Yokoyama, Sumi*; Ezaki, Iwao*; Tatsuzaki, Hideo*; Tachiki, Shuichi*; Hirao, Kazushige*; Aoki, Katsunori; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Hoshi, Katsuya; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Norio
Radiation Measurements, 138, p.106399_1 - 106399_5, 2020/11
Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Kessler, P.*; Rttger, A.*
Radiation Measurements, 138, p.106431_1 - 106431_6, 2020/11
Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Nishino, Sho; Takahashi, Masa
Radiation Measurements, 137, p.106389_1 - 106389_5, 2020/09
A portable thyroid dose monitoring system has been developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to assess the thyroid equivalent dose for workers and members of the public in a high dose rate environment. The background (B.G.) photon correction is required for an accurate measurement in a high dose rate environment at an early stage after a nuclear accident. We developed the B.G. photon correction method using cylindrical PMMA phantoms.
Morishita, Yuki; Ye, Y.*; Mata, L.*; Pozzi, S. A.*; Kearfott, K. J.*
Radiation Measurements, 137, p.106428_1 - 106428_7, 2020/09
We have developed a compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer for radon measurements and have characterized it using a unique, small radon chamber. The spectrometer is composed of a through-silicon via (TSV) silicon photomultiplier (or SiPM) and a 6 mm 6 mm 6 mm stilbene crystal cube. Analog signals from the SiPM are sent to a digitizer. The detector is housed in a light-tight box, with a stacked air filter installed in one side of the box to enable Rn gas to diffuse to the inside. We conducted one experiment with the spectrometer and an AlphaGUARD detector placed in a basement at the University of Michigan, and we conducted other experiments with both detectors placed in a small radon chamber together with Ra sources. By applying a pulse-shape-discrimination technique, we were able to separate the alpha and beta spectra simultaneously and clearly and to measure them quantitatively. We found two peaks in the measured alpha spectrum: a lower-energy peak due to Po and a higher-energy peak due to Po. We found a linear relation between the radon concentration y from AlphaGUARD and the counting rates from the stilbene-SiPM detector. The alpha/beta spectrometer is less than 10 mm thick, and we expect that it will be easy to increase the sensitivity with future device construction. Thus, this compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer shows promise for use in novel radon-detection systems.
Tsujimura, Norio; Hoshi, Katsuya; Aoki, Katsunori; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Sumi*
Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106305_1 - 106305_5, 2020/06
Nishino, Sho; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masa
Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106292_1 - 106292_5, 2020/06
In the situation of a severe nuclear accident, radioiodine monitoring in thyroid should be performed for a large number of people immediately after accident. The portable thyroid dose monitoring system which can be used in a high dose rate condition is in development. In this presentation, the result of performance test using prototype model will be described.
Hoshi, Katsuya; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Katsunori; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsujimura, Norio; Yokoyama, Sumi*
Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106304_1 - 106304_5, 2020/06
In FY 2017, the Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) established the Radiation Safety Research Promotion Fund for funding projects on nuclear safety regulation, and adopted the two-year research project entitled "Study on standard eye lens monitoring, suitable dose management and radiation protection for nuclear and medical workers". The study is a two-phase study: a laboratory study on the eye lens dosemeter's characteristics to photons, and a field study executed at actual workplaces at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. This paper summarizes the results of the first-phase study, which was designed to clarify the eye lens dosemeter positioning and the shielding effect of full face mask respirators used at the station. No marked difference was observed in readings of the dosemeters attached on the different positions on the head phantom. Two types of full face mask respirators provided insignificant shielding effect for photons of 83 keV to 662 keV.
Yasuda, Hiroshi*; Yajima, Kazuaki*; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106309_1 - 106309_4, 2020/06
We have investigated an application of a recently developed electronic personal dosimeter (D-Shuttle) for aviation dosimetry. As results of measurements in four long-haul flights between Japan and Germany, the D-Shuttle indicated values were in the range of 25 to 30% of the total H(10) values estimated by a route-dose calculations program JISCARD EX. Though we need more measurements and analyses under different flight conditions to conclude, according to these results obtained so far, it would be possible to perform monitoring of the annual aviation doses of frequent flyers by using D-Shuttle on an individual basis.
Oka, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Atsushi*; Koarai, Kazuma; Mitsuyasu, Yusuke*; Kino, Yasushi*; Sekine, Tsutomu*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Chiba, Mirei*; Suzuki, Toshihiko*; Osaka, Ken*; et al.
Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106315_1 - 106315_4, 2020/06
The relationship between the CO radical intensity and the absorbed dose (dose response curve) of tooth enamel of Japanese macaque was observed by electron spin resonance and the detection limit of our system was estimated to be 33.5 mGy, which is comparable to the detection limit for human molar teeth. Using the dose response curve, external exposure dose for seven wild Japanese macaques captured in Fukushima prefecture were examined. The results suggest that the external exposure dose for the wild Japanese macaques were ranged between 45 mGy to 300 mGy.
Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Nishino, Sho; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Masa
Radiation Measurements, 133, p.106279_1 - 106279_6, 2020/04
Uncertainty of the body size on the counting efficiency of a newly developed thyroid monitor was estimated by Monte Carlo simulations using several voxel phantoms. Overlying tissue thickness was a major impact factor on the counting efficiency. As a result, uncertainty related to the body size of the monitored subject was found to be 25%.
Kusumoto, Tamon*; Matsuya, Yusuke; Baba, Kentaro*; Ogawara, Ryo*; Akselrod, M. S.*; Harrison, J.*; Fomenko, V.*; Kai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Masayori*; Hasegawa, Sumitaka*; et al.
Radiation Measurements, 132, p.106256_1 - 106256_4, 2020/03
Internal radiation therapy with Cu-64 concentrates energy deposition in tumor cells by virtue of released Auger electrons with low energy. In our previous study, we have attached the solutions at the surface of Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detector (FNTD) and succeeded in measuring the absorbed doses of Auger electrons registered in FNTD. However, because there are several types of radiation emitted from the source, i.e., beta rays, positron etc., the contribution degree of Auger electron to energy concentration remain uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the spatial dose distribution in the FNTD based on Monte Carlo simulation with PHITS and GEANT4, and evaluated high dose deposited by Auger electrons. The dose distribution calculated by the PHITS code is exactly equivalent to that by Geant4. Also, the simulations are well agreement with experimental results. If the contribution of Auger electrons is ignored, the significantly high absorbed dose proximal to the source is not properly reduced. These findings demonstrate that Auger electrons work very effectively to kill cancer cells proximal to Cu-64 source while minimizing damage effects on normal cells distal to the source.
Morishita, Yuki; Kaneko, Junichi*; Higuchi, Mikio*; Izaki, Kenji; Yajima, Tatsuo*; Matsuura, Mitsugu*; Tamura, Ken; Torii, Tatsuo
Radiation Measurements, 122, p.115 - 120, 2019/03
Morishita, Yuki; Yamamoto, Seiichi*; Izaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Junichi*; Hoshi, Katsuya; Torii, Tatsuo
Radiation Measurements, 112, p.1 - 5, 2018/05
To detect plutonium isotopes (Pu, Pu, and Pu) in a field of high beta and background, an alpha particle detector with low beta and -ray sensitivity is required. Therefore, we optimized the thickness of the GAGG scintillator for alpha particle detection in a field of high beta and background. We prepared three GAGG scintillators with thicknesses of 0.05 mm, 0.07 mm, and 0.1 mm. Each of the GAGG scintillators was coupled optically to the SiPM array, which was used as the photodetector. Alpha, beta, and rays were irradiated onto the developed alpha particle detector, and their spectra were obtained. All GAGG scintillators used in this study were not sensitive to rays with a dose rate of 1 mSv/h. The beta count of the 0.05-mm-thick GAGG was only 1/100 that of the 0.1-mm-thick GAGG. Therefore, the 0.05-mm-thick GAGG scintillator is promising from the viewpoint of detecting plutonium contamination in a field with high beta and background.
Morishita, Yuki; Yamamoto, Seiichi*; Izaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Junichi*; Nemoto, Norio
Radiation Measurements, 103, p.33 - 38, 2017/08
Nuclear fuel materials, such as uranium and plutonium (Pu), are handled at nuclear fuel facilities. There are a contamination source of Pu in tight spaces that cannot be directly measured by a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector, such as interspace between a glovebox window and a platform, pipe flange, port cover of vinyl bag, and filter interspaces. Therefore, we developed a new imaging detector called a flexible alpha camera that enables to identify the Pu contamination for tight spaces at work sites. The thickness of the flexible alpha camera was only 1/5 of the ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector, and its efficiency for 4-pi direction was 42.7% for 5.5-MeV alpha particles. Minimal detectable activity (MDA) was 0.014 Bq. Four types of PuO sample, removed from a duct, Bag-In/Bag-Out port, glovebox glove, and vinyl sheet, were measured by the flexible alpha camera and the PuO particle was automatically identified. Using the flexible alpha camera, the Pu contamination source can be quickly detected, preventing the spread of contamination.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Meisenberg, O.*; Tschiersch, J.*
Radiation Measurements, 89, p.8 - 13, 2016/06
In the present study, the methodology for the discriminative determination of thoron and radon emanation rates from a granular material has been examined using a flow-through scintillation cell and so-called sandwich sample. The mathematical model was developed to differentiate total alpha counts into thoron- and radon-associated counts. This method was experimentally validated, and then the detection limits and uncertainties were evaluated to characterize this method. It was concluded that the present method is advantageous to a sample that has much higher Ra activity than Ra if the emanation fractions are similar between thoron and radon.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Meisenberg, O.*; Tschiersch, J.*
Radiation Measurements, 77, p.41 - 45, 2015/06
When a scintillation cell is used for radon measurement, detection efficiencies for individual alpha emitters (Rn, Po and Po) are required depending on the methods of data analysis. The present study describes an attempt to obtain an empirical parameter which is necessary to calculate their individual detection efficiencies in the flow-through cell: the fraction of the progeny generated in the cell which is deposited onto the wall. As a result, an empirical formula was acquired to estimate the deposition fraction of Po as a function of flow rate. This result is helpful in understanding the characteristics of the scintillation cell. The empirical formula derived in this study can also be applied to predicting the behavior of thoron progeny (Pb and its progeny) in continuous thoron measurements with the flow-through scintillation cell.
Rhm, W.*; Mares, V.*; Pioch, C.*; Agosteo, S.*; Endo, Akira; Ferrarini, M.*; Rakhno, I.*; Rollet, S.*; Satoh, Daiki; Vincke, H.*
Radiation Measurements, 67, p.24 - 34, 2014/08
In order to investigate the impact of the difference of the transport code on the response calculation of Bonner Sphere, EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) initiated an exercise where six groups having experience in neutron transport calculations with the MC codes (MCNP, MCNPX, FLUKA, PHITS, MARS, or GEANT4) calculated the responses of a bare He proportional counter, a He proportional counter embedded in the middle of a 9 inch polyethylene sphere, and a He proportional counter centred in a 9 inch polyethylene sphere containing a lead shell, at neutron energies of 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 MeV.
Saegusa, Jun; Yasuda, Ryo; Kurikami, Hiroshi
Radiation Measurements, 60, p.53 - 58, 2014/01
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, the fallout deposited in an outdoor swimming pool was observed. At a pool situated 50 km away from the NPP, the average concentrations of radiocesium for the water and sediment were quantified as 170 Bq L and 3.610 Bq kg, respectively. Taking account of these concentrations and of the water balance in and around the pool, the deposition density of radiocesium, as of August 2011, was precisely estimated to be 0.320.03 MBq m ( = 1). The density corroborated the previous results obtained by the other methods, i.e., airborne surveys, in-situ Ge surveys and soil samplings at neighboring locations. The radioactivity concentrations of Sr, Sr, Pu and Pu in the water were all less than the minimum detectable activities - 2, 0.1, 0.002 and 0.002 Bq L, respectively.
Akagi, Takashi*; Yagi, Masashi*; Yamashita, Tomohiro*; Murakami, Masao*; Yamakawa, Yoshiyuki*; Kitamura, Keiji*; Ogura, Koichi; Kondo, Kiminori; Kawanishi, Shunichi*
Radiation Measurements, 59, p.262 - 269, 2013/12
In proton therapy, positron emitters are induced from C andO nuclei by protons on the beam path in the patient. Many studies for monitoring positron emitters with beam-induced PET technique have been performed by various groups to verify the proton beam range and the dose in the patient for quality assurance. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring the production cross sections of positron emitters using standard equipment for proton therapy. The time-activity curve was then obtained with a high-sensitivity PET scanner to extract the number of positron emitters produced in the target. The production cross sections for four reaction channels: O(p,pn)O, O(p,3p3n)C, O(p,2p2n)N, and C(p,pn)C were then measured. The cross sections for the O(p,pn)O reaction channel were consistent with data of previous experiments within the uncertainties, while those of C(p,pn)C were generally lower than data of previous experiments.
Ishihara, Kohei*; Takagi, Keisuke*; Minato, Haruna*; Kawarabayashi, Jun*; Tomita, Hideki*; Maeda, Shigetaka; Naka, Tatsuhiro*; Morishima, Kunihiro*; Nakano, Toshiyuki*; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro*; et al.
Radiation Measurements, 55, p.79 - 82, 2013/08
In order to measure the neutron under a condition of high intensity of -ray background, we made new nuclear emulsion based on non-sensitized OPERA emulsion which had small AgBr grain size (AgBr grain size of 60, 90 and 160 nm). The sensitivity of this new emulsion, which was a correlation between stopping power and grain density, was estimated experimentally by irradiating neutrons with several energies. We also simulated the response to -ray induced electrons and compared with some experimental results by using Co source. The results showed that there might be a threshold energy deposited in one AgBr grain under which it was impossible to develop. We estimated efficiency to the -ray and the neutron with this obtained response of the new emulsion.