Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.117 - 121, 2019/01
SCALE6.2.1 was released in 2016 and has been used worldwide. It includes new AMPX format files (AMPX MG libraries) of ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 and a new nuclear data processing code AMPX-6, which produces AMPX MG libraries. Thus we produce an AMPX MG library of JENDL-4.0 in order to disseminate JENDL-4.0. Neutron and spectra inside an iron or other material sphere of 1 m in radius with a 20 MeV neutron source at the center were calculated with a one-dimensional Sn code ANISN for testing the JENDL-4.0 AMPX MG library. As a result, it was verified that the JENDL-4.0 AMPX MG library had no problems. Note that the self-shielding correction for AMPX MG libraries was still inadequate in shielding calculations.
Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi*; Sanada, Yukihisa
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.103 - 107, 2019/01
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, a large amount of radionuclides was spread out all over the world. In our previous study, we developed the aerial radiation monitoring technique using unmanned helicopter for investigating the dose rate derived deposited radionuclides over wide area. In addition, many monitoring techniques were developed for investigating the local distribution of radionuclides using unmanned aerial vehicle, handheld instrument and car within small area. Distinction of these methods depends on desirable position resolution of dose rate. However, the comparison method of the measurement result between different methods is not established. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the some methods of airborne and ground radiation measurement in same extended farm.
Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Nishino, Sho; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Kowatari, Munehiko; Oishi, Tetsuya
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.134 - 138, 2019/01
At the severe nuclear accidents like the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, various radionuclides will be dispersed into the environment and raise the dose rate. The - measurements of ray spectra and identifying radionuclides using the results are important for the radiological protection from both external and internal exposure. For this application a commercially available CdZnTe spectrometer (Kromek GR-1) was characterized at the calibration fields of FRS/JAEA. The angular dependence of the detection efficiency was studied and the efficiency was kept within 15 % degradation in 135 degree incident angle, which covers 85 % of all. The usable dose range was evaluated and the spectrometer could correctly measure the ray spectra below 200 Gy/h.
Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Sanada, Yukihisa
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.63 - 67, 2019/01
Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), some unmanned vehicles (UAVs) are applied to airborne radiation measurement in around FDNPS. In conventional analysis methods, count rate that is obtained in the sky is converted to air dose rate at 1 m above the ground (agl.) under following premises. (1) Topography under the UAV is a plane (plane source model). (2) The air dose rate at 1 m agl. under the UAV is constant inside approximately 10 m radius. (3) Relationship of altitude and count rate is exponential correlation. Therefore, it is difficult that dose rate by airborne radiation measurement is precisely measured at the mountains and uneven place of dose rate by the conventional method. In this study, Maximum Likelihood-Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) method which is used in the medical radiation such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is attempted to apply to environmental radiation measurement using UAV.
Okumura, Keisuke; Riyana, E. S.; Sato, Wakaei*; Maeda, Hirobumi*; Katakura, Junichi*; Kamada, So*; Joyce, M. J.*; Lennox, B.*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.108 - 112, 2019/01
In order to establish the prediction method of the dose rate distribution in the primary containment vessel (PCV) of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a series of calculations were carried out in the following way; (1) burnup calculation to obtain fuel composition at the time of accident, (2) activation calculation for the structural materials including impurities, (3) estimation of Cs contamination in PCV based on the result of severe accident analysis by IRID, (4) decay calculation of radioactive nuclides, (5) photon transport calculation to obtain dose rate distribution. After that, Cs concentration around the dry-well of 1F was modified to be consistent with locally measured dose rates in the PCV-investigation by IRID.
Kamada, So*; Kato, Michio*; Nishimura, Kazuya*; Nancekievill, M.*; Watson, S.*; Lennox, B.*; Jones, A.*; Joyce, M. J.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Katakura, Junichi*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.199 - 202, 2019/01
As a technology development to investigate the distribution of submerged fuel debris in the primary containment vessel (PCV) of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, we are conducting development experiments of sonar system to be mounted in a compact ROV. The experiments were conducted in two types of water tanks with different depths, simulating the PCV, using sonar with different sizes, ultrasonic frequencies, and beam scanning method, and simulated fuel debris. As a result, we characterized the shape discrimination performance of the simulated debris, and the noise due to multi-path in narrow closed space.
Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.171 - 174, 2019/01
Activation cross sections of various materials are strongly required for the improvement of the accuracy of nuclear design and the reduction of the construction costs for spallation neutron sources and transmutation systems. Activation cross sections have been measured in several facilities. However, they have low accuracy and precision. Especially, there are merely experimental data with 3 GeV protons which are used for spallation neutron source (MLF) in J-PARC, the experimental data is required for the improvement of the target materials. Thus, we measured cross sections of tungsten, gold, indium, and beryllium with 0.4 GeV to 3.0 GeV protons. Moreover, ones of aluminium that are set with materials were also measured for a variation of this experiment. It was found that more accurate data than current ones would be measured by using precise beam controls and highly accurate beam monitoring. We compared the experimental data, the evaluated data (JENDL-HE/2007), and the calculations with several intra-nuclear cascade models by PHITS code. Although the experimental data agreed with JENDL-HE/2007, the calculations underestimated about 40%. This could come from the evaporation model (GEM) being included in PHITS code. We found that the calculations agreed with the experimental data by upgrading PHITS code. The cross sections for the other materials have been analysed so far.
Hoshi, Katsuya; Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Kurihara, Osamu*; Kim, E.*; Yajima, Kazuaki*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.152 - 155, 2019/01
Miwa, Kazuji; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.166 - 170, 2019/01
In this study, in order to validate the restricted use of recycling material at the reference radiocesium concentration (determined in series report (1)), we evaluated worker annual doses, air dose rate at the site boundary and impact of migrated radiocesium into groundwater. Firstly, we evaluated the additional annual dose for workers, on the assumption that typical workers coming in contact with the source after construction (Road: 1.2 mSv/y, Building: 1.3 mSv/y). Secondly, we evaluated the air dose rates by distance from road and building including recycling material, and investigated the distance for not exceeding 1 mSv/y (including additional dose rate by recycling and background dose rate of 0.6 mSv/y) at the site boundary (Road: 25 m, Building: 1 m). Thirdly, we evaluated the Cs migration in groundwater, and investigated the distance required for satisfying the operation target value (Cs: 1 Bq/L, Cs: 1 Bq/L) at the boundary (coastal line) (Road: 10 m, Building: 10 m).
Shimada, Taro; Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.203 - 207, 2019/01
Rubbles less than 5 Sv/h of surface dose rate, which are stored outdoor in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS (1F) site, will be recycled and applied in a restricted reuse only within 1F site in the future. In this study, we suggested a concept for establishing the reference radioactive concentration of recycling material for the restricted use in the 1F site. Reference radiocesium concentration is calculated so that increased dose rate by restricted reuse does not exceed 1 Sv/h which is the minimum value of dose rate map in the 1F entire site. In order to justify the restricted reuse under the reference concentration calculated, additional occupational dose, dose rate at the site boundary and groundwater concentration at the outlet to the ocean are evaluated and confirmed that the values are below 2 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y and 1 Bq/cm of Cs and Cs, respectively. And then calculated the reference radiocesium concentrations of the recycling material used for paved roads and the bases of concrete building.
Tsujimura, Norio; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Takada, Chie
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.148 - 151, 2019/01
Kim, B.-J.*; Sasaki, Miyuki; Sanada, Yukihisa
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.130 - 133, 2019/01
Sasaki, Yuji; Morita, Keisuke
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.27 - 32, 2018/12
no abstracts in English
Rai, D.*; Yui, Mikazu; Kitamura, Akira
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.19 - 26, 2018/11
The objectives of this presentation are (1) to describe the solubility method, (2) to list desirable criteria of the solubility method so that the reader can recognize which studies have been done in a way that yields quality information, (3) to present an example of how to use the evaluation criteria, and (4) to provide a few examples of future research needs where the solubility method is ideally suited and the other methods are unsuitable for these investigations.
Suzuki, Eriko; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.165 - 167, 2018/11
In severe accident condition, CsFeSiO could be formed by Cesium (Cs) chemisorption onto reactor structural materials. For evaluation of re-vaporization behavior, effect of atmosphere on the vaporization behavior of CsFeSiO at high temperature was investigated by thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA) experiments. As a result, it was found that vaporization of CsFeSiO in reducing atmosphere (Ar-5%H) started at relatively low temperature, about 800C, compared with in atmosphere containing HO (Ar-5%H-5%HO). It was inferred that a possible chemical reaction for the weight loss at around 800C would occurred by the decomposition of CsFeSiO into volatile Cs vapor species under H.
Ishidera, Takamitsu; Tachi, Yukio; Akagi, Yosuke*; Ashida, Takashi
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.221 - 224, 2018/11
In Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, radionuclides are removed from contaminated water by the decontamination system using zeolite. In this study, sorption properties of U and Np on zeolite were investigated by batch sorption experiments to obtain fundamental information for predicting the radionuclides inventory. High distribution coefficients were observed for U in the simulated sea water diluted 10 times by deionized water. In contrast, low distribution coefficient of U was observed in simulated sea water. Low distribution coefficients were observed for Np independent of simulated sea water concentration. Batch sorption experiments of U carried out as functions of sodium ion and total inorganic carbon concentration suggested that the distribution coefficient of U was strongly affected by the total inorganic carbon concentration. This result suggests that aqueous species of radionuclides and their sorption behavior need to be considered to estimate the inventory of radionuclides in zeolite.
Nakahara, Masaumi; Sano, Yuichi; Abe, Hitoshi
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.52 - 55, 2018/11
For evaluating the secular change of Pu evaporator made of Zr in the commercialized nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, electrochemical experiments were carried out with Pu nitrate solutions. The open circuit potentials of Zr increased with increasing Pu, HNO concentrations and temperature. However, these experimental results imply that Zr has high corrosion resistance in Pu nitrate solutions.
Tachi, Yukio; Ochs, M.*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.229 - 232, 2018/11
Various types of post-accident radioactive waste have been generated from cleanup and decommissioning activities at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. For the disposal of these wastes, perturbation effects resulting from co-existing substances (e.g., organic substances, boron, and salts) are needed to be considered. Such co-existing substances may influence on the radionuclide sorption parameters for the safety assessment of the disposal systems. The present study focuses on developing the methodology to quantify sorption parameters by considering such perturbation effects and illustrating example calculations regarding the sorption reduction factors (SRFs) due to the presence of organic ligands (ISA) for cement systems. Three approaches for the derivations of SRFs for cement-Am-ISA case were compared. These options should be applied as a stepwise manner according to the data availability for the perturbation effects resulting from the co-existing substances.
Ochs, M.*; Vriens, B.*; Tachi, Yukio
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.208 - 212, 2018/11
The clean-up activities related to the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant give rise to several types of wastes containing cementitious materials, such as concrete. Further, the use of cement-based barriers may be considered, due to their favorable and stable chemical properties, including their ability to sorb or incorporate radionuclides. Wastes from Fukushima are expected to contain substances that can have perturbing effects on retention, especially organic complexing substances, boron, and chloride salts. The present study focuses on a methodology for quantifying the retention behaviour of UVI) and U(IV) in cement materials of different degradation and in the presence of organics, boron, and salts on the basis of available literature information. A stepwise approach is proposed and illustrated for Kd setting for U(VI) and U(IV).