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Journal Articles

Improved vacuum system for high-power proton beam operation of the rapid cycling synchrotron

Kamiya, Junichiro; Kotoku, Hirofumi*; Kurosawa, Shunta*; Takano, Kazuhiro; Yanagibashi, Toru*; Yamamoto, Kazami; Wada, Kaoru

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 24(8), p.083201_1 - 083201_23, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Physics, Nuclear)

Through the operation of the vacuum system in J-PARC, it becomes evident that the high-power beam has more powerful effects on the vacuum system than expected. Those effects are the malfunction of vacuum equipment and the large pressure rise. The former is the failure of the turbomolecular pump (TMP) controller. The TMP itself is also damaged by a bearing crush due to a touch-down. We have developed a TMP controller that can connect with long cables of more than 200 m lengths to install the controller in a control room where there is no radiation influence. The TMP with high-strength bearing has been also developed. The latter is an extreme pressure rise with increasing the beam power. It is indicated that the pressure rise mechanism is a result of ion-stimulated gas desorption. It is finally confirmed that the dynamic pressure during the high-power beam is effectually suppressed by additionally installing the NEG pumps.

Journal Articles

High-intensity beam profile measurement using a gas sheet monitor by beam induced fluorescence detection

Yamada, Ippei; Wada, Motoi*; Moriya, Katsuhiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Saha, P. K.; Kinsho, Michikazu

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 24(4), p.042801_1 - 042801_13, 2021/04

A transverse beam profile monitor that visualizes a two-dimensional beam-induced fluorescent image was developed. The monitor employs a sheet-shaped gas flow formed by a technique of rarefied gas dynamics. A simplified analysis method was developed to reconstruct the beam intensity profile from the obtained image. The developed profile monitor and the analysis method were applied to measure the J-PARC 3 MeV H$$^-$$ beam profile. The root mean square values of the profiles were consistent with the ones obtained by a wire-scanning-type beam profile monitor. The beam loss due to the gas sheet injection was measured as a beam-current reduction. The amount of the beam current decreased in proportion to the gas sheet flux and the reduction ranged from 0.004 to 2.5%. The assembled system was capable of reconstructing a beam profile from a single shot beam pulse (1.7$$times$$10$$^{13}$$ protons in 50 $$mu$$s).

Journal Articles

Titanium nitride-coated ceramic break for wall current monitors with an improved broadband frequency response

Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Toyama, Takeshi*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 23(9), p.092801_1 - 092801_18, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

The beam impedance of a ceramic break with titanium nitride (TiN) coating consists of three electric components in parallel: resistive wall term caused by TiN, radiation term, and capacitive term made by the ceramic itself. The entire wall current continues to run in the thin TiN even when the skin depth is much larger than the chamber thickness, except for the extremely thin TiN satisfying the condition that the radiation loss from the ceramic break becomes lower than the energy loss due to the DC-current on the thin TiN. This characteristic is useful in developing a wall current monitor with an improved frequency response. This study demonstrates the feature of the "ceramic break" monitor up to a few GHz from the theoretical and measurement points of view.

Journal Articles

First measurement and online monitoring of the stripper foil thinning and pinhole formation to achieve a longer foil lifetime in high-intensity accelerators

Saha, P. K.; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Harada, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yamazaki, Yoshio; Kinsho, Michikazu; Irie, Yoshiro*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 23(8), p.082801_1 - 082801_13, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:35.83(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Two-parameter model for optimizing target beam distribution with an octupole magnet

Meigo, Shinichiro; Oi, Motoki; Fujimori, Hiroshi*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 23(6), p.062802_1 - 062802_24, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

As hadron accelerators for such as the ADS and spallation neutron source achieve increasing beam power, damage to targets is becoming increasingly severe. To mitigate this damage, nonlinear beam optics based on octupole magnets is attractive. Nonlinear optics can decrease the beam-focusing hazard due to failure of the rastering magnet. As a side effect of nonlinear optics, the beam size is known to expand drastically compared with linear optics. Nonlinear effects have been studied via a simplified filament model that ignores beam-divergence spread at the octupole magnet. In this study, a new generalized model is proposed for application to an octupole magnet, regardless of the filament-model approximation. It is found that the transverse distribution obtained by beam tracking can be specified by the introduction of only two parameters, namely the normalized octupole strength of $$K^{*}_8$$ and the $$cot phi$$ of the phase advance. To achieve the two antagonistic requirements of reduction of the beam-peak density and minimization of the beam loss, the transverse distribution is surveyed for a large range of beam position. It is found that a bell-shaped distribution with $$K^{*}_8 sim$$ 1 and $$cot phi sim$$ 3 can satisfy requirements. This result is applied to beam transport in the spallation neutron source at J-PARC. The calculation result given by the present model shows good agreement with the experimental data, and the peak current density is reduced by 50% compared with the linear-optics case.

Journal Articles

Effects of the Montague resonance on the formation of the beam distribution during multiturn injection painting in a high-intensity proton ring

Hotchi, Hideaki

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 23(5), p.050401_1 - 050401_13, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:71.11(Physics, Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of a radio frequency quadrupole linac implemented with the equipartitioning beam dynamics scheme

Kondo, Yasuhiro; Morishita, Takatoshi; Jameson, R. A.*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 22(12), p.120101_1 - 120101_8, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:61.83(Physics, Nuclear)

Radio frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ) is the key component which realized modern high-current proton linacs, however, many RFQs are designed based on very conventional design schemes. We developed 3-MeV 50-mA H$$^-$$ (negative hydrogen) RFQ based on a beam space-charge physics concept. The equipartitioning scheme, which is widely used in the high intensity linac design, is implemented into the RFQ design. Design performances of 99.1% transmission, 0.24$$pi$$ mm mrad transverse normalized rms emittance, and 0.11$$pi$$ MeV deg for longitudinal direction are achieved with a vane length of 3 m and the final energy of 3 MeV. An RFQ employing this design concept was fabricated, and the design performance was confirmed by beam commissioning. In this paper, the design and result of the beam commissioning of this fully equipartitioned RFQ are described.

Journal Articles

Multiharmonic vector rf voltage control for wideband cavities driven by vacuum tube amplifiers in a rapid cycling synchrotron

Tamura, Fumihiko; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Omori, Chihiro*; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*; Furusawa, Masashi*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 22(9), p.092001_1 - 092001_22, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:39.22(Physics, Nuclear)

Beam loading compensation in the rf cavities is a key for acceleration of high intensity beams in 3 GeV RCS of the J-PARC. Since we employ wideband magnetic alloy rf cavities for the J-PARC RCS and the wake voltage contains several harmonics, a multiharmonic beam loading compensation is required. The multiharmonic rf feedforward for the most important six harmonics is implemented in the existing low level rf (LLRF) control system, which has been working fairly well for acceleration of high intensity beams of up to 1 MW. However, we found the degradation of the performance for compensation of the feedforward with very high intensity beams. Therefore, a multiharmonic vector rf voltage control has been developed. The detail of system configuration, commissioning methodology, and beam test results using very high intensity beams are described. The beam loading by the 1 MW equivalent beam in the cavity is successfully compensated.

Journal Articles

Reducing the beam impedance of the kicker at the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Y. H.*; Hayashi, Naoki; Irie, Yoshiro*; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Togashi, Tomohito; Toyama, Takeshi*; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yamamoto, Masanobu

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 21(6), p.061003_1 - 161003_15, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:29.6(Physics, Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

First muon acceleration using a radio-frequency accelerator

Bae, S.*; Choi, H.*; Choi, S.*; Fukao, Yoshinori*; Futatsukawa, Kenta*; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Iijima, Toru*; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Ishida, Katsuhiko*; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 21(5), p.050101_1 - 050101_6, 2018/05

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:81.67(Physics, Nuclear)

Muons have been accelerated by using a radio-frequency accelerator for the first time. Negative muonium atoms (Mu$$^{-}$$), which are bound states of positive muons and two electrons, are generated from through the electron capture process in an aluminum degrader. The generated Mu$$^{-}$$'s are initially electrostatically accelerated and injected into a radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ). In the RFQ, the Mu$$^{-}$$'s are accelerated to 89 keV. The accelerated Mu$$^{-}$$'s are identified by momentum measurement and time of flight. This compact muon linac opens the door to various muon accelerator applications including particle physics measurements and the construction of a transmission muon microscope.

Journal Articles

Simulation, measurement, and mitigation of beam instability caused by the kicker impedance in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Tamura, Fumihiko; Tani, Norio; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; et al.

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 21(2), p.024203_1 - 024203_20, 2018/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:62.89(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Chromaticity effects on head-tail instabilities for broadband impedance using two particle model, Vlasov analysis, and simulations

Chin, Y. H.*; Chao, A. W.*; Blaskiewicz, M. M.*; Shobuda, Yoshihiro

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 20(7), p.071003_1 - 071003_18, 2017/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:26.37(Physics, Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Achievement of a low-loss 1-MW beam operation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

Hotchi, Hideaki; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kato, Shinichi; Kinsho, Michikazu; Okabe, Kota; Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Tani, Norio; et al.

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 20(6), p.060402_1 - 060402_25, 2017/06

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:87.54(Physics, Nuclear)

The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is the world's highest class of high-power pulsed proton driver, aiming for an output beam power of 1 MW. The most important issues in realizing such a high-power beam operation are to control and minimize beam loss for maintaining machine activations within permissible levels. In RCS, numerical simulation was successfully utilized along with experimental approaches to isolate the mechanism of beam loss and find its solution. By iteratively performing actual beam experiments and numerical simulations, and also by several hardware improvements, we have recently established a 1-MW beam operation with very low fractional beam loss of a couple of 10$$^{-3}$$. In this paper, our recent efforts toward realizing such a low-loss high-intensity beam acceleration are presented.

Journal Articles

Theoretical study of a waveguide THz free electron laser and comparisons with simulations

Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Y. H.*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 19(9), p.094201_1 - 094201_24, 2016/09


 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:40.15(Physics, Nuclear)

In a so-called waveguide FEL for THz radiations, an extremely small aperture ($$sim $$mm) waveguide is used to confine angularly wide spread radiation fields from a low energy electron beam into a small area. This confinement increases the interaction between the electron beam and the radiation fields to achieve a much higher FEL gain. The radiation fields propagate inside the waveguide as waveguide modes, not like a light flux in a free space FEL. This characteristic behavior of the radiation fields makes intuitive understanding of the waveguide FEL difficult. We developed a three-dimensional waveguide FEL theory to calculate a gain of THz waveguide FEL including the effects of the energy spread, the beam size and the beta Tron oscillations of an electron beam, and effects of a rectangular waveguide. The FEL gain can be calculated as a function of frequency by solving the dispersion relation. Theoretical gains are compared with simulation results for a waveguide FEL with a planar undulator similar to the KAERI one. Good agreements are obtained.

Journal Articles

Interdigital $$H$$-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

Otani, Masashi*; Mibe, Tsutomu*; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro*; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu*; Iwashita, Yoshihisa*; Iwata, Yoshiyuki*; Kitamura, Ryo*; Saito, Naohito

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 19(4), p.040101_1 - 040101_8, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:81.37(Physics, Nuclear)

We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from beta 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 $$pi$$ and 0.195 $$pi$$ mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

Journal Articles

Narrow-band GeV photons generated from an X-ray free-electron laser oscillator

Hajima, Ryoichi; Fujiwara, Mamoru

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 19(2), p.020702_1 - 020702_9, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:52.56(Physics, Nuclear)

We propose a scheme to generate narrow-bandwidth GeV photons, $$gamma$$-rays, via Compton scattering of hard X-ray photons in an X-ray free-electron laser oscillator. Generated $$gamma$$-rays show a narrow-bandwidth spectrum with a sharp peak, $$sim$$0.1% (FWHM), due to large momentum transfer from electrons to photons. Such $$gamma$$-rays will be a unique probe for studying hadron physics. Features of the $$gamma$$-ray source, flux, spectrum, polarization, tunability and energy resolution are discussed.

Journal Articles

Triangle and concave pentagon electrodes for an improved broadband frequency response of stripline beam position monitors

Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Y. H.*; Takata, Koji*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nakamura, Keigo*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 19(2), p.021003_1 - 021003_15, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:13.76(Physics, Nuclear)

The frequency domain performance of a stripline beam position monitor depends largely on the longitudinal shape of its electrode. To attain a good impedance matching along the electrode, it needs to be precisely bent down toward its downstream in proportion to its width. In this report, we first propose a triangle electrode for easy fabrication and set-up. Theoretical and simulation results show that the simple triangle electrode has a remarkably flatter frequency response than the rectangle one. The frequency response, in particular at high frequencies, can be further improved by attaching an "apron" plate, perpendicular to the upstream edge of the electrode. The overshooting of the frequency response at low frequency can be eliminated by replacing the straight sidelines of the triangle by three-point polylines. We found that the concave pentagon electrode achieves a wide and flat frequency response up to about $$4$$ GHz for the J-PARC Main Ring.

Journal Articles

Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

Hotchi, Hideaki; Tani, Norio; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Shinichi; Okabe, Kota; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 19(1), p.010401_1 - 010401_11, 2016/01


 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:61.28(Physics, Nuclear)

In the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances, causing significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms.

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