainment. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the evaluation method based on a vortex model was an effective way to evaluate gas entrainment.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, X.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 343, p.178 - 186, 2019/03
A hybrid system combining HTGR and renewable energy is investigated to compensate intermittent renewable energy power generation. A new proposal of using the inventory and bypass control devices already built in the gas turbine, is found to be effective to compensate hourly to daily variation of renewable energy. The reactor thermal power remains at constant full power while the heat output is increased or decreased subject to the need of reactor power generation. On the other hand, the massive heat capacity in the graphite core is shown to be sufficient to compensate renewable energy on a time scale of seconds to minutes and up to about 20% of the rated power output of the nuclear plant. Similarly, no additional control devices are required to perform this control operation. These findings demonstrate the technical and economic potential of the HTGR system to maintain the stability of a grid being incorporated with significant portfolios of renewable energy power generation.
Uchida, Shunsuke; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Okada, Hidetoshi*; Naito, Masanori*; Kojima, Masayoshi*; Kikura, Hiroshige*; Lister, D. H.*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 341, p.112 - 123, 2019/01
Improvement of plant reliability based on reliability-centered-maintenance (RCM) is going to be undertaken in NPPs. RCM is supported by risk-based maintenance (RBM). The combination of prediction and inspection is one of the key issues to promote RBM. Early prediction of IGSCC occurrence and its propagation should be confirmed throughout the entire plant systems which should be accomplished by inspections at the target locations followed by timely application of suitable countermeasures. From the inspections, accumulated data will be applied to confirm the accuracy of the code, to tune some uncertainties of the key data for prediction, and then, to increase their accuracy. The synergetic effects of prediction and inspection on application of effective and suitable countermeasures are expected. In the paper, the procedures for the combination of prediction and inspection are introduced.
Ito, Daisuke*; Ito, Kei*; Saito, Yasushi*; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 334, p.90 - 95, 2018/08
Two-phase flow through porous media must be well understood to develop a severe accident analysis code not only for light water reactor but also sodium-cooled fast reactor. When a core disruptive accident occurs in sodium-cooled fast reactor, the fuel inside the core become melted and interacts with the coolant. As a result, gas-liquid two-phase flow will be formed in the debris bed, which may have porous nature depending on the cooling process. In such condition, the local porosity and its distribution are very important to characterize two-phase flow field in the porous media. In this study, X-ray radiography was applied to measure the local porosity in the packed bed of spheres. The radial profiles were estimated from the chordal profiles measured by the X-ray method and compared with the previous porosity model. In addition, the void fraction radial profiles were also obtained in air-water two-phase flow.
Shen, X.*; Schlegel, J. P.*; Hibiki, Takashi*; Nakamura, Hideo
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 333, p.87 - 98, 2018/07
Sugawara, Takanori; Eguchi, Yuta; Obayashi, Hironari; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 331, p.11 - 23, 2018/05
This study aims to perform the coupled analysis for the feasible beam window concept. To mitigate the design condition, namely to reduce the necessary proton beam current, subcriticality adjustment rod (SAR) was installed to the ADS core. The burnup analysis was performed for the ADS core with SAR and the results indicated that the maximum proton beam current during the burnup cycle was reduced from 20 to 13.5 mA. Based on the burnup analysis result, the coupled analysis; particle transport, thermal hydraulics and structural analyses, was performed. As the final result, the most robust beam window design; the hemisphere shape, the outer radius = 235 mm, the thickness at the top of the beam window = 3.5 mm and the factor of safety for the buckling = 9.0, was presented. The buckling pressure was 2.2 times larger than the previous one and more feasible beam window concept was presented through this study.
Narukawa, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Akira*; Jang, S.*; Amaya, Masaki
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 331, p.147 - 152, 2018/05
Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Junichi*; Ishitani, Ikuo*; Ito, Masahiro*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 331, p.186 - 193, 2018/05
A computer code for the analysis of the overall irradiation performance of a fast reactor mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel element was coupled with a specialized code for the analysis of fission product cesium behaviors in a MOX fuel element. The coupled code system allowed for the analysis of the radial and axial Cs migrations, the generation of Cs chemical compounds and fuel swelling due to Cs-fuel-reactions in association with the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the fuel element. The coupled code analysis was applied to the irradiation performance of a fast reactor MOX fuel element attaining high burnup for discussion on the axial distribution of Cs, fuel-to-cladding mechanical interaction owing to the Cs-fuel-reactions by comparing the calculated results with post irradiation examinations.
Abe, Satoshi; Studer, E.*; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 331, p.162 - 175, 2018/05
Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 329, p.213 - 222, 2018/04
A conceptual design of a practical large scale plant of the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process flowsheet was carried out as a heat application of JAEA's commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor GTHTR300C plant design. Innovative techniques proposed by JAEA were applied for improvement of hydrogen production thermal efficiency; depressurized flash concentration HSO using waste heat from Bunsen reaction, prevention of HSO vaporization from a distillation column by introduction of HSO solution from a flash bottom, and I condensation heat recovery in an HI distillation column. Hydrogen of about 31,900 Nm/h would be produced by 170 MW heat from the GTHTR300C. A thermal efficiency of 50.2% would be achievable with incorporation of the innovative techniques and high performance HI concentration and decomposition components and heat exchangers expected in future R&D.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Yasunobu*; Horii, Shoichi*; Sumita, Junya; Yan, X.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 329, p.247 - 254, 2018/04
This paper presents the system performance evaluation for HTTR gas turbine cogeneration test plant (HTTR-GT/H plant) so as to confirm that the design meets the requirements with respect to the demonstration test objective. Start-up and shut down operation sequences as well as operability of load following operation were investigated. In addition, system dynamic and control analyses for the test plant in the events of loss of generator load and upset of H plant were performed. The simulation results presented in the paper show that the test plant is suitable for the test bed to validate control schemes against postulated transients in the GTHTR300C. The results also lead us to the conclusion that HTTR-GT/H plant can be used to test operational procedures unique to HTGR direct-cycle gas turbine cogeneration.
Yan, X.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Nomoto, Yasunobu*; Horii, Shoichi*; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; et al.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 329, p.223 - 233, 2018/04
The pre-licensing design of an HTGR cogeneration test plant to be coupled to JAEA's existing test reactor HTTR is presented. The plant is designed to demonstrate the system of JAEA commercial plant design GTHTR300C. With construction planned to be completed around 2025, the test plant is expected to be the first-of-a-kind nuclear system operating on two of the advanced energy conversion systems attractive for the HTGR closed cycle helium gas turbine for power generation and thermochemical iodine-sulfur water-splitting process for hydrogen production.
Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Nishihara, Tetsuo
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 326, p.108 - 113, 2018/01
Burn-up characteristics and criticality of impurity contained into graphite structure for commercial scale prismatic High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) have been investigated. For HTGR, of which the core is filled graphite structure, the impurity contained into the graphite has unignorable poison effect for criticality. Then, GTHTR300, commercial scale HTGR, employed high grade graphite material named IG-110 to take into account the criticality effect for the reflector blocks next to fuel blocks. The fuel blocks, which should also employ IG-110, employ lower grade graphite material named IG-11 from the economic perspective. In this study, the necessity of high grade graphite material for commercial scale HTGR is reconsidered by evaluating the burn-up characteristics and criticality of the impurity. The poison effect of the impurity, which is used to be expressed by a boron equivalent, reduces exponentially like burn-up of B, and saturate at a level of 1 % of the initial value of boron equivalent. On the other hand, the criticality effect of the boron equivalent of 0.03 ppm, which corresponds to a level of 1 % of IG-11 shows ignorable values lower than 0.01 %k/kk' for both of fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The impurity can be represented by natural boron without problem. Therefore, the poison effect of the impurity is evaluated with whole core burn-up calculations. As a result, it is concluded that the impurity is not problematic from the viewpoint of criticality for commercial scale HTGR because it is burned clearly until End of Cycle (EOC) even with the low grade graphite material of IG-11. According to this result, more economic electricity generation with HTGR is expected by abolishing the utilization of IG-110.
Miwa, Shuhei; Ducros, G.*; Hanus, E.*; Bottomley, P. D. W.*; Van Winckel, S.*; Osaka, Masahiko
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 326, p.143 - 149, 2018/01
The release and transport behaviors of 13 non-gamma-emitting fission products (FPs) and actinides in steam and hydrogen atmospheres were investigated based on the chemical analysis of their deposits on the components of VERCORS test loops. The new findings were obtained; strontium release was significantly enhanced in hydrogen atmosphere and a part of released strontium was transported towards the lower temperature region, uranium release was enhanced in steam atmosphere but most of released uranium deposited at high temperature region.
Mukaida, Kyoko; Kato, Atsushi; Shiotani, Hiroki; Hayafune, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 324, p.35 - 44, 2017/12
An economic calculation model based on detailed mass-flow (the JAEA model) was developed for the comprehensive evaluation of an advanced loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle system (SFR) designed in the FaCT project. The JAEA model enables calculation of the processing amount and its composition in each facility by simulating mass-flow, and has function to evaluate economics based on the processing amount. In this report, to identify the difference in evaluation methods between the JAEA model and an internationally-authorized code, and verify its calculation functions, the generation cost of SFR system was evaluated using the JAEA model and the G4-ECONS. Consequently, it was clarified that the JAEA model is influenced to higher degree by the discount rate. When the present value was not taken into account, the results of both methods were quite similar, but it was found that the sensitivity of the load factor is relatively larger the G4-ECONS than in the JAEA model.
Ando, Masanori; Takaya, Shigeru
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 323, p.463 - 473, 2017/11
In the present study, a method for creep-fatigue life evaluation of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA). Since the point of the creep-fatigue life evaluation in the weld joint is a consideration of the metallurgical discontinuities, FEA was performed using a model with three material properties, a base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and a heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed in the base metal due to the welding heat input, to consider the mutual relationships among them. The material properties of these three materials were collected and utilized in FEA for considering such metallurgical discontinuities. The creep-fatigue life estimated using the proposed evaluation method based on the FEA results were compared with available creep-fatigue test data, and the proposed method was found to predict the number of cycles to failure within a factor of 3.
Yamashita, Susumu; Ina, Takuya; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 322, p.301 - 312, 2017/10
In recent years, significant attention has been paid to the precise determination of relocation of molten materials in reactor pressure vessels of boiling water reactors (BWRs) during severe accidents. To address this problem, we have developed a computational fluid dynamics code JUPITER, based on thermal-hydraulic equations and multi-phase simulation models. Although the Poisson solver has previously been a performance bottleneck in the JUPITER code, this is resolved by a new hybrid parallel Poisson solver, whose strong scaling is extended up to 200k cores on the K-computer. As a result of the improved computational capability, the problem size and physical models are dramatically expanded. A series of verification and validation studies are enabled, which are in agreement with previous numerical simulations and experiments. These physical and computational capabilities of JUPITER enable us to investigate molten material behaviors in reactor relevant situations.