Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*
Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08
Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.
Physics of Plasmas, 26(12), p.120703_1 - 120703_5, 2019/12
This Letter presents the impacts of the hydrogen isotope mass and the normalized gyroradius on L-mode like hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas dominated by ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence using global full-f gyrokinetic simulations. In ion heated numerical experiments with adiabatic electrons, the energy confinement time shows almost no isotope mass dependency, and is determined by Bohm like scaling. Electron heated numerical experiments with kinetic electrons show clear isotope mass dependency caused by the isotope effect on the collisional energy transfer from electrons to ions, and the H and D plasmas show similar ion and electron temperature profiles at an H to D heating power ratio of . The normalized collisionless ion gyrokinetic equations for H and D plasmas become identical at the same , and collisions weakly affect ITG turbulence. Therefore, the isotope mass dependency is mainly contributed by the scaling and the heating sources.
Matsuoka, Seikichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Satake, Shinsuke*
Physics of Plasmas, 25(2), p.022510_1 - 022510_10, 2018/02
Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations, in which the gyrokinetic equation is solved based on the first principle without the scale separation with respect to the plasma distribution function, is attracting much attention in the plasma transport simulation studies. In this work, in order to apply a global full-f gyrokinetic simulation code GT5D to stellarator plasmas with complicated three-dimensional magnetic field configurations, we extend finite difference scheme of GT5D and develop a new interface code which incorporates the three-dimensional magnetic equilibria provided by a standard equilibrium code, VMEC. A series of benchmark calculations are carried out for the numerical verification of GT5D. It is successfully demonstrated that GT5D well reproduces results of a theoretical analysis and another global neoclassical transport code.
Asahi, Yuichi*; Grandgirard, V.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Garbet, X.*; Latu, G.*; Sarazin, Y.*; Dif-Pradalier, G.*; Donnel, P.*; Ehrlacher, C.*
Physics of Plasmas, 24(10), p.102515_1 - 102515_17, 2017/10
Two full-F global gyrokinetic codes are benchmarked to compute flux-driven ion temperature gradient turbulence in tokamak plasmas. For this purpose, the Semi-Lagrangian code GYSELA and the Eulerian code GT5D are employed, which solve the full-F gyrokinetic equation with a realistic fixed flux condition. Using the appropriate settings for the boundary and initial conditions, flux-driven ITG turbulence simulations are carried out. The avalanche-like transport is assessed with a focus on spatio-temporal properties. A statistical analysis is performed to discuss this self-organized criticality (SOC) like behaviors, where we found spectra and a transition to spectra at high-frequency side in both codes. Based on these benchmarks, it is verified that the SOC-like behavior is robust and not dependent on numerics.
Matsuoka, Seikichi; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Satake, Shinsuke*
Physics of Plasmas, 24(10), p.102522_1 - 102522_9, 2017/10
In axisymmetric tokamak plasmas, effects of three-dimensional non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbations caused by error fields etc. have attracted much attention from the view point of the control of the plasma performance and instabilities. Recent studies pointed out that there exists qualitative discrepancy in predicting the collisional viscosity driven by the perturbation between a theoretical bounce-averaged model and a global kinetic simulation. Clarifying the cause of the discrepancy by understanding the underlying mechanism is a key issue to establish a reliable basis for the NTV predictions. In this work, we perform two different kinds of global kinetic simulations for the NTV. As a result, it is first demonstrated that the discrepancy arises owing to the following two mechanisms related to the global particle orbit; (1) the effective magnitude of the perturbation becomes weak due to the loss of the resonant orbit, and (2) the phase mixing along the orbit arises and generates fine scale structures, resulting the damping of the NTV.
Physics of Plasmas, 24(8), p.080701_1 - 080701_5, 2017/08
An electron heating modulation numerical experiment based on a global full-f gyrokinetic model shows that transitions from ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence to trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence induced by electron heating generate density peaking and rotation changes. Toroidal angular momentum balance during the rotation changes is revealed by direct observation of toroidal angular momentum conservation, in which in addition to ion turbulent stress, ion neoclassical stress, radial currents, and toroidal field stress of ions and electrons are important. Toroidal torque flipping between ITG and TEM phases is found to be related to reversal of the ion radial current that indicates coupling of particle and momentum transport channels. The ion and electron radial currents are balanced to satisfy the ambipolar condition, and the electron radial current is cancelled by the electron toroidal field stress, which indirectly affects toroidal torque.
Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Maeyama, Shinya*; Ogawa, Yuichi*
Physics of Plasmas, 24(4), p.042303_1 - 042303_13, 2017/04
Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.
Huang, B.*; Satake, Shinsuke*; Kanno, Ryutaro*; Sugama, Hideo*; Matsuoka, Seikichi
Physics of Plasmas, 24(2), p.022503_1 - 022503_19, 2017/02
The drift kinetic equation describes the collisional (neoclassical) transport in plasmas. Recently, a novel radially-local approximation of the drift kinetic equation, which is called the zero orbit width (ZOW) model, is proposed. In this work, as a numerical verification of the neoclassical transport based on the ZOW model, we perform a series of benchmarks of the neoclassical transport and the parallel flow in three helical magnetic configurations using various types of radially-local approximation models including the ZOW model. We found that the neoclassical transport of the ZOW model can reproduce that based on the other models when the radial electric field and thus the drift is large. Also, it is demonstrated that an unphysical large radial transport, which arises in the neoclassical transport of the other models when the drift is small and compared to the magnetic drift, can be mitigated in the ZOW model.
Sugama, Hideo*; Matsuoka, Seikichi; Satake, Shinsuke*; Kanno, Ryutaro*
Physics of Plasmas, 23(4), p.042502_1 - 042502_11, 2016/04
A novel radially local approximation of the drift kinetic equation is presented. The new drift kinetic equation that includes both and tangential magnetic drift terms is written in the conservative form and it has favorable properties for numerical simulation that any additional terms for particle and energy sources are unnecessary for obtaining stationary solutions under the radially local approximation. These solutions satisfy the intrinsic ambipolarity condition for neoclassical particle fluxes in the presence of quasisymmetry of the magnetic field strength. Also, another radially local drift kinetic equation is presented, from which the positive definiteness of entropy production due to neoclassical transport and Onsager symmetry of neoclassical transport coefficients are derived while it sacrifices the ambipolarity condition for neoclassical particle fluxes in axisymmetric and quasi-symmetric systems.
Liu, Y.*; Klimo, O.*; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.; Gu, Y.*; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*
Physics of Plasmas, 22(11), p.112302_1 - 112302_8, 2015/11
Gu, Y. J.*; Klimo, O.*; Kumar, D.*; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*
Physics of Plasmas, 22(10), p.103113_1 - 103113_9, 2015/10
Physics of Plasmas, 22(8), p.084505_1 - 084505_5, 2015/08
An analytic formula has been derived for the relativistic incoherent Thomson backscattering spectrum for a drifting anisotropic plasma when the scattering vector is parallel to the drifting direction. The shape of the scattering spectrum is insensitive to the electron temperature perpendicular to the scattering vector, but its amplitude may be modulated. As a result, while the measured temperature correctly represents the electron distribution parallel to the scattering vector, the electron density may be underestimated when the perpendicular temperature is higher than the parallel temperature. Since the scattering spectrum in shorter wavelengths is greatly enhanced by the existence of drift, the diagnostics might be used to measure local electron current density in fusion plasmas.
Aiba, Nobuyuki; Hirota, Makoto*
Physics of Plasmas, 22(8), p.082512_1 - 082512_9, 2015/08
A mechanism exciting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in rotating tokamak plasmas is found numerically for the first time. This mechanism is the interplay between a resistive wall mode (RWM) and a stable MHD mode. When the plasma has a stable discrete eigenmode, a reversed shear Alfvn eigenmode (RSAE) for example, a MHD mode is destabilized when plasma equilibrium rotation frequency is similar to the frequency of this stable eigenmode in a static equilibrium. This destabilization is also observed even when the eigenmode couples with Alfvn continua. This result suggests that for steady state high beta tokamaks, like DEMO, it is necessary to shape the safety factor profile in such a way that no stable eigenmode exists in the band of rotation frequency. With a dispersion relation, it was shown explicitly that plasma rotation switches the unstable mode from the RWM to the ideal MHD mode destabilized by wall resistivity.
Bulanov, S. V.; Yogo, Akifumi*; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Koga, J. K.; Bulanov, S. S.*; Kondo, Kiminori; Kando, Masaki
Physics of Plasmas, 22(6), p.063108_1 - 063108_11, 2015/06
Lezhnin, K.*; Kamenets, F. F.*; Beskin, V.*; Kando, Masaki; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.
Physics of Plasmas, 22(3), p.033112_1 - 033112_9, 2015/03
Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Pikuz, T.*; Faenov, A.*; Skobelev, I. Yu.*; Orlandi, R.; Sako, Hiroyuki; Pirozhkov, A. S.; et al.
Physics of Plasmas, 22(3), p.033107_1 - 033107_8, 2015/03
Almost fully stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated with a 200 TW femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiating a micron-thick Al foil with Fe impurity on the surface. An energetic low-emittance high-density beam of heavy ions with a large charge-to-mass ratio can be obtained, which is useful for many applications, such as a compact radio isotope source in combination with conventional technology.
Miyato, Naoaki; Yagi, Masatoshi; Scott, B. D.*
Physics of Plasmas, 22(1), p.012103_1 - 012103_9, 2015/01
Two representations of fluid moments, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the conventional representation the gyro-center part appears as the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function which contains scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation in which the gyro-center part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.
Kamiya, Kensaku; Honda, Mitsuru; Urano, Hajime; Yoshida, Maiko; Kamada, Yutaka; Ito, Kimitaka*; JT-60 Team
Physics of Plasmas, 21(12), p.122517_1 - 122517_8, 2014/12
Modulation Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (MCXRS) measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution have made the evaluation of the toroidal plasma flow of fully stripped carbon impurity ions in the JT-60U tokamak peripheral region (including in particular separatrix) possible with a better signal-to-noise ratio. Boundary condition of Vt imposed at the separatrix in ELMy H-mode plasmas has been identified, comparing between co- and counter-NBI discharges. The Vt value at the separatrix is not held fixed at the zero, varying with momentum input direction, but being not strongly affected by the ELM event. A non-zero Vt value at the separatrix might be connected to fast ion losses due to toroidal field ripple that results in formation of a negative radial electric field (Er) layer having almost zero (or very weak positive) Er-shear value at the separatrix. Improved understanding of physics process in pedestal structure formation for the Vt and Er is also discussed.
Bierwage, A.; Shinohara, Koji
Physics of Plasmas, 21(11), p.112116_1 - 112116_21, 2014/11
Physics of Plasmas, 21(9), p.092508_1 - 092508_10, 2014/09