Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Kondo, Akira*
Science of the Total Environment, 876, p.162846_1 - 162846_12, 2023/06
We conducted 30 years simulation of environmental fate of Cs in the Abukuma River basin considering the characteristics of the Cs behavior in land uses. Overall, in the Abukuma River basin, the Cs transported into the ocean for 30 years was estimated to correspond to 4.6% of the initial deposition in the basin, and the effective half-life of Cs deposited in the basin was estimated to be 3.7 years shorter (by 11.6%) than its physical half-life. These results suggested that Cs deposited from the accident could still remain for decades. Based on the analysis of the Cs behavior in land use, in 2011, the contribution of Cs export to the ocean from urban lands was estimated to correspond to 70% of the total Cs export. Meanwhile, from 2012 to 2040, the contribution of Cs export from agricultural lands was estimated to correspond to 75% of the total Cs export. The reduction ratios excluding radioactive decay of Cs remained in areas with and without human activities for 30 years after the accident, defined as the ratios of the total outflow to the initial deposition, were estimated to be 11.5%-17.7% and 0.4%-1.4%, respectively. These results suggested that human activities enhance the reduction of Cs remaining in land in the past and future.
Battulga, B.; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Koarashi, Jun
Science of the Total Environment, 849, p.157758_1 - 157758_11, 2022/11
Characterizing plastic-associated biofilms is key to the better understanding of organic material and mineral cycling in the "Plastisphere"-the thin layer of microbial life on plastics. In this study, we propose a new method to extract biofilms from environmental plastics, in order to evaluate the properties of biofilm-derived organic matter through stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope signatures and their interactions with radionuclides especially radiocesium (Cs). After ultrasound-assisted separation from the plastics, biofilm samples were successfully collected via a sequence of syringe treatments. Biofilm-derived organic matter samples (14.5-65.4 mg) from four river mouths in Japan showed Cs activity concentrations of 75 to 820 Bq kg biofilm (dw), providing evidence that environmental plastics, mediated by developed biofilms, serve as a carrier for Cs in the coastal environment. Significant differences in the (C and N signatures were also obtained for the biofilms, indicating the different sources, pathways, and development processes of biofilms on plastics.
Johansen, M. P.*; Child, D. P.*; Collins, R.*; Cook, M.*; Davis, J.*; Hotchkis, M. A. C.*; Howard, D. L.*; Howell, N.*; Ikeda, Atsushi; Young, E.*
Science of the Total Environment, 842, p.156755_1 - 156755_11, 2022/10
Suzuki, Shotaro*; Amano, Yosuke*; Enomoto, Masahiro*; Matsumoto, Akira*; Morioka, Yoshiaki*; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Kaeriyama, Hideki*; Miura, Hikaru*; Tsumune, Daisuke*; et al.
Science of the Total Environment, 831, p.154670_1 - 154670_15, 2022/07
Wu, C.*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Tani, Yukinori*; Bi, X.*; Liu, J.*; Yu, Q.*
Science of the Total Environment, 821, p.153265_1 - 153265_9, 2022/05
Microplastics (MPs) with different particle sizes were co-cultured with a model freshwater fungus, strain KR21-2, to form biofilms on their surface. We also determined the changes in surface physicochemical properties of the biofilm-covered MPs (BMPs) and the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the original MPs and BMPs. The results revealed that the biofilms improve the adsorption of heavy metals on MPs, and the particle size of MPs plays a crucial role in biofilm colonization and adsorption of heavy metals by BMPs.
Ota, Masakazu; Koarashi, Jun
Science of the Total Environment, 816, p.151587_1 - 151587_21, 2022/04
In forests affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, trees became contaminated with Cs. However, Cs transfer processes determining tree contamination (particularly for stem wood, which is a prominent commercial resource in Fukushima) remain insufficiently understood. This study proposes a model for simulating the dynamic behavior of Cs in a forest tree-litter-soil system and applied it to two contaminated forests (cedar plantation and natural oak stand) in Fukushima. The model-calculated results and inter-comparison of the results with measurements elucidated the relative impact of distinct Cs transfer processes determining tree contamination. The transfer of Cs to trees occurred mostly ( 99%) through surface uptake of Cs directly trapped by leaves or needles and bark during the fallout. By contrast, root uptake of Cs from the soil was unsubstantial and several orders of magnitude lower than the surface uptake over a 50-year period following the accident. As a result, the internal contamination of the trees proceeded through an enduring recycling (translocation) of Cs absorbed on the tree surface at the time of the accident. A significant surface uptake of Cs at the bark was identified, contributing 100% (leafless oak tree) and 30% (foliated cedar tree; the remaining surface uptake occurred at the needles) of the total Cs uptake by trees. It was suggested that the trees growing at the study sites are currently (as of 2021) in a decontamination phase; the activity concentration of Cs in the stem wood decreases by 3% per year, mainly through radioactive decay of Cs and partly through a dilution effect from tree growth.
Uchiyama, Yusuke*; Tokunaga, Natsuki*; Azuma, Kohei*; Kamidaira, Yuki; Tsumune, Daisuke*; Iwasaki, Toshiki*; Yamada, Masatoshi*; Tateda, Yutaka*; Ishimaru, Takashi*; Ito, Yukari*; et al.
Science of the Total Environment, 816, p.151573_1 - 151573_13, 2022/04
no abstracts in English
Funaki, Hironori; Tsuji, Hideki*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Seiji*
Science of the Total Environment, 812, p.152534_1 - 152534_10, 2022/03
Reservoir sediments generally act as a sink for radionuclides derived from nuclear accidents, but under anaerobic conditions, several radionuclides remobilise in bioavailable form from sediment to water columns, which may contribute to a long-term contamination in aquatic products. This study systematically investigated the Cs activities between sediment and pore water, which is a direct evidence of the remobilisation of bioavailable Cs from sediments, in two highly contaminated reservoirs affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Our results strongly indicate a competitive ion exchange process between Cs and NH via a highly selective interaction with the frayed edges sites of phyllosilicate minerals to be the major reason for the variability of the Kd values between sediment and pore water, even in the Fukushima case.
Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Machida, Masahiko; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Iwata, Ayako; Yamada, Susumu; Iijima, Kazuki
Science of the Total Environment, 806(3), p.151344_1 - 151344_8, 2022/02
Igarashi, Yasunori*; Onda, Yuichi*; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroaki*; Kozuka, Shohei*; Manome, Ryo*
Science of the Total Environment, 769, p.144706_1 - 144706_9, 2021/05
Tanaka, Kazuya; Kanasashi, Tsutomu*; Takenaka, Chisato*; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Science of the Total Environment, 755(Part 2), p.142598_1 - 142598_8, 2021/02
In this study, we investigated coordination structures of Cs in Cs-doped bark, sapwood, heartwood, needle, and branch samples of trees collected in Fukushima by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We examined four representative tree species in Fukushima, , , , and . EXAFS spectra suggested that Cs was adsorbed as an outer-sphere complex on all parts of the four species, with electrostatic binding to negatively charged functional groups in components of tree tissues. These results were supported by extraction experiments where most of the sorbed Cs was desorbed from all parts of each tree species using 1 M CHCOONH.
Kinoshita, Norikazu*; Nagaoka, Mika; Nakanishi, Takashi*
Science of the Total Environment, 753, p.142087_1 - 142087_10, 2021/01
The distribution of the anthropogenic radionuclide americium-241 (Am), a decay product of Pu discharged from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons, was investigated to resolve its horizontal and vertical migration in the Tropical East Pacific. We analyzed Am concentrations in seawater samples collected in 2003. On comparing the Am concentrations with the previously determined concentrations of Pu in the same samples, the vertical profiles of Am were found to be similar to those of Pu. At some stations, the maximum concentration of Am occurred 100-200 m deeper than that of Pu. The Am/Pu ratios in the North Pacific and South Pacific were comparable to one another, and were typical of the ratio for the Pacific. The Am distribution was influenced by the water mass at depths below 400 m. The Am data support the view there is a current flowing at depths of 400-3000 m from the North Pacific through the equator to the South Pacific. In addition, the Am vertical profile was explained by using a box model that considers the decay of Pu and adsorption and scavenging by suspended particles. The different depths for the maximum concentrations of Am and Pu observed at some stations were well explained by the model and by the distribution of CaCO particles. The residence time of Am in the Pacific was also estimated by using the model.
Hosoda, Masahiro*; Nugraha, E. D.*; Akata, Naofumi*; Yamada, Ryohei; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Sasaki, Michiya*; Kelleher, K.*; Yoshinaga, Shinji*; Suzuki, Takahito*; Rattanapongs, C. P.*; et al.
Science of the Total Environment, 750, p.142346_1 - 142346_11, 2021/01
The biological effects of low dose-rate radiation exposures on humans remains unknown. In fact, the Japanese nation still struggles with this issue after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Recently, we have found a unique area in Indonesia where naturally high radiation levels are present, resulting in chronic low dose-rate radiation exposures. We aimed to estimate the comprehensive dose due to internal and external exposures at the particularly high natural radiation area, and to discuss the enhancement mechanism of radon. A car-borne survey was conducted to estimate the external doses from terrestrial radiation. Indoor radon measurements were made in 47 dwellings over three to five months, covering the two typical seasons, to estimate the internal doses. Atmospheric radon gases were simultaneously collected at several heights to evaluate the vertical distribution. The absorbed dose rates in air in the study area vary widely between 50 nGy h and 1109 nGy h. Indoor radon concentrations ranged from 124 Bq m to 1015 Bq m. That is, the indoor radon concentrations measured exceed the reference levels of 100 Bq m recommended by the World Health Organization. Furthermore, the outdoor radon concentrations measured were comparable to the high indoor radon concentrations. The annual effective dose due to external and internal exposures in the study area was estimated to be 27 mSv using the median values. It was found that many residents are receiving radiation exposure from natural radionuclides over the dose limit for occupational exposure to radiation workers. This enhanced outdoor radon concentration might be as a result of the stable atmospheric conditions generated at an exceptionally low altitude. Our findings suggest that this area provides a unique opportunity to conduct an epidemiological study related to health effects due to chronic low dose-rate radiation exposure.
Funaki, Hironori; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Katengeza, E. W.*
Science of the Total Environment, 743, p.140668_1 - 140668_9, 2020/11
Tachi, Yukio; Sato, Tomofumi*; Akagi, Yosuke*; Kawamura, Makoto*; Nakane, Hideji*; Terashima, Motoki; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki
Science of the Total Environment, 724, p.138098_1 - 138098_11, 2020/07
To understand and predict radiocesium transport behaviors in the environment, highly contaminated sediments from Ukedo and Odaka rivers around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were investigated systematically focusing on key factors controlling radiocesium sorption and fixation, including particle size, clay mineralogy and organic matter.
Tachi, Yukio; Sato, Tomofumi*; Takeda, Chizuko*; Ishidera, Takamitsu; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki
Science of the Total Environment, 724, p.138097_1 - 138097_10, 2020/07
To understand and predict radiocesium transport behaviors in the environment, sorption and fixation behaviors of radiocesium on river sediments from Ukedo and Odaka rivers around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were investigated systematically focusing on Cs sorption and fixation mechanisms and their relationship with Cs concentrations and sediment properties including clay mineralogy and organic matter.
Ota, Masakazu; Terada, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Hidenao*; Kakiuchi, Hideki*
Science of the Total Environment, 704, p.135319_1 - 135319_15, 2020/02
Land-surface transfers of I are modeled and incorporated into a land-surface model (SOLVEG-II), and the model was applied to the observed transfer of I at a vegetated field impacted by atmospheric releases of I from Rokkasho reprocessing plant during 2007 to investigate the importance of each I-transfer pathway. The model calculation revealed that contamination of leaves of wild bamboo grasses was mostly caused by foliar adsorption of I (81%) induced via wet deposition of I. Wet deposition of I was the main I-input to the soil, ten-fold the dry deposition of I; however, the deposition of I during 2007 was only 2% of the model-assumed I that pre-existed in the soil; indicating the importance of long-term accumulation of I in soils. The model calculation also revealed that root uptake of I, not methylation, control the long-term turnover of soil I.
Tsuji, Hideki*; Ishii, Yumiko*; Shin, M.*; Taniguchi, Keisuke*; Arai, Hirotsugu*; Kurihara, Momo*; Yasutaka, Tetsuo*; Kuramoto, Takayuki*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Lee, S*; et al.
Science of the Total Environment, 697, p.134093_1 - 134093_11, 2019/12
To investigate the main factors that control the dissolved radiocesium concentration in river water in the area affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the correlations between the dissolved Cs concentrations at 66 sites normalized to the average Cs inventories for the watersheds with the land use, soil components, topography, and water quality factors were assessed. We found that the topographic wetness index is significantly and positively correlated with the normalized dissolved Cs concentration. Similar positive correlations have been found for European rivers because wetland areas with boggy organic soils that weakly retain Cs are mainly found on plains. However, for small Japanese river watersheds, the building area ratio in the watershed strongly affected the dissolved Cs concentration.
Lin, P.*; Xu, C.*; Kaplan, D. I.*; Chen, H.*; Yeager, C. M.*; Xing, W.*; Sun, L.*; Schwehr, K. A.*; Yamazaki, Hideo*; Kokubu, Yoko; et al.
Science of the Total Environment, 678, p.409 - 418, 2019/08
Nagasaki sediments containing bomb-derived Pu provided a unique opportunity to explore the long term geochemical behavior of Pu. Through a combination of selective extractions and molecular characterization via electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we determined that 55 3% of the Pu was preferentially associated with more persistent organic matter compounds in Nagasaki sediments, particularly those natural organic matter (NOM) stabilized by Fe oxides. Other organic matter compounds served as a secondary sink of these Pu (31 2% on average), and less than 20% of the Pu was immobilized by inorganic mineral particles. While present long-term disposal and environmental remediation modeling assume that solubility limits and sorption to mineral surfaces control Pu subsurface mobility, our observations suggest that NOM undoubtedly plays an important role in sequestering Pu. Ignoring the role of NOM in controlling Pu fate and transport is not justified in most environmental systems.
Sanada, Yukihisa; Katata, Genki*; Kaneyasu, Naoki*; Nakanishi, Chika*; Urabe, Yoshimi*; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu*
Science of the Total Environment, 618, p.881 - 890, 2018/03
Although the reconstruction of atmospheric deposition processes of radiocesium during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident is essential, the whole picture of the deposition mechanism in complex topography has not been well understood yet. To understand atmospheric deposition processes of aerosols over the complex mountainous topography, we analyzed altitudinal characteristics of radiocesium released during the accident. At five selected mountainous areas in the eastern Japan, altitudinal characters of air dose rate observed by our high-resolution airborne surveys after the accident was analyzed based on the results of three typical (dry, wet, and cloud water) deposition obtained from the latest atmospheric dispersion.