Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Sato, Kiminori*; Yamawaki, Masato*; Michishio, Koji*; Oka, Toshitaka; Washio, Masakazu*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 202, p.110590_1 - 110590_6, 2023/01
Because of their different charge states, positrons and positronium (Ps) behave quite differently in macromolecules. The behavior of positively charged positrons is strongly influenced by electrostatic interactions. In nonpolar macromolecules such as polyethylene, energetic positrons, if not incorporated into Ps, fall into a delocalized state. These positrons are sensitively trapped by polar groups, if any. On the other hand, charge-neutral Ps is localized in a free volume regardless of the macromolecule's chemical structure. In this study, we discuss the behavior and annihilation characteristics of positrons and Ps in various macromolecules, emphasizing their differences.
Matsumura, Taichi; Okumura, Keisuke; Fujita, Manabu*; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Terashima, Kenichi; Riyana, E. S.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 199, p.110298_1 - 110298_8, 2022/10
Entani, Shiro*; Sato, Shinichiro*; Honda, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Chihiro*; Taguchi, Tomitsugu*; Yamamoto, Shunya*; Oshima, Takeshi*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 199, p.110369_1 - 110369_7, 2022/10
Ni silicide synthesis by Ni ion beam irradiation into Si attracts attention due to its advantages including the ability of formation of local structures, the controllability of ion beams, the formability of silicide without heat treatment and the high reproducibility of the resulting specimen. In this work, we investigate the local atomic structure of Si implanted with 3.0 MeV Ni ions. Analysis of Ni K-edge fluorescent-yield extended X-ray absorption fine structure reveals that Ni atoms have mixed structure of metallic-like face-centered cubic Ni and NiSi phases at the initial stage of the irradiation and the formation of NiSi promotes significantly with the ion fluence above 10 ions cm. With consideration of the agreement between the ion fluence threshold for the structural transition and the critical Si-amorphization fluence, it is concluded that the amorphization of Si plays an important role in the synthesis of the NiSi phase in Ni-irradiated Si.
Omer, M.; Shizuma, Toshiyuki*; Hajima, Ryoichi*; Koizumi, Mitsuo
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 198, p.110241_1 - 110241_7, 2022/09
Nakagawa, Seiko*; Oka, Toshitaka; Fujii, Kentaro*; Yokoya, Akinari*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 192, p.109884_1 - 109884_5, 2022/03
Radicals produced in crystalline L-alanine-3,3,3-d3 and L-alanine-d4 were observed by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique during 1.5 keV soft X-ray irradiation. The line width of the ESR spectra obtained by the soft X-ray irradiation was 1.5 times wider than that of hard X-rays from a previous report, meaning a higher density of radicals. The efficiency of the radical yield by the soft X-ray irradiation was 10 relative to that by -irradiation. For the soft X-ray irradiation, many radicals will be lost by the efficient radical-radical recombination due to the higher density of the radicals, just as the high-LET irradiation by heavy ions. We concluded that the high LET nature of the lower energy photons leads to the dense radical formation in the crystalline alanine powder.
Kumagai, Yuta; Kimura, Atsushi*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa*; Watanabe, Masayuki
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 191, p.109831_1 - 109831_8, 2022/02
In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of a high-silica zeolite (HMOR) on the radiation-induced degradation of three aromatic chlorides, 2-chlorophenol (2-ClPh), 2-chloroaniline (2-ClAn), and 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2-ClBA), in order to examine its potential to reduce the influence of ions in water matrix in the irradiation treatment of water-soluble organic compounds. In the presence of ions reactive to radicals, the degradation of 2-ClPh in water was inhibited, but the combined use of HMOR much improved the degradation yield. This improvement was attributed to high performance of HMOR in adsorption of 2-ClPh. Similarly, HMOR was effective for adsorption of 2-ClAn and facilitated the 2-ClAn degradation by irradiation. In contrast, HMOR was poor at adsorption of 2-ClBA and consistently the degradation of 2-ClBA in the water-HMOR mixture was inhibited by the radical scavenger. These results demonstrate that HMOR can mitigate the influence of radical scavengers in water.
Ji, Y.-Y.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Hong, S. B.*; Nakama, Shigeo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Mikami, Satoshi
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 179, p.109205_1 - 109205_11, 2021/02
In situ gamma-ray spectrometry using diverse survey platforms has been conducted in contaminated areas with several dose rate levels around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Six survey sites, including two evacuation zones around the FDNPP, were selected for ground-based gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe (high purity Ge) and LaBr(Ce) detectors to assess the radioactive cesium deposition in the ground. The diverse levels of radioactivity of Cs were then distributed to six survey sites from 30 to 3000 kBq m in the measurement period of October 2018. A method to directly calculate the depth profile using in situ measurement was introduced so as to have representation over a wide area, and the results were successfully compared with those of sample analysis at one point in the site.
Matsumura, Taichi; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Katakura, Junichi*; Suzuki, Masahide*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 166, p.108493_1 - 108493_9, 2020/01
In this work, when radiation sources of Cs, Sr and Y were assumed to be put in the front of a plain SUS304 plate as a typical material submerged in water, energy spectra of secondary photons and electrons at the front and back sides of plate were simulated with changing the thickness of plate, and spacing between the source and plate by using a Monte Carlo calculation code of PHITS. In the case of Cs gamma-ray (monochromatic 662 keV), the energy spectra at the front side was smaller than those at the back side due to the existence of plate. Then the dependence of spectra on the plate thickness was observed more clearly at the back side than at the front side. It was clearly shown how the energy spectra of photons and electrons varied with the incident radiation type, the spacing, and the thickness.
Kakitani, Kenta*; Kimata, Tetsuya*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*; Yamamoto, Shunya*; Matsumura, Daiju; Taguchi, Tomitsugu*; Terai, Takayuki*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 153, p.152 - 155, 2018/12
Seko, Noriaki*; Hoshina, Hiroyuki*; Kasai, Noboru*; Shibata, Takuya; Saiki, Seiichi*; Ueki, Yuji*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 143, p.33 - 37, 2018/02
Hirouchi, Jun; Takahara, Shogo; Iijima, Masashi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Munakata, Masahiro
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 140, p.127 - 131, 2017/11
Saegusa, Jun; Yanagisawa, Kayo; Hasumi, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takenori; Uchida, Yoshiaki*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 137, p.210 - 215, 2017/08
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, large-scale radiation monitoring and environmental clean-up activities have been conducted throughout the Fukushima region. Outside air temperatures there reach 40C in summer and -20C in winter, which are beyond the quoted range of many radiation survey instruments. For the purpose, temperature performances of four types of portable Japanese survey instruments which are widely used in Fukushima were experimentally investigated with a temperature-controlled chamber.
Kitazawa, Sin-iti*; Wakai, Eiichi; Aoto, Kazumi
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 127, p.264 - 268, 2016/10
The effects of annealing and double ion irradiation on nuclear structural materials were investigated using a novel, non-destructive, non-contact diagnostic method. A laser-induced and laser-detected surface acoustic wave (SAW) was adopted as a diagnostic system. The SAWs propagation velocity and the SAWs vibration velocity along the normal direction of the surface were measured to investigate mechanical properties of the substrates. Change of the shear modulus was detected in the annealed substrates. Non-linear effect on amplitude of the excited SAW was observed on the double ion irradiated materials. The potential of the SAW diagnostic system for assessing nuclear structural materials was demonstrated.
Yang, S.*; Katsumura, Yosuke*; Yamashita, Shinichi*; Matsuura, Chihiro*; Hiroishi, Daisuke*; Lertnaisat, P.*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 123, p.14 - 19, 2016/06
-radiolysis of boiling water has been investigated. The G-value of H evolution was found to be very sensitive to the purity of water. In high-purity water, both H and O gases were formed in the stoichiometric ratio of 2:1; a negligible amount of HO remained in the liquid phase. The G-values of H and O gas evolution depend on the dose rate: lower dose rates produce larger yields. To clarify the importance of the interface between liquid and gas phase for gas evolution, the gas evolution under Ar gas bubbling was measured. A large amount of H was detected, similar to the radiolysis of boiling water. The evolution of gas was enhanced in a 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution. Deterministic chemical kinetics simulations elucidated the mechanism of radiolysis in boiling water.
Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro*; Muroya, Yusa*; Yamashita, Shinichi*; Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Katsumura, Yosuke*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 119, p.213 - 217, 2016/02
A quick measurement system of a continuous absorption spectrum covering a wide range from 200 to 950 nm was constructed by employing an optical multi-channel detector. Ion beam pulse radiolysis with 12.5 MeV/u He, 18.3 MeV/u C and 17.5 MeV/u Ne ions were performed with the measurement system. Transient absorption spectrum of (SCN) was clearly observed in KSCN aqueous solutions within a few minutes in spite of their very small absorbance, demonstrating high sensitivity of 0.001-0.003 in absorbance in the range from 260 to 660 nm as well as short measurement time of a few minutes. Two different absorption peaks attributed to Br and Br were observed simultaneously in NaBr aqueous solutions, showing powerfulness of the measurement system in overviewing chemical kinetics under ion beam irradiation especially in not well investigated chemical systems.
Shibata, Takuya; Seko, Noriaki; Amada, Haruyo; Kasai, Noboru; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 119, p.247 - 252, 2016/02
Tsukuda, Satoshi*; Takahashi, Ryota*; Seki, Shuhei*; Sugimoto, Masaki; Idesaki, Akira; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Tanaka, Shunichiro*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 118, p.16 - 20, 2016/01
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid nanowires were fabricated by high energy ion beam irradiation to PVP thin films including HPtCl. Single ion hitting caused crosslinking reactions of PVP and reduction of Pt ions within local cylindrical area along an ion trajectory (ion track); therefore, the PVP nanowires including Pt NPs were formed and isolated on Si substrate after wet-development procedure. The number of Pt NPs was easily controlled by the mixed ratio of PVP and HPtCl. However, increasing the amount of HPtCl led to decreasing the radial size and separation of the hybrid nanowires during the wet-development. Additional electron beam irradiation after ion beam improved separation of the nanowires and controlled radial sizes due to an increase in the density of crosslinking points inner the nanowires.
Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari; Ukai, Masatoshi*; Fujii, Kentaro; Watanabe, Ritsuko
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 115, p.1 - 5, 2015/10
Role of secondary electrons on DNA damage have not been understood sufficiently because there still exists a lack of study for thermalization process of an electron in liquid phase. We calculated thermalization lengths and spatial distributions of an electron in liquid water using cross sections for rotation and phonon excitations in a liquid phase. Obtained thermalization lengths are in good agreement with experimental results reported by literatures. Thermalization time was also estimated from time evolution of spatial distributions of the incident electron to be hundreds femtoseconds. From these results, we predict that thermalization and pre-hydration of electron might progress simultaneously. These electrons possibly cause damage in biological molecules in a cell. Particularly severe types of DNA damage consisting of proximately located multiple lesions are potentially induced by reaction of DNA with the thermalized electrons by dissociative electron transfer.
Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari; Ukai, Masatoshi*; Watanabe, Ritsuko
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 108, p.13 - 17, 2015/03
Role of secondary electrons on DNA damage have not been understood sufficiently because there still exists a lack of cross section of rotational and phonon excitation in the liquid phase for precise simulation of the electron behavior. We calculated cross sections, stopping powers, and energy loss rates for the excitations in liquid water. The values for rotation are less by three orders of magnitude than those in the gas phase, while the values for phonon are close to those reported for amorphous ice. Thermalization process has so far been estimated from an assumption that the energy loss rates do not depend strongly on the energy below 1 eV. However, we found that the energy loss rates depend significantly on the energy. This fact indicates that the thermalization time will be longer than the previously estimated time, and we predict that thermalization process strongly involve in subsequent hydrated and chemical processes. The data set provide here is expected to useful to make the role of the secondary electrons on DNA damage much clear.
Maeyama, Takuya*; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa*; Ishikawa, Kenichi*; Furuta, Takuya; Fukasaku, Kazuaki*; Takagi, Shu*; Noda, Shigeho*; Himeno, Ryutaro*; Fukuda, Shigekazu*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 107, p.7 - 11, 2015/02
We study the radiological characteristics of VIP polymer gel dosimeters under carbon beam irradiation with energy of 135 and 290 AMeV. To evaluate dose response of VIP polymer gels, the transverse relaxation rate R2 of the dosimeters measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), rather than penetration depth, as is usually done in previous reports. LET is evaluated by use of the particle transport simulation code PHITS. Our results reveal that the dose response decreases with increasing dose-averaged LET and that the response-LET relation also varies with incident carbon beam energy. The latter can be explained by taking into account the contribution from fragmentation products. Furthermore, as an application of the evaluated response-LET relation, we compare the measured and simulated R2 distribution in a VIP gel formed by heterogeneous irradiation and obtain agreement in overall distribution and range within an accuracy of 5% and 1-2 mm, respectively.