Visuri, A.-M.*; Mohan, J.*; Uchino, Shun; Huang, M.-Z.*; Esslinger, T.*; Giamarchi, T.*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 5(3), p.033095_1 - 033095_11, 2023/08
We study the current-voltage characteristics of a superconducting junction with particle losses at the contacts. We adopt the Keldysh formalism to compute the steady-state current for varying transmission of the contact. In the low transmission regime, the dissipation leads to an enhancement of the current at low bias, a nonmonotonic dependence of current on dissipation, and the emergence of new structures in the current-voltage curves. The effect of dissipation by particle loss is found to be qualitatively different from that of a finite temperature and a finite inelastic scattering rate in the reservoirs.
Ishihara, Kota*; Kobayashi, Masayuki*; Imamura, Kumpei*; Konczykowski, M.*; Sakai, Hironori; Opletal, P.; Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Haga, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Kenichiro*; Shibauchi, Takasada*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 5(2), p.L022002_1 - L022002_6, 2023/04
Lower superconducting critical fields of UTe have been determined. Orthorhombic UTe has magnetic easy axis along the -axis. We found perpendicular to showed anomalous enhancement. By comparing with anisotropy of upper critical fields, effect of magnetic fluctuations on superconductivity is suggested.
Sekino, Yuta*; Tajima, Hiroyuki*; Uchino, Shun
Physical Review Research (Internet), 5(2), p.023058_1 - 023058_12, 2023/04
We investigate the spectrum of spin conductivity for a miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) that exhibits spin superfluidity. By using the Bogoliubov theory, the regular part being the spin conductivity at finite ac frequency and the spin Drude weight characterizingthe delta-function peak at zero frequency are analytically computed. We demonstrate that the spectrum exhibits a power-law behavior at low frequency, reflecting gapless density and spin modes specific to the binary BEC. At the phase transition points into immiscible and quantum-dropletstates, the change in quasiparticle dispersion relations modifies the power law. In addition, the spin Drude weight becomes finite, indicating zero spin resistivity due to spin superfluidity. Our results also suggest that the Andreev-Bashkin drag density is accessible by measuring the spin conductivity spectrum.
Sekino, Yuta*; Tajima, Hiroyuki*; Uchino, Shun
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(4), p.043014_1 - 043014_16, 2022/10
We show that the optical spin conductivity being a small AC response of a bulk spin current and elusive in condensed matter systems can be measured in ultracold atoms. We demonstrate that this conductivity contains rich information on quantum states by analyzing experimentally achievable systems. The obtained conductivity spectra being absent in the Drude conductivity reflect quasiparticle excitations and non-Fermi liquid properties. Unlike its mass transport counterpart, the spin conductivity serves as a probe applicable to clean atomic gases without disorder and lattice potentials. Our formalism can be generalized to various systems such as spin-orbit coupled and nonequilibrium systems.
Helson, V.*; Zwettler, T.*; Roux, K.*; Konishi, Hideki*; Uchino, Shun; Brantut, J.-P.*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(3), p.033199_1 - 033199_10, 2022/09
We study a Fermi gas with strong, tunable interactions dispersively coupled to a high-finesse cavity. Upon probing the system along the cavity axis, we observe a strong optomechanical Kerr nonlinearity originating from the density response of the gas to the intracavity field. Measuring the non-linearity as a function of interaction strength, we extract the zero-frequency density response function of the Fermi gas, and find an increase by a factor of two from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer to the Bose-Einstein condensate regime. The results are in quantitative agreement with a theory based on operator-product expansion, expressing the density response in terms of universal functions of the interactions, the contact and the internal energy of the gas.
Omasa, Yoshinori*; Takagi, Shigeyuki*; Toshima, Kento*; Yokoyama, Kaito*; Endo, Wataru*; Orimo, Shinichi*; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Yamada, Takeshi*; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Ikeda, Kazutaka*; et al.
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(3), p.033215_1 - 033215_9, 2022/09
Sheng, Q.*; Kaneko, Tatsuya*; Yamakawa, Kohtaro*; Guguchia, Z.*; Gong, Z.*; Zhao, G.*; Dai, G.*; Jin, C.*; Guo, S.*; Fu, L.*; et al.
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(3), p.033172_1 - 033172_14, 2022/09
Shamoto, Shinichi*; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro*; Matsuura, Masato*; Kawamura, Seiko; Harii, Kazuya*; Ono, Masao*; Chang, L.-J.*; Ito, Takashi; Nemoto, Yuichi*; Ieda, Junichi
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(1), p.013245_1 - 013245_7, 2022/03
Ultrasound injection effect on a magnetic Bragg peak of yttrium iron garnet has been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering. The magnetic Bragg peak is vastly enhanced with decreasing temperature. The energy width increases proportionally to the square root of the sample temperature increase induced by the ultrasound injection. Because the magnetic Bragg peak is enhanced by the lattice vibration, the enhancement is expected to relate to the spin-lattice coupling closely. An observed sharp drop above 100 K in the longitudinal mode suggests the degradation of the spin-lattice coupling. It is consistent with the decline of spin Seebeck effect with increasing temperature above 100 K, proving the degradation mechanism by the spin-lattice coupling.
Wada, Yuki*; Matsumoto, Takahiro*; Enoto, Teruaki*; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro*; Yuasa, Takayuki*; Furuta, Yoshihiro*; Yonetoku, Daisuke*; Sawano, Tatsuya*; Okada, Go*; Nanto, Hidehito*; et al.
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(4), p.043117_1 - 043117_31, 2021/12
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(4), p.043058_1 - 043058_13, 2021/10
Atomtronics experiments with ultracold atomic gases allow us to explore quantum transport phenomena of a weakly-interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Here, we focus on two-terminal transport of such a BEC in the vicinity of zero temperature. By using the tunnel Hamiltonian and Bogoliubov theory, we obtain a DC Josephson current expression in the BEC and apply it to experimentally relevant situations such as quantum point contact and planar junction. Due to the absence of Andreev bound states but the presence of couplings associated with condensation elements, a current-phase relation in the BEC is found to be different from one in an -wave superconductor.
Ishikawa, Tsutomu*; Nakayama, Katsumasa*; Suzuki, Kei
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(2), p.023201_1 - 023201_23, 2021/06
The Casimir effect arises from the zero-point energy of particles in momentum space deformed by the existence of two parallel plates. For degrees of freedom on the lattice, its energy-momentum dispersion is determined so as to keep a periodicity within the Brillouin zone, so that its Casimir effect is modified. We study the properties of Casimir effect for lattice fermions, such as the naive fermion, Wilson fermion, and overlap fermion based on the Mbius domain-wall fermion formulation, in the , , and dimensional spacetime with the periodic or antiperiodic boundary condition. An oscillatory behavior of Casimir energy between odd and even lattice size is induced by the contribution of ultraviolet-momentum (doubler) modes, which realizes in the naive fermion, Wilson fermion in a negative mass, and overlap fermions with a large domain-wall height. Our findings can be experimentally observed in condensed matter systems such as topological insulators and also numerically measured in lattice simulations.
Araki, Yasufumi; Misawa, Takahiro*; Nomura, Kentaro*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(2), p.023219_1 - 023219_15, 2021/06
We theoretically propose the long-range spin transport mediated by the gapless surface states of topological Dirac semimetal (TDSM). Low-dissipation spin current is a building block of next-generation spintronics devices. While conduction electrons in metals and spin waves in ferromagnetic insulators (FMIs) are the major carriers of spin current, their propagation length is inevitably limited due to the Joule heating or the Gilbert damping. In order to suppress dissipation and realize long-range spin transport, we here make use of the spin-helical surface states of TDSMs, such as CdAs and NaBi, which are robust against disorder. Based on a junction of two FMIs connected by a TDSM, we demonstrate that the magnetization dynamics in one FMI induces a spin current on the TDSM surface flowing to the other FMI. By both the analytical transport theory on the surface and the numerical simulation of real-time evolution in the bulk, we find that the induced spin current takes a universal semi-quantized value that is insensitive to the microscopic coupling structure between the FMI and the TDSM. We show that this surface spin current is robust against disorder over a long range, which indicates that the TDSM surface serves as a promising system for realizing spintronics devices.
Araki, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Daiki*; Suzuki, Kei; Yasui, Shigehiro*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(2), p.023098_1 - 023098_17, 2021/05
Spins of relativistic fermions are related to their orbital degrees of freedom. In order to quantify the effect of hybridization between relativistic and nonrelativistic degrees of freedom on spin-orbit coupling, we focus on the spin-orbital (SO) crossed susceptibility arising from spin-orbit coupling. The SO crossed susceptibility is defined as the response function of their spin polarization to the "orbital" magnetic field, namely the effect of magnetic field on the orbital motion of particles as the vector potential. Once relativistic and nonrelativistic fermions are hybridized, their SO crossed susceptibility gets modified at the Fermi energy around the band hybridization point, leading to spin polarization of nonrelativistic fermions as well. These effects are enhanced under a dynamical magnetic field that violates thermal equilibrium, arising from the interband process permitted by the band hybridization. Its experimental realization is discussed for Dirac electrons in solids with slight breaking of crystalline symmetry or doping, and also for quark matter including dilute heavy quarks strongly hybridized with light quarks, arising in a relativistic heavy-ion collision process.
Suzuki, Shintaro*; Takubo, Ko*; Kuga, Kentaro*; Higemoto, Wataru; Ito, Takashi; Tomita, Takahiro*; Shimura, Yasumichi*; Matsumoto, Yosuke*; Bareille, C.*; Wadachi, Hiroki*; et al.
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(2), p.023140_1 - 023140_12, 2021/05
We report our experimental discovery of the transition temperature reaching 20 K in a Yb-based compound at ambient pressure. The Mn substitution at the Al site in an intermediate valence state of -YbAlB not only induces antiferromagnetic transition at a record high temperature of 20 K but also transforms the heavy-fermion liquid state in -YbAlB into a highly resistive metallic state proximate to a Kondo insulator.
Araki, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Daiki*; Suzuki, Kei; Yasui, Shigehiro*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(1), p.013233_1 - 013233_12, 2021/03
We investigate two different types of relativistic Kondo effects, distinguished by heavy-impurity degrees of freedom, by focusing on the energy-momentum dispersion relations of the ground state with condensates composed of a light Dirac fermion and a nonrelativistic impurity fermion. Heavy fermion degrees of freedom are introduced in terms of two types of heavy-fermion effective theories, in other words, two heavy-fermion limits for the heavy Dirac fermion, which is known as the heavy-quark effective theories (HQETs) in high-energy physics. While the first one includes only the heavy-particle component, the second one contains both the heavy-particle and heavy-antiparticle components, which are opposite in their parity. From these theories, we obtain two types of Kondo effects, in which the dispersions near the Fermi surface are very similar, but they differ in the structure at low momentum. We also classify the possible forms of condensates in the two limits. The two Kondo effects will be examined by experiments with Dirac/Weyl semimetals or quark matter, lattice simulations, and cold-atom simulations.
Shamoto, Shinichi; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiko*; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Ieda, Junichi
Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(1), p.013169_1 - 013169_9, 2021/02
Nawa, Kazuhiro*; Hirai, Daigoro*; Kofu, Maiko; Nakajima, Kenji; Murasaki, Ryo*; Kogane, Satoshi*; Kimata, Motoi*; Nojiri, Hiroyuki*; Hiroi, Zenji*; Sato, Taku*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 2(4), p.043121_1 - 043121_11, 2020/12
The spin excitations of the = anisotropic triangular antiferromagnet CaReOCl were investigated by inelastic neutron-scattering experiments. The spin excitation spectrum exhibits sharp dispersive modes in addition to a spinonlike continuum. The consistency with the simulated spectrum based on the random-phase approximation is better for CaReOCl than for CsCuCl, indicating that the spin system in the former remains closer to a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquidlike disordered state.
Oba, Yojiro; Adachi, Nozomu*; Todaka, Yoshikazu*; Gilbert, E. P.*; Mamiya, Hiroaki*
Physical Review Research (Internet), 2(3), p.033473_1 - 033473_6, 2020/11
Shamoto, Shinichi; Yasui, Yukio*; Matsuura, Masato*; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro*; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki*; Nemoto, Yuichi*; Ieda, Junichi
Physical Review Research (Internet), 2(3), p.033235_1 - 033235_6, 2020/08
Ultralow energy magnon in yttrium iron garnet crystal has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering in an energy range from 10 to 45 eV. When a magnetic field of about 0.1 T is applied along , ultralow energy magnon anomaly is found at 10 K.