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Journal Articles

Nanoscale structural analysis of ferroelectrics using pair distribution function

Yoneda, Yasuhiro

Oyo Butsuri, 91(12), p.729 - 735, 2022/12

It is important to determine whether a sample is a single phase or not in order to improve the quality of ferroelectrics. Therefore, we have succeeded in developing a detection method for trace amounts of segregated phases by using two-body correlation distribution function (PDF) in addition to X-ray diffraction, which has been conventionally used to detect impurities. In the X-ray diffraction pattern of the BaTiO$$_3$$-BiFeO$$_3$$ solid solution, it appears as a single phase with a rhombohedral structure. However, when the PDF was calculated from the obtained diffraction pattern, it was found that not only the component derived from the rhombohedral crystal structure calculated from the average structure but also the BaTiO$$_3$$ component was mixed and segregated. By using PDF in this way, it has become possible to detect fine segregation phases on the order of nanoscale.

Journal Articles

Elucidation of the mechanism of biomolecular damage in liquid water that occurs on a nanoscale by ion beams

Tsuchida, Hidetsugu*; Majima, Takuya*; Kai, Takeshi

Oyo Butsuri, 91(9), p.553 - 557, 2022/09

In recent years, basic research has been conducted to understand the biological effects of radiation at the atomic level toward advancing particle beam cancer treatment. Here we show some recent results on the basic process of biomolecular damage caused by ion beams in liquid water. A biomolecular solution target was introduced to the vacuum by a liquid molecular beam or microdroplet method. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was applied to measure the fragments of biomolecules emitted from a target irradiated with an ion beam. For the simulation study using a PHITS code, physical nature of secondary electrons produced by ion beam in water was analyzed. The experimental and simulation research determined the energy range of secondary electrons involved in damaging biomolecules in liquid water caused by ion beams. The damage process by secondary electrons near the ion track is described.

Journal Articles

Synchrotron radiation application on surface/interface and nanotechnology in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Oyo Butsuri Gakaki Hakumaku, Hyomen Butsuri Bunkakai Newsletter, (168), p.52 - 53, 2019/09

When I become a permanent secretary of the Thin Film and Surface Physics Subcommittee of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, I use Newsletter to introduce a part of my research.

Journal Articles

Spin hydrodynamic generation

Matsuo, Mamoru

Oyo Butsuri, 86(1), p.31 - 35, 2017/01

Spin-current generation by fluid motion is investigated. Spin-rotation coupling emerges in a rotating object and allows the angular momentum conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. We predicted that the spin current is mechanically generated along the vorticity gradient of the liquid metal pipe flow. Such spin-mechanical effect is experimentally confirmed by electric voltage generation in liquid metals. The use of the interconversion between spin and mechanical angular momentum opens up a new field of spintronics, where spin and mechanical motion are harmonized.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of apparent standard potentials of curium in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt

Shibata, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Tadafumi*

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 83(7), p.532 - 536, 2015/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Electrochemistry)

The electrochemical properties of curium in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt were studied in the temperature range of 718-823 K. A small electrochemical cell used in this study was designed for the electrochemical measurement with a small amount (1-20 mg) of the highly radioactive minor actinides contained in molten salts achieved in a hot cell. Our data of apparent standard potentials of a Cm$$^{3+}$$/Cm couple are reasonably in agreement with Osipenko's data (2011) and are lower than Martinot's data (1975). The validity of our data and the reported apparent standard potentials were discussed.

Journal Articles

Development of a soft X-ray flat-field spectrograph in the 50-4000 eV range and its application to electron microscopes

Imazono, Takashi

Oyo Butsuri, 83(4), p.288 - 292, 2014/04

We have developed a soft X-ray flat-field spectrograph capable to detect soft X-ray emissions in 50-4000 eV with high spectral resolution. The spectrograph in combination with an electron microscope such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) makes it possible to simultaneously perform not only the structural and elemental analyses of such functional materials as lithium-ion batteries and solar cells, but also chemical-bonding states analysis in the nano-scale area. In this article, the development of the soft X-ray flat-field spectrograph and preliminary experimental results measured by the spectrograph installed in EPMA and TEM are described.

Journal Articles

Radiotracer imaging for plant science

Kawachi, Naoki

Oyo Butsuri, 83(4), p.310 - 311, 2014/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

High-temperature X-ray imaging study of simulated high-level waste glass melt

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakada, Masami; Akabori, Mitsuo; Komamine, Satoshi*; Fukui, Toshiki*; Ochi, Eiji*; Nitani, Hiroaki*; Nomura, Masaharu*

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 81(7), p.543 - 546, 2013/07

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:13.32(Electrochemistry)

The molten state of simulated high-level waste glass and the behavior of ruthenium element in the melt were investigated by using synchrotron radiation based X-ray imaging technique. Melting, generating and moving of bubbles, condensation and sedimentation of ruthenium element were observed dynamically in continuous 12-bit gray-scale images from the CCD camera. X-ray intensity was obtained easily by digitizing gray-scale values in the image. The existence of ruthenium element is emphasized as a black color in the CCD image at X-ray energy higher than the Ru K-absorption edge. Position sensitive imaging X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement was also performed to clarify the chemical state of ruthenium element in the melt.

Journal Articles

Characterization of nano-sized epitaxial Li$$_{4}$$Ti$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$(110) film electrode for lithium batteries

Kim, K.-S.*; Tojigamori, Takeshi*; Suzuki, Kota*; Taminato, So*; Tamura, Kazuhisa; Mizuki, Junichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki*; Kanno, Ryoji*

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 80(10), p.800 - 803, 2012/10

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:31.52(Electrochemistry)

Electrochemical properties and structure changes of nano-sized Li$$_{4}$$Ti$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$ during lithium (de)intercalation wereinvestigated using a two-dimensional thin film electrode. Li$$_{4}$$Ti$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$ thin films were deposited on a Nb:SrTiO$$_{3}$$(110)substrate by a pulsed laser deposition technique. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements clarified the drastic structural changes of the Li$$_{4}$$Ti$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$film upon soaking in the electrolyte and during the first intercalation and deintercalation processes. The surfaceregion of Li$$_{4}$$Ti$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$ had a different structure from the bulk during electrochemical cycling and could cause the nanosizedLi$$_{4}$$Ti$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$ electrodes to have high capacities and poor stabilities.

Journal Articles

Response of semiconductor devices to radiation

Oshima, Takeshi

Oyo Butsuri, 81(3), p.216 - 219, 2012/03

Radiation particles such as electrons, protons, and heavy ions exist in space, and semiconductor device installed in space applications such as artificial satellites show the degradation of their electrical performance, and nondestructive and destructive malfunctions by the incidence of such particles. In this article, first of all, radiation environments in space are introduced and then, radiation effects on semiconductor devices (total ionizing dose effect, displacement damage effect, and single event effects) are explained. In addition, as an example of the displacement damage effect, study of radiation degradation mechanism of triple junction solar cells developed for space applications due to proton/electron irradiation is introduced. Also, as an example of single event effects, the recent study of single event transient in Large Scale Integration (LSI) is explained.

Journal Articles

Plutonium experiments of pyrochemical reprocessing

Kitawaki, Shinichi; Sakamura, Yoshiharu*

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 79(12), p.975 - 976, 2011/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Medical application of composite-type optical fiberscope

Oka, Kiyoshi; Seki, Takeshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

Oyo Butsuri, 80(12), p.1069 - 1072, 2011/12

A composite-type optical fiberscope was developed for maintenance research and development of nuclear facilities by JAEA. It can coaxially deliver both a high energy laser beam for micro processing and an image from processing targets. Development of minimally invasive laser treatment devices were introduced by use of the composite-type optical fiber scope.

Journal Articles

Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt $$gamma$$-ray analysis method

Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki*; Shozugawa, Katsumi*

Oyo Butsuri, 80(11), p.948 - 954, 2011/11

The multiple $$gamma$$-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt $$gamma$$-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the $$gamma$$-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt $$gamma$$-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described.

Journal Articles

Entrance of electrochemistry

Yasuda, Ryo

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 79(11), p.912 - 913, 2011/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of water distribution in a small-sized PEFC by neutron radiography

Yasuda, Ryo; Shiozawa, Masahiro*; Katagiri, Masaki*; Takenaka, Nobuyuki*; Sakai, Takuro; Hayashida, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Masahito

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 79(8), p.614 - 619, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:2.6(Electrochemistry)

Journal Articles

Oxidation-enhanced condensation of Ge atoms on Si$$_{1-x}$$Ge$$_{x}$$ alloy layer studied by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Hozumi, Hideaki*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ishizuka, Shinji*; Kaga, Toshiteru*; Teraoka, Yuden; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Oyo Butsuri Gakkai Hakumaku, Hyomen Butsuri Bunkakai, Shirikon Tekunoroji Bunkakai Kyosai Tokubetsu Kenkyukai Kenkyu Hokoku, p.67 - 70, 2011/01

The oxidation-enhanced Ge atoms condensation kinetics on an Si$$_{1-x}$$Ge$$_{x}$$ alloy layer has been investigated by the real-time photoemission spectroscopy using the synchrotron radiation. The Si$$_{1-x}$$Ge$$_{x}$$ alloy layer was formed with a thermal evaporation method on a p-type Si(001) surface, and this alloy layer was oxidized at Langmuir-type adsorption. During oxidation at 773 KC, it is found that the Ge atoms are not oxidized, only SiO$$_{2}$$ film is formed on the Si$$_{1-x}$$Ge$$_{x}$$ alloy layer. Furthermore, the desorption of GeO molecules does not occur during the oxidation of alloy layer. On the other hand, not only Si atoms but also Ge atoms are oxidized at room temperature. This difference can be explained using the unified oxidation model mediated by the point defect generation, namely it is suggested that a lot of vacancies are generated during oxidation of the Si$$_{1-x}$$Ge$$_{x}$$ alloy layer at 773K and Ge atoms diffuse through these vacancies.

Journal Articles

Technology of nano-/micro structure fabrication using high-energy ion beams and its applications

Kamiya, Tomihiro

Oyo Butsuri, 79(3), p.213 - 218, 2010/03

The high-energy ion microbeam technology that controls various kinds of ion beams with the energy of MeV/amu or more at the micro nano level can provide the new fabrication methods making the best use of the feature of the interaction of high-energy ions with materials. It is necessary to advance the material development, the beam technology development, and the processing technology development, under the accumulation of a basic and systematic finding concerning the interaction of the ion beam and the material by collaboration of many scientists in various research fields.

Journal Articles

Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based ion track membranes with different pore diameters and shapes; SEM observations and conductometric analysis

Nuryanthi, N.*; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Asano, Masaharu; Enomoto, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Shinichi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Voss, K.-O.*; Trautmann, C.*; Neumann, R.*

Denki Kagaku Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 78(2), p.146 - 149, 2010/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:14.27(Electrochemistry)

Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with conical and cylindrical nanopores were prepared in a controlled manner by the ion-track technique, which involved heavy ion beam irradiation and the subsequent alkaline etching. Etching behavior mainly depended on energy deposition of ion beams, and thus its depth distribution, estimated by theoretical simulation, was successfully applied to control the shapes and diameters of the etched pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrolytic conductometry then gave an insight into critical experimental parameters. Interestingly, applying a higher voltage to the conductometry cell promoted track etching up to breakthrough probably because electrophoretic migration of dissolved products occurred out of each pore.

Journal Articles

Oxidation-enhanced difusion of C atoms on Si$$_{1-x}$$C$$_{x}$$ alloy layer/Si(001) surface under oxide growth and etching conditions

Hozumi, Hideaki*; Ogawa, Shuichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ishizuka, Shinji*; Harries, J.; Teraoka, Yuden; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Oyo Butsuri Gakkai Hakumaku, Hyomen Butsuri Bunkakai, Shirikon Tekunoroji Bunkakai Kyosai Tokubetsu Kenkyukai Kenkyu Hokoku, p.181 - 184, 2010/01

The oxidation kinetics on the Si$$_{1-x}$$C$$_{x}$$ alloy layer has been investigated using the real-time XPS measurement. Experiments were performed at the BL23SU of SPring-8. The Si$$_{1-x}$$C$$_{x}$$ alloy layer was formed with exposing a p-type Si(001) surface to ethylene, and the Si$$_{1-x}$$C$$_{x}$$ alloy layer was oxidized at Langmuir-type adsorption (773 K) and 2D oxide island growth (933 K), respectively. In case of Langmuir-type adsorption, it is found that no carbon atoms are oxidized and carbon concentration at the SiO$$_{2}$$/Si interface increases. These results indicate the carbon atom condensation occurs, leading to the SiO$$_{2}$$/Si$$_{1-x}$$C$$_{x}$$/Si layers formation. On the other hand, the carbon concentration decrease by 20% in spite of the etching of 38 Si layers in the 2D oxide island growth. Based on these results, it is found that the diffusion of carbon atoms is occurred due to not only oxide growth but also Si etching.

Journal Articles

Interface engineering of Ge MOS devices with ZrO$$_{2}$$ gate dielectrics

Hosoi, Takuji*; Okamoto, Gaku*; Kutsuki, Katsuhiro*; Kagei, Yusuke*; Harries, J.; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*

Oyo Butsuri Gakkai Hakumaku, Hyomen Butsuri Bunkakai, Shirikon Tekunoroji Bunkakai Kyosai Tokubetsu Kenkyukai Kenkyu Hokoku, p.145 - 148, 2010/01

We developed high quality high-$$k$$/Ge gate stacks with reduced leakage current and superior interface quality, which was fabricated by direct deposition of ZrO$$_{2}$$ on Ge substrate and thermal oxidation. Synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that thermal oxidation at 823 K caused not only an intermixing between ZrO$$_{2}$$ and Ge but also the formation of GeO$$_{2}$$ at the interlayer. We obtained an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.9 nm, and an interface state density of 10$$^{11}$$ cm$$^{-2}$$eV$$^{-1}$$ for Au/ZrO$$_{2}$$/Ge capacitors. Furthermore, we found that the A1$$_{2}$$0$$_{3}$$ capping on the Zr0$$_{2}$$ 1ayer is effective for decreasing EOT. The interface state density as low as 5.3$$times$$10$$^{10}$$ cm$$^{-2}$$eV$$^{-1}$$ was obtained for the Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$/ZrO$$_{2}$$/Ge stack with 30 min oxidation. The EOT could be reduced to l.6 nm by 10 min oxidation. The leakage current was two orders of magnitude lower than the conventional poly-Si/SiO$$_{2}$$/Si stack.

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