Kowatari, Munehiko*; Nagamoto, Keisuke*; Nakagami, Koichi*; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Moritake, Takashi*; Kunugita, Naoki*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 198(17), p.1303 - 1312, 2022/10
Tsuda, Shuichi; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 198(17), p.1283 - 1291, 2022/10
Spherical or cylindrical detectors superior to directional characteristic are commonly used to monitor dose rates in the environment to detect scattering gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides in soil or air. The authors have performed environmental dose rates measurements using various kinds of detectors to investigate the directional characteristics, and experimentally verified the variations in dose rates due to directional characteristics unique to each detector. Furthermore, a dose rate measured by a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector with cuboidal crystal agreed with that by a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector with cylindrical crystal. Simulations by PHITS under various CsI(Tl) crystal configurations revealed that there are certain aspect ratios of cuboidal CsI(Tl) crystal with less directional dependence. Since cubes are advantageous in terms of production cost, this result indicates the potential of CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors with cuboidal crystal for use in the environmental dose rate monitoring.
Tatsuno, Takahiro*; Waki, Hiromichi*; Kakuma, Minato*; Nihei, Naoto*; Wada, Toshihiro*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Ote, Nobuhito*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 198(13-15), p.1052 - 1057, 2022/09
Kuwata, Haruka*; Tazoe, Hirofumi*; Kranrod, C.*; Fujiwara, Kenso; Terashima, Motoki; Matsueda, Makoto; Hirao, Shigekazu*; Akata, Naofumi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 198(13-15), p.1014 - 1018, 2022/09
Hokama, Tomonori; Fujita, Hiroki; Nakano, Masanao; Iimoto, Takeshi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 196(3-4), p.136 - 140, 2021/11
During the early phase of a nuclear accident, major radioactive materials are released into the environment, necessitating the prompt deployment of various protective actions to avoid or reduce radiation exposure. To implement these actions, the levels of radioactivity in the environment should be determined. However, the radioactivity concentrations of artificial alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides such as plutonium are difficult to measure in airborne samples, because they are interfered with natural radionuclides such as uranium decay products. Therefore, chemical separation is required to measure the concentrations. This study presents a new emergency monitoring system for airborne samples, which performs multiple-pulse time-interval analysis (MTA) without chemical separation. The system is used in conjunction with an alpha/beta-particle survey meter and adopted an analysis method focusing on the detected time interval of each particle. Its features are that a short time to output measurement result, easy handling and nondestructive. The estimated detection limit of the system was 9.510 Bq m. The MTA-based monitoring system could be useful in situations requiring prompt measurement and screening of samples.
Tsuda, Shuichi; Tanigaki, Minoru*; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Okumura, Ryo*; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 193(3-4), p.228 - 236, 2021/03
Environmental dose rate monitoring has been performed with various scintillation detectors since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Gamma-rays from caesium isotopes deposited in soil enter radiation detectors in any direction, but directional dependence of the detectors used for dose rate measurements are not always uniform and the dose rates vary even if measurement takes place at the same place. To investigate the influence of crystal configurations on dose rate, dose rate measurements using several scintillation detectors with different crystal configurations were conducted. By measuring pulse height spectra and multiplying them with spectrum - dose conversion operators (G(E) function), dose rates were deduced and compared. It was found that the dose rates varied within approximately 25% among six detectors. To reduce the differences, the dose rate using G(E) functions determined in rotational geometry were obtained and applied instead. The revised dose rates agreed with one another within uncertainties, but this was not the case of scintillation detector with flat crystal shape, and it means this method could not compensate its strong directional dependence. These experimental results reveal that detectors with superior directional characteristics should be used for environmental dose rate measurement since the compensation of directional dependence using a G(E) function determined in rotational geometry is not always available.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Kanzaki, Norie; Tanaka, Hiroshi
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 191(4), p.383 - 390, 2020/10
Estimation of the effective inhalation dose of short half-life radon progeny requires the quantification of radon equilibrium equivalent activity concentrations (EEC). The aim of the present study is to develop new methodology that focuses on spot measurements to determine EEC from single gross alpha counts and determine an optimized protocol. The core of the approach is to measure alpha particles over time when the radon progeny attached to the sampling filter are significantly disintegrated. The calibration curve of single counts to EEC is theoretically deduced and validated by a comparison test. The advantage of the present method is its minimal requirements, including the use of common instruments and simple sampling, alpha counting, and analysis procedures. This approach offers an option for radon practitioners working in a variety of fields, as well as the possibility for non-experts to easily measure EEC.
Manabe, Kentaro; Koyama, Shuji*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(4), p.489 - 496, 2020/05
It is important for radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine to estimate organ absorbed doses in consideration of person-specific parameters. This study proposes a straightforward method for estimating organ doses which reflect an individual organ masses by scaling the reference doses based on the reference human models using the inverse ratio of the individual masses to the reference organ masses. The method was tested for the administration cases of Tc-labelled colloids and I-labelled sodium iodine to confirm the effectiveness of the method. The discrepancies of the doses estimated by the method were sufficiently small in terms of solid organs.
Furuta, Hiroshige*; Tsujimura, Norio; Nishide, Akemi*; Kudo, Shinichi*; Saegusa, Shin*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(3), p.371 - 383, 2020/05
Kowatari, Munehiko; Nishino, Sho; Romallosa, K. M. D.*; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Oishi, Tetsuya
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(4), p.436 - 443, 2020/05
The anisotropic emission of neutrons from a cylindrical X1 Cf source with the spherical external casing was experimentally determined. The influence of metal materials and shapes of the external casing to the anisotropy factor, () was assessed by the Monte Carlo calculation, before performing the measurement. The results of the calculation result implied that light and spherical-shaped external casing decreases the anisotropic emission of neutrons from a cylindrical source and the nature of the material does not affect the anisotropic emission to a large extent. The experimental results obtained when a spherical-shaped aluminum protection case was employed also revealed that the anisotropy factor was close to 1.0 with a wide zenith angle range.
Morishita, Yuki; Usami, Hiroshi; Furuta, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Katsunori; Tsurudome, Koji; Hoshi, Katsuya; Torii, Tatsuo
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(2), p.172 - 181, 2020/04
We developed a remote continuous air monitoring (RCAM) system. The RCAM system consisted of a personal air monitor and a robot. The personal air monitor (poCAMon, SARAD, Germany) had a 400 mm ion-injected silicon detector and a membrane air filter with 25 mm-diameter. The personal air monitor provides the alpha energy spectra for any measurement time interval. Demonstration measurements were taken underground at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) and at a poorly ventilated concrete building. The RCAM system was remotely operated and successfully measured the Rn progeny even though the relative humidity (RH) was almost 100%. In the measured alpha spectra, the peaks of Po (6.0 MeV alpha) and Po (7.7 MeV alpha) were clearly identified. Our developed monitor is promising for alpha dust monitoring in a high gamma-ray environment or contaminated areas where a worker cannot safely physically enter.
Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Kowatari, Munehiko
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(2), p.191 - 198, 2020/02
Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(1), p.1 - 7, 2020/01
After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, most of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities outside Fukushima prefecture has been stored at decontamination sites such as schools, parks and residential lands (storage at sites) according to the Decontamination Guidelines. However, additional exposure due to the present storage has not been evaluated. Moreover, entering storage sites, which is not restricted for storage at sites, was not considered in safety assessment conducted in the guidelines. To continue the storage and confirm the effectiveness, understanding of present possible exposures is important. In this study, we evaluated exposure doses for residents and users of storage sites based on the present situation. As a result, annual doses due to residence were 10 to 10 mSv y and doses due to annual entries were of the order of 10 mSv y. Hence, we confirmed that the exposure due to present storage outside Fukushima is significantly less than 1 mSv y.
Kowatari, Munehiko; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Nishino, Sho; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Oishi, Tetsuya; Kessler, P.*; Neumaier, S.*; Rttger, A.*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 187(1), p.61 - 68, 2019/12
Kowatari, Munehiko; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Nishino, Sho; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Oishi, Tetsuya; Kessler, P.*; Neumaier, S.*; Rttger, A.*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 186(4), P. 538, 2019/12
In the original version of this article an error occurred in Table 5. In section (b), the unit Sv h has been amended to nSv h. The corrected table appears below. The author apologises for this error.
Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sato, Seiji; Matsumoto, Takumi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.311 - 314, 2019/10
There has been significant concern about an increase of exposure dose in living sphere due to the accumulation of radiocesium discharged from contaminated mountainous forest in Fukushima. In this study, we investigated the history of radiocesium deposition on some floodplains in Fukushima. Radiocesium concentrations of river suspended particles and air dose rates at floodplains were also observed continuously. In many situations, annual sediment accumulation at floodplains was only several kg m and its radiocesium concentration was gradually decreasing in line with that of suspended particle. Simultaneously, air dose rates on floodplains were decreasing with time. In 2015 with heavy flood discharge, several hundred kg m of sediment accumulation and sharply decrease of air dose rate was observed at rivers without reservoir. Conversely, radiocesium accumulation at floodplain was significant reduced due to deposition on upstream reservoir.
Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji; Iimoto, Takeshi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.372 - 375, 2019/10
The Ministry of the Environment has indicated the policy of recycling the contaminated soil generated by decontamination activity after the Fukushima accident. By recycling to coastal reclamation which is one of effective recycling application, dissolved radiocesium and absorbed radiocesium on soil particles will flow out to the ocean by construction, therefore evaluating radiocesium transition in ocean considering the both types of radiocesium is important for safety assessment. In this study, the radiocesium outflow during constructing and after constructing is modeled, and radiocesium transition in ocean is evaluated by Sediment model suggested in OECD/NEA. The adaptability of sediment model is confirmed by reproducing evaluation of the coastal area of Fukushima. We incorporate the sediment model to PASCLR2 code system to evaluate the doses from radiocesium in ocean.
Yoshimura, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Kenso; Nakama, Shigeo
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.315 - 318, 2019/10
Sasaki, Miyuki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yamamoto, Akio*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.400 - 404, 2019/10
The maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) method is expected to improve the accuracy of airborne radiation monitoring using an unmanned aerial vehicle. The accuracy of the ML-EM method depends on various parameters, including detector efficiency, attenuation factor, and shielding factor. In this study, we evaluate the shielding factor of trees based on several field radiation measurements. From the actual measurement, the shielding factors were well correlated with the heights of the trees. The evaluated shielding factors were applied to the ML-EM method in conjunction with the measured data obtained from above the Fukushima forest. Compared with the conventional methods used for calculating the dose rate, the proposed method is found to be more reliable.
Tamakuma, Yuki*; Yamada, Ryohei; Suzuki, Takahito*; Kuroki, Tomohiro*; Saga, Rikiya*; Mizuno, Hiroyuki*; Sasaki, Hiroyuki*; Iwaoka, Kazuki*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Tokonami, Shinji*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.307 - 310, 2019/10
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the radiation dose for first responders was not evaluated accurately due to lack of the monitoring data. It has been important to evaluate a radiation dose for workers in emergency response at a nuclear accident. In this study, a new device which can evaluate both of external and internal exposure doses was developed and the performance of various environmental radiation monitors including commercially available monitors were tested and compared from the viewpoint of an environmental monitoring at emergency situation. Background counts of the monitors and the ambient dose equivalent rate were measured in Fukushima Prefecture. The detection limit for beta particles was evaluated by the method of ISO11929. The sensitivity for gamma-rays of the dust monitor using a ZnS(Ag) and a plastic scintillator was high, but that of the external exposure monitor using a silicon photodiode with CsI(Tl) crystal was relatively low. The detection limit ranged 190-280 Bq m at 100 Sv h, exceeding the detection limit of 100 Bq m in the minimum requirement by the National Regulation Authority in Japan. Use of the shielding with lead is necessary to achieve the minimum requirement. These results indicate that the dust monitor using a ZnS(Ag) scintillator and a plastic scintillator is suitable for the external exposure monitor and the developed internal exposure monitor is for the internal exposure monitor at emergency situation among the evaluated monitors. In the future study, the counting efficiency, the relative uncertainty and the performance of the detection for alpha particles will be evaluated, and it will be considered which type of a monitor is suitable after taking the portability into account.