Koma, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Erina
Radiochimica Acta, 107(9-11), p.965 - 977, 2019/09
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, which is owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company, suffered from the great earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and serious contamination with radioactive nuclides occurred. To investigate methodologies of waste management, contaminated materials have been radiochemically analyzed. This paper reviews the analytical data for actinide elements. Actinide nuclides are detected in the contaminated water. The contaminated water is chemically decontaminated, although actinide concentration does not decrease with time. This suggests that actinides come from the damaged fuel with slow dissolution. From the topsoil at the site, Pu, Am and Cm were detected and come from the damaged fuel, whereas U from natural. TRU would slowly move to deeper. Contamination of rubble is nonuniform and actinides are detected as well as fission products. For vegetation, TRU nuclides were found from fallen leaves near the reactor buildings.
Radiochimica Acta, 107(9-11), p.803 - 819, 2019/09
Schdel, M.*; Nagame, Yuichiro
Radiochimica Acta, 107(7), p.561 - 585, 2019/07
Simonnet, M.; Barr, N.*; Drot, R.*; Le Naour, C.*; Sladkov, V.*; Delpech, S.*
Radiochimica Acta, 107(4), p.289 - 297, 2019/04
Yokoyama, Akihiko*; Kitayama, Yuta*; Fukuda, Yoshiki*; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi*; Murakami, Masashi*; Komori, Yukiko*; Yano, Shinya*; Haba, Hiromitsu*; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Toyoshima, Atsushi*
Radiochimica Acta, 107(1), p.27 - 32, 2019/01
Lens, L.*; Yakushev, A.*; Dllmann, Ch. E.*; Asai, Masato; Ballof, J.*; Block, M.*; David, H. M.*; Despotopulos, J.*; Di Nitto, A.*; Eberhardt, K.*; et al.
Radiochimica Acta, 106(12), p.949 - 962, 2018/12
Online gas-solid adsorption studies with single atom quantities of Hg, Tl, and Pb on SiO and Au surfaces were carried out using short-lived radioisotopes with half-lives in the range of 4-49 s. This is a model study to measure adsorption enthalpies of superheavy elements Cn, Nh, and Fl. The short-lived isotopes were produced and separated by the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at GSI. The products were stopped in He gas, and flushed into gas chromatography columns made of Si detectors whose surfaces were covered by SiO or Au. The short-lived Tl and Pb were successfully measured by the Si detectors with the SiO surface at room temperature. On the other hand, the Hg did not adsorb on the SiO surface, but adsorbed on the Au surface. The results demonstrated that the adsorption properties of short-lived Hg, Tl, and Pb could be studied with this setup, and that this method is applicable to the experiment for Cn, Nh, and Fl.
Rai, D.*; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, K.*
Radiochimica Acta, 105(8), p.637 - 647, 2017/08
Solubility of HfO(am) was determined as a function of KHCO concentrations ranging from 0.001 mol.kg to 0.1 mol.kg. The solubility of HfO(am) increased dramatically with the increase in KHCO concentrations, indicating that Hf(IV) makes strong complexes with carbonate. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the formation of Hf-carbonate complexes were determined using both the Pitzer and SIT models. The dramatic increase in Hf concentrations with the increase in KHCO concentrations can best be described by the formation of Hf(OH-)(CO) and Hf(CO). The log K values for the reactions [Hf + 2 CO +2 OH Hf(OH)(CO)] and [Hf + 5 CO Hf(CO)], based on the SIT model, were determined to be 44.53 0.46 and 41.53 0.46, respectively.
Rai, D.*; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, K. M.*; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Kobayashi, Taishi*
Radiochimica Acta, 104(8), p.583 - 592, 2016/08
Solubility studies were conducted with HfO(cr) solid as a function of acid concentrations. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO(am) converts to HfO(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models. The log of the solubility product of HfO(cr) is estimated. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.
Usoltsev, I.*; Eichler, R.*; Wang, Y.*; Even, J.*; Yakushev, A.*; Haba, Hiromitsu*; Asai, Masato; Brand, H.*; Di Nitto, A.*; Dllmann, Ch. E.*; et al.
Radiochimica Acta, 104(3), p.141 - 151, 2016/03
Conditions of the production and decomposition of hexacarbonyl complexes of short-lived Mo and W isotopes were investigated to study thermal stability of the heaviest group 6 hexacarbonyl complex Sg(CO). A tubular flow reactor was tested to decompose the hexacarbonyl complexes and to extract the first bond dissociation energies. A silver was found to be the most appropriate reaction surface to study the decomposition of the group 6 hexacarbonyl. It was found that the surface temperature at which the decomposition occurred was correlated to the first bond dissociation energy of Mo(CO) and W(CO), indicating that the first bond dissociation energy of Sg(CO) could be determined with this technique.
Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*; Yamana, Hajimu*; Okamoto, Yoshihiro
Radiochimica Acta, 104(1), p.1 - 9, 2016/01
The spectroelectrochemical cell was fabricated for in-situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement. The XAFS spectra of U L-edge were monitored in electrolyte solutions during the electrochemical reduction. Tetravalent uranium was electrochemically prepared from hexavalent uranium and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) was analyzed. The U formed in 0.1M HNO was partially re-oxidized to UO by NO in the solution. The UO carbonates were prepared during electrolysis.
Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Takeda, Seiji; Nishimura, Yuki; Iida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tadao
Radiochimica Acta, 102(11), p.999 - 1008, 2014/11
An attempt was made to select thermodynamic data with uncertainties and to evaluate the solubility of radioelements with uncertainties considering variation in groundwater chemistry. The thermodynamic data was selected by reviewing the JAEA-TDB released in 2012. Data for Nb, Pd and Pa were revised from the viewpoint of the consistency of the data selection process. Data for Se, U and Pa were revised from the viewpoint of the conservativeness. Up-to-date ternary calcium-metal(IV)-OH complexes were adopted for Zr, Th, U, Np and Pu. A Monte Carlo-based probabilistic calculation code, PA-SOL, was used for probabilistic analysis of the solubility.
Ban, Yasutoshi; Hakamatsuka, Yasuyuki; Tsutsui, Nao; Urabe, Shunichi; Hagiya, Hiromichi; Matsumura, Tatsuro
Radiochimica Acta, 102(9), p.775 - 780, 2014/09
Optical absorption spectra of Np in 3 mol/dm nitric acid at elevated temperatures were measured using an optical glass cell with a water jacket having a light path of 1 cm, and molar extinction coefficients of Np(VI), , were obtained at various temperature. The values of was found to decrease with increasing the temperature, and could be described by the equation = -0.14+85.5, where is the temperature. Oxidation of Np(V) to Np(VI) in 3 mol/dm nitric acid at elevated temperatures was observed using the optical glass cell. Oxidation of Np(V) proceeded as pseudo-first order with respect to Np(V) concentration. The rate equation in the temperature range of 336-362 K was obtained as follows: -d[Np(V)]/dt = 2.210 exp[-6510/()][Np(V)], where and [Np(V)] indicate the gas constant and Np(V) concentration at time , respectively.
Rai, D.*; Felmy, A. R.*; Moore, D. A.*; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*
Radiochimica Acta, 102(8), p.711 - 721, 2014/08
The solubility of Ba(SeO, SO) precipitates was determined as a function of the BaSeO mole fractions, ranging from 0.0015 to 0.3830, and time with an equilibration period extending to as long as 302 days. Equilibrium/steady state conditions in this system are reached in 65 days. Pitzer's ion interaction model was used to calculate solid and aqueous phase activity coefficients. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the data do not satisfy Gibbs-Duhem equation, thereby demonstrating that a single-solid solution phase does not control both the selenate and sulfate concentrations. Our extensive data with [Ba], [SeO], and [SO] can be explained with the formation of an ideal BaSeO solid solution phase that controls the selenium concentrations and a slightly disordered/less-crystalline BaSO(s) that controls the sulfate concentrations. In these experiments the BaSO component of the solid solution phase never reaches thermodynamic equilibrium with the aqueous phase. Thermodynamic interpretations of the data show that both the ideal BaSeO solid solution phase and less-crystalline BaSO(s) phase are in equilibrium with each other in the entire range of BaSeO mole fractions investigated in this study.
Rai, D.*; Felmy, A. R.*; Moore, D. A.*; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi*
Radiochimica Acta, 102(9), p.817 - 830, 2014/04
The aqueous solubility of BaSeO(cr) was studied in NaSeO solutions ranging in concentration from 0.0001 to 4.1 mol.kg and maintained in a N atmosphere at room temperature (296 2 K). The studies were conducted from both the undersaturation and oversaturation directions, with equilibration periods ranging from 3 to 596 days. The equilibrium in this system was reached rather rapidly ( 3 days). The SIT and Pitzer's ion-interaction models were used to interpret these data and the predictions based on both of these models agreed closely with the experimental data.
Sato, Nozomi; Sato, Tetsuya; Asai, Masato; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Li, Z.*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Nagame, Yuichiro; Schdel, M.; Haba, Hiromitsu*; et al.
Radiochimica Acta, 102(3), p.211 - 219, 2014/03
Production cross-sections of the isotope Lr in the Cf + B, Am + O, and Cm + N reactions were measured using a He/KCl gas-jet transport system and a rotating wheel -particle detection apparatus. The -particle energy of Lr was distributed from 8.3 to 8.7 MeV and its half-life, , was measured to be s. The maximum cross sections in the Cf(B, 4)Lr and Am(O, 5)Lr reactions were determined to be nb at the beam energy of 63 MeV and nb at 96 MeV, respectively. In the Cm(N, 6)Lr reaction, the cross section was measured to be nb at 91 MeV.
Miyamoto, Yutaka; Esaka, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Daisuke; Magara, Masaaki
Radiochimica Acta, 101(11), p.745 - 748, 2013/11
Age-dating of single plutonium particles with diameters of 1 m was demonstrated using eight particles. The precision and accuracy of the Pu age were improved through the addition of an Am spike to the sample solutions and by the trace chemical separation of the Pu and Am. The determined age in this work was in good agreement with the expected age with high accuracy and precision. The age with this technique was more precise than that determined using the common technique without an Am spike.
Arisaka, Makoto; Watanabe, Masayuki; Kimura, Takaumi
Radiochimica Acta, 101(11), p.711 - 717, 2013/11
Four new alkyl-pyridinedicarboxyamides (R-PDA; R = butyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl) were synthesized and used as extractants for partitioning minor actinides from high level radioactive waste using extraction chromatography. The R-PDAs were successfully impregnated into XAD resins (Amberlite). The prepared adsorbents, R-PDA/XAD, exhibited moderate adsorptions of both Am(III) and Eu(III), and separation between Am(III) and Eu(III), over a high HNO concentration range (3-5 M). Deterioration of the prepared adsorbent as a result of contact with HNO solution was prevented by using R-PDAs containing longer alkyl groups. The equilibrium data for Eu(III) were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption of Eu(III) ions onto the R-PDA/XAD was fitted better to the Langmuir isotherm than to the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 24.2 mg Eu/g (R-PDA/XAD).
Ban, Yasutoshi; Morita, Yasuji
Radiochimica Acta, 100(12), p.879 - 883, 2012/12
Optical absorption spectra of Pu(IV) in 3 mol/dm (M) nitric acid at 373 K were measured using an optical quartz cell equipped with a thin-film heater. Pu(IV) was oxidized to Pu(VI) by heating at 373 K, and the concentrations of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) gradually decreased and increased, respectively, with the heating time. The ratio of Pu(IV) oxidized to Pu(VI) was 37% at a heating time of 394 min, and no Pu(III) or Pu(V) characteristic peaks were observed throughout the experiment. The oxidation rate of Pu(IV) in 3 M nitric acid at 373 K could be described by the equation -d[Pu(IV)]/d =[Pu(IV)]-[Pu(VI)], where [Pu(IV)] and [Pu(VI)] were the concentrations of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) at a heating time of t min. The apparent rate constants for Pu(IV) oxidation () and Pu(VI) reduction () at 373 K were calculated to be 2.310min and 3.410min, respectively.
Nakahara, Masaumi; Nomura, Kazunori
Radiochimica Acta, 100(11), p.821 - 826, 2012/11
A relationship between crystal size and decontamination factor of impurities for uranyl nitrate hexahydrate crystals was examined with a dissolver solution of irradiated fast reactor fuel. The large crystal size reduced the specific surface area of the crystals which in turn decreased the adhesion of liquid impurities on the surface of the crystals. Therefore, high decontamination factors of liquid impurities were achieved. However, the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate crystal size did not affect the decontamination of solid impurities in the experiments.
Nagame, Yuichiro; Nakahara, Hiromichi*
Radiochimica Acta, 100(8-9), p.605 - 614, 2012/08