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Journal Articles

Full-$$f$$ gyrokinetic simulations of ohmic L-mode plasmas in linear and saturated ohmic confinement regimes

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Dif-Pradalier, G.*; Garbet, X.*; Sarazin, Y.*; Tore Supra Teams*

Physics of Plasmas, 30(4), p.042508_1 - 042508_18, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:43.81(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Two time slices in linear and saturated ohmic confinement (LOC and SOC) regimes in a Tore Supra ohmic L-mode discharge are analyzed using nonlinear global full-$$f$$ gyrokinetic simulations, and qualitative features of the LOC-SOC transition are reproduced. The exhaust of carbon impurity ions is caused by fast ion mixing, which is driven by the toroidal field stress. The intrinsic rotation develops in the opposite direction between the LOC and SOC phases, which is characterized by the different features of the mode asymmetry between trapped electron modes in the LOC phase and ion temperature gradient driven modes in the SOC phase, leading to the change of the profile shear stress. The energy fluxes of electrons and deuterium ions are dominant in the LOC and SOC phases, respectively, and the ratio of the energy confinement time between two phases agree with the experimental value.

Journal Articles

Neoclassical transport simulations with an improved model collision operator

Matsuoka, Seikichi*; Sugama, Hideo*; Idomura, Yasuhiro

Physics of Plasmas, 28(6), p.064501_1 - 064501_5, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:40.28(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The improved model collision operator proposed by Sugama et al., which can recover the friction-flow relation of the linearized Landau collision operator, is newly implemented in a global full- f gyrokinetic simulation code, GT5D, and collisional transport simulations of a single ion species plasma in a tokamak are performed over the wide collisionality regime. The improved operator is verified to reproduce the theoretical collisional thermal diffusivity precisely in the high collisionality regime, where the friction-flow relation of higher accuracy is required than in the lower collisional regime. In addition, it is found in all collisionality regimes that the higher accuracy of the collisional thermal diffusivity and the parallel flow coefficient is obtained by the improved operator, demonstrating that collisional processes described by the linearized Landau collision operator is correctly retained.

Journal Articles

Dynamics of enhanced neoclassical particle transport of tracer impurity ions in ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Obrejan, K.*; Asahi, Yuichi; Honda, Mitsuru*

Physics of Plasmas, 28(1), p.012501_1 - 012501_11, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:56.72(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Tracer impurity transport in ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence is investigated using a global full-$$f$$ gyrokinetic simulation including kinetic electrons, bulk ions, and low to medium $$Z$$ tracer impurities, where $$Z$$ is the charge number. It is found that in addition to turbulent particle transport, enhanced neoclassical particle transport due to a new synergy effect between turbulent and neoclassical transports makes a significant contribution to tracer impurity transport. Bursty excitation of the ITG mode generates non-ambipolar turbulent particle fluxes of electrons and bulk ions, leading to a fast growth of the radial electric field following the ambipolar condition. The divergence of $$Etimes B$$ flows compresses up-down asymmetric density perturbations, which are subject to transport induced by the magnetic drift. The enhanced neoclassical particle transport depends on the ion mass, because the magnitude of up-down asymmetric density perturbation is determined by a competition between the $$Etimes B$$ compression effect and the return current given by the parallel streaming motion. This mechanism does not work for the temperature, and thus, selectively enhances only particle transport.

Journal Articles

Compressing the time series of five dimensional distribution function data from gyrokinetic simulation using principal component analysis

Asahi, Yuichi; Fujii, Keisuke*; Heim, D. M.*; Maeyama, Shinya*; Garbet, X.*; Grandgirard, V.*; Sarazin, Y.*; Dif-Pradalier, G.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Yagi, Masatoshi*

Physics of Plasmas, 28(1), p.012304_1 - 012304_21, 2021/01


 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:40.28(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This article demonstrates a data compression technique for the time series of five dimensional distribution function data based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Phase space bases and corresponding coefficients are constructed by PCA in order to reduce the data size and the dimensionality. It is shown that about 83% of the variance of the original five dimensional distribution can be expressed with 64 components. This leads to the compression of the degrees of freedom from $$1.3times 10^{12}$$ to $$1.4times 10^{9}$$. One of the important findings - resulting from the detailed analysis of the contribution of each principal component to the energy flux - deals with avalanche events, which are found to be mostly driven by coherent structures in the phase space, indicating the key role of resonant particles.

Journal Articles

Analysis of feedback control of magnetic islands via rotational field based on Rutherford model

Uenaga, Issei; Furukawa, Masaru*

Physics of Plasmas, 27(9), p.092501_1 - 092501_11, 2020/09

This work uses the Rutherford model for a cylindrical plasma to study the dynamics of magnetic islands under external magnetic perturbations, including both applied rotational magnetic fields and static error magnetic fields. The results show that, in an unstable tearing situation, magnetic islands are completely suppressed by modulating the frequency of the externally applied rotational magnetic field to maintain the phase of the combined external magnetic field to be opposite (or nearly opposite) that of the magnetic islands. The frequency is modulated by using a proportional controller in the simulation, where the frequency of the rotational field is determined by using the island rotation frequency "measured" in the simulation.

Journal Articles

Self-organization of zonal flows and isotropic eddies in toroidal electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*

Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:13.82(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.

Journal Articles

Isotope and plasma size scaling in ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

Idomura, Yasuhiro

Physics of Plasmas, 26(12), p.120703_1 - 120703_5, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:32.68(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This Letter presents the impacts of the hydrogen isotope mass and the normalized gyroradius $$rho^*$$ on L-mode like hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas dominated by ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence using global full-f gyrokinetic simulations. In ion heated numerical experiments with adiabatic electrons, the energy confinement time shows almost no isotope mass dependency, and is determined by Bohm like $$rho^*$$ scaling. Electron heated numerical experiments with kinetic electrons show clear isotope mass dependency caused by the isotope effect on the collisional energy transfer from electrons to ions, and the H and D plasmas show similar ion and electron temperature profiles at an H to D heating power ratio of $$sim 1.4$$. The normalized collisionless ion gyrokinetic equations for H and D plasmas become identical at the same $$rho^*$$, and collisions weakly affect ITG turbulence. Therefore, the isotope mass dependency is mainly contributed by the $$rho^*$$ scaling and the heating sources.

Journal Articles

Neoclassical transport benchmark of global full-f gyrokinetic simulation in stellarator configurations

Matsuoka, Seikichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Satake, Shinsuke*

Physics of Plasmas, 25(2), p.022510_1 - 022510_10, 2018/02

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:73.90(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations, in which the gyrokinetic equation is solved based on the first principle without the scale separation with respect to the plasma distribution function, is attracting much attention in the plasma transport simulation studies. In this work, in order to apply a global full-f gyrokinetic simulation code GT5D to stellarator plasmas with complicated three-dimensional magnetic field configurations, we extend finite difference scheme of GT5D and develop a new interface code which incorporates the three-dimensional magnetic equilibria provided by a standard equilibrium code, VMEC. A series of benchmark calculations are carried out for the numerical verification of GT5D. It is successfully demonstrated that GT5D well reproduces results of a theoretical analysis and another global neoclassical transport code.

Journal Articles

Global kinetic simulations of neoclassical toroidal viscosity in low-collisional perturbed tokamak plasmas

Matsuoka, Seikichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Satake, Shinsuke*

Physics of Plasmas, 24(10), p.102522_1 - 102522_9, 2017/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:21.22(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In axisymmetric tokamak plasmas, effects of three-dimensional non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbations caused by error fields etc. have attracted much attention from the view point of the control of the plasma performance and instabilities. Recent studies pointed out that there exists qualitative discrepancy in predicting the collisional viscosity driven by the perturbation between a theoretical bounce-averaged model and a global kinetic simulation. Clarifying the cause of the discrepancy by understanding the underlying mechanism is a key issue to establish a reliable basis for the NTV predictions. In this work, we perform two different kinds of global kinetic simulations for the NTV. As a result, it is first demonstrated that the discrepancy arises owing to the following two mechanisms related to the global particle orbit; (1) the effective magnitude of the perturbation becomes weak due to the loss of the resonant orbit, and (2) the phase mixing along the orbit arises and generates fine scale structures, resulting the damping of the NTV.

Journal Articles

Benchmarking of flux-driven full-F gyrokinetic simulations

Asahi, Yuichi*; Grandgirard, V.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Garbet, X.*; Latu, G.*; Sarazin, Y.*; Dif-Pradalier, G.*; Donnel, P.*; Ehrlacher, C.*

Physics of Plasmas, 24(10), p.102515_1 - 102515_17, 2017/10


 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:36.65(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Two full-F global gyrokinetic codes are benchmarked to compute flux-driven ion temperature gradient turbulence in tokamak plasmas. For this purpose, the Semi-Lagrangian code GYSELA and the Eulerian code GT5D are employed, which solve the full-F gyrokinetic equation with a realistic fixed flux condition. Using the appropriate settings for the boundary and initial conditions, flux-driven ITG turbulence simulations are carried out. The avalanche-like transport is assessed with a focus on spatio-temporal properties. A statistical analysis is performed to discuss this self-organized criticality (SOC) like behaviors, where we found $$1/f$$ spectra and a transition to $$1/f^3$$ spectra at high-frequency side in both codes. Based on these benchmarks, it is verified that the SOC-like behavior is robust and not dependent on numerics.

Journal Articles

Toroidal angular momentum balance during rotation changes induced by electron heating modulation in tokamak plasmas

Idomura, Yasuhiro

Physics of Plasmas, 24(8), p.080701_1 - 080701_5, 2017/08


 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:49.09(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

An electron heating modulation numerical experiment based on a global full-f gyrokinetic model shows that transitions from ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence to trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence induced by electron heating generate density peaking and rotation changes. Toroidal angular momentum balance during the rotation changes is revealed by direct observation of toroidal angular momentum conservation, in which in addition to ion turbulent stress, ion neoclassical stress, radial currents, and toroidal field stress of ions and electrons are important. Toroidal torque flipping between ITG and TEM phases is found to be related to reversal of the ion radial current that indicates coupling of particle and momentum transport channels. The ion and electron radial currents are balanced to satisfy the ambipolar condition, and the electron radial current is cancelled by the electron toroidal field stress, which indirectly affects toroidal torque.

Journal Articles

Impact of plasma parameter on self-organization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Maeyama, Shinya*; Ogawa, Yuichi*

Physics of Plasmas, 24(4), p.042303_1 - 042303_13, 2017/04


 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:10.37(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.

Journal Articles

Benchmark of the local drift-kinetic models for neoclassical transport simulation in helical plasmas

Huang, B.*; Satake, Shinsuke*; Kanno, Ryutaro*; Sugama, Hideo*; Matsuoka, Seikichi

Physics of Plasmas, 24(2), p.022503_1 - 022503_19, 2017/02

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:53.03(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The drift kinetic equation describes the collisional (neoclassical) transport in plasmas. Recently, a novel radially-local approximation of the drift kinetic equation, which is called the zero orbit width (ZOW) model, is proposed. In this work, as a numerical verification of the neoclassical transport based on the ZOW model, we perform a series of benchmarks of the neoclassical transport and the parallel flow in three helical magnetic configurations using various types of radially-local approximation models including the ZOW model. We found that the neoclassical transport of the ZOW model can reproduce that based on the other models when the radial electric field and thus the $$E times B$$ drift is large. Also, it is demonstrated that an unphysical large radial transport, which arises in the neoclassical transport of the other models when the $$E times B$$ drift is small and compared to the magnetic drift, can be mitigated in the ZOW model.

Journal Articles

High energy photon emission from wakefields

Farinella, D. M.*; Lau, C. K.*; Zhang, X. M.*; Koga, J. K.; Taimourzadeh, S.*; Hwang, Y.*; Abazajian, K.*; Canac, N.*; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu*; Taborek, P.*; et al.

Physics of Plasmas, 23(7), p.073107_1 - 073107_10, 2016/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:21.35(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Radially local approximation of the drift kinetic equation

Sugama, Hideo*; Matsuoka, Seikichi; Satake, Shinsuke*; Kanno, Ryutaro*

Physics of Plasmas, 23(4), p.042502_1 - 042502_11, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:36.76(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

A novel radially local approximation of the drift kinetic equation is presented. The new drift kinetic equation that includes both $$rm E times B$$ and tangential magnetic drift terms is written in the conservative form and it has favorable properties for numerical simulation that any additional terms for particle and energy sources are unnecessary for obtaining stationary solutions under the radially local approximation. These solutions satisfy the intrinsic ambipolarity condition for neoclassical particle fluxes in the presence of quasisymmetry of the magnetic field strength. Also, another radially local drift kinetic equation is presented, from which the positive definiteness of entropy production due to neoclassical transport and Onsager symmetry of neoclassical transport coefficients are derived while it sacrifices the ambipolarity condition for neoclassical particle fluxes in axisymmetric and quasi-symmetric systems.

Journal Articles

Evolution of laser induced electromagnetic postsolitons in multi-species plasma

Liu, Y.*; Klimo, O.*; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.; Gu, Y.*; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*

Physics of Plasmas, 22(11), p.112302_1 - 112302_8, 2015/11


 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:13.58(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Fast magnetic field annihilation driven by two laser pulses in underdense plasma

Gu, Y. J.*; Klimo, O.*; Kumar, D.*; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*

Physics of Plasmas, 22(10), p.103113_1 - 103113_9, 2015/10


 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:44.50(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Magnetohydrodynamic instability excited by interplay between a resistive wall mode and stable ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes in rotating tokamak plasmas

Aiba, Nobuyuki; Hirota, Makoto*

Physics of Plasmas, 22(8), p.082512_1 - 082512_9, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:8.92(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

A mechanism exciting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in rotating tokamak plasmas is found numerically for the first time. This mechanism is the interplay between a resistive wall mode (RWM) and a stable MHD mode. When the plasma has a stable discrete eigenmode, a reversed shear Alfv$'e$n eigenmode (RSAE) for example, a MHD mode is destabilized when plasma equilibrium rotation frequency is similar to the frequency of this stable eigenmode in a static equilibrium. This destabilization is also observed even when the eigenmode couples with Alfv$'e$n continua. This result suggests that for steady state high beta tokamaks, like DEMO, it is necessary to shape the safety factor profile in such a way that no stable eigenmode exists in the band of rotation frequency. With a dispersion relation, it was shown explicitly that plasma rotation switches the unstable mode from the RWM to the ideal MHD mode destabilized by wall resistivity.

Journal Articles

Laser-driven $$gamma$$-ray, positron, and neutron source from ultra-intense laser-matter interactions

Nakamura, Tatsufumi*; Hayakawa, Takehito

Physics of Plasmas, 22(8), p.083113_1 - 083113_6, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:40.64(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In ultra-intense laser-matter interactions, $$gamma$$-rays are effectively generated via the radiation reaction effect. Since a significant fraction of the laser energy is converted into $$gamma$$-rays, understanding of the energy transport inside of the target is important. We have developed a Particle-in-Cell code which includes generation of the $$gamma$$-rays, their energy transport, and photo-nuclear reactions. Using the code, we have proposed a collimated, mono-energetic positron beams with hundreds of MeV are generated by using thick targets. Neutron beams are also effectively generated by using beryllium targets via photo-nuclear reactions.

Journal Articles

An Analytic formula for the relativistic incoherent Thomson backscattering spectrum for a drifting bi-Maxwellian plasma

Naito, Osamu

Physics of Plasmas, 22(8), p.084505_1 - 084505_5, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

An analytic formula has been derived for the relativistic incoherent Thomson backscattering spectrum for a drifting anisotropic plasma when the scattering vector is parallel to the drifting direction. The shape of the scattering spectrum is insensitive to the electron temperature perpendicular to the scattering vector, but its amplitude may be modulated. As a result, while the measured temperature correctly represents the electron distribution parallel to the scattering vector, the electron density may be underestimated when the perpendicular temperature is higher than the parallel temperature. Since the scattering spectrum in shorter wavelengths is greatly enhanced by the existence of drift, the diagnostics might be used to measure local electron current density in fusion plasmas.

155 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)