Fujita, Moe*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Saito, Susumu*; Yamashiki, Yosuke*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.17091_1 - 17091_9, 2021/09
Radiation exposure to flight crews and passengers, which is called aviation exposure, is an important topic in radiological protection, particularly due to solar energetic particles (SEP). We assessed the risks against the counter measure costs to reduce SEP doses and dose rates for eight flight routes during five ground level enhancements (GLE). A four-dimensional dose-rate database developed by the Warning System for Aviation Exposure to Solar Energetic Particles, WASAVIES, was employed in the SEP dose evaluation. Our calculations suggest that GLE that is enough to request a change in flight conditions occurs once per 47 and 17 years respectively, in the case of following the dose and dose-rate regulations. The annual risks against the counter measure costs are up to around 1500 USD per long-distance and high-latitude flight.
Fujiwara, Hidenori*; Umetsu, Rie*; Kuroda, Fumiaki*; Miyawaki, Jun*; Kashiuchi, Toshiyuki*; Nishimoto, Kohei*; Nagai, Kodai*; Sekiyama, Akira*; Irizawa, Akinori*; Takeda, Yukiharu; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.18654_1 - 18654_9, 2021/09
Nugraha, E. D.*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Kusdiana*; Untara*; Mellawati, J.*; Nurokhim*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Ikram, A.*; Syaifudin, M.*; Yamada, Ryohei; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.14578_1 - 14578_16, 2021/07
Mamuju is one of the regions in Indonesia which retains natural conditions but has relatively high exposure to natural radiation. The goals of the present study were to characterize exposure of the entire Mamuju region as a high natural background radiation area (HNBRA) and to assess the existing exposure as a means for radiation protection of the public and the environment. A cross-sectional study method was used with cluster sampling areas by measuring all parameters that contribute to external and internal radiation exposures. It was determined that Mamuju was a unique HNBRA with the annual effective dose between 17 and 115 mSv, with an average of 32 mSv. The lifetime cumulative dose calculation suggested that Mamuju residents could receive as much as 2.2 Sv on average which is much higher than the average dose of atomic bomb survivors for which risks of cancer and non-cancer diseases are demonstrated. The study results are new scientific data allowing better understanding of health effects related to chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposure and they can be used as the main input in a future epidemiology study.
Kofu, Maiko; Watanuki, Ryuta*; Sakakibara, Toshiro*; Kawamura, Seiko; Nakajima, Kenji; Matsuura, Masato*; Ueki, Takeshi*; Akutsu, Kazuhiro*; Yamamuro, Osamu*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.12098_1 - 12098_8, 2021/06
Iizuka, Riko*; Goto, Hirotada*; Shito, Chikara*; Fukuyama, Ko*; Mori, Yuichiro*; Hattori, Takanori; Sano, Asami; Funakoshi, Kenichi*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.12632_1 - 12632_10, 2021/06
The Earth's core consist of Fe-Ni alloy with some light elements (H, C, O, Si, S etc.). Hydrogen (H) is the most abundant element in the universe and one of the promising candidates. In this study, we have investigated the effects of sulfur(S) on hydrogenation of iron-hydrous silicate system containing saturated water in the ideal composition of the primitive Earth. We observed a series of phase transitions of Fe, dehydration of the hydrous mineral, and formation of olivine and enstatite with increasing temperature. The FeS formed as the coexisting phase of Fe under high-pressure and temperature condition, but its unit cell volume did not increase, suggesting that FeS is hardly hydrogenated. Recovered samples exhibited that H and S can be incorporated into solid Fe, which lowers the melting temperature as Fe(H)-FeS system. No detection of other light elements (C, O, Si) in solid Fe suggests that they dissolve into molten iron hydride and/or FeS in the later process of Earth's core-mantle differentiation.
Kosugi, Yoshihisa*; Goto, Matato*; Tan, Z.*; Kan, Daisuke*; Isobe, Masahiko*; Yoshii, Kenji; Mizumaki, Masaichiro*; Fujita, Asaya*; Takagi, Hidenori*; Shimakawa, Yuichi*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.12682_1 - 12682_8, 2021/06
Caloric effects of solids provide more efficient and environment-friendly innovative refrigeration systems compared to the widely-used conventional vapor compressive cooling systems. Exploring novel caloric materials is challenging but critically important in developing future technologies. Here we discovered that the quadruple perovskite structure ferrimagnet BiCuCrO shows a large multicaloric effect at the first-order charge transition occurred around 190 K. Large latent heat and the corresponding isothermal entropy changes 28.2 J K kg can be fully utilized by applying both magnetic fields (magnetocaloric effect) and pressure (barocaloric effect). Adiabatic temperature changes reach 3.9 K for the 50 kOe magnetic field and 4.8 K for the 4.9 kbar pressure, and thus highly efficient thermal controls are achieved by multiple ways.
Takahashi, Atsushi*; Chiba, Mirei*; Tanahara, Akira*; Aida, Jun*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Suzuki, Toshihiko*; Murakami, Shinobu*; Koarai, Kazuma; Ono, Takumi*; Oka, Toshitaka; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.10355_1 - 10355_11, 2021/05
Saga, Ryo*; Matsuya, Yusuke; Takahashi, Rei*; Hasegawa, Kazuki*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Hosokawa, Yoichiro*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.8258_1 - 8258_10, 2021/04
Hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) is a candidate of radiosensitizers in X-ray therapy. The curative effects under such 4-MU administration have been investigated in vitro; however, the radiosensitizing mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the radiosensitizing effects under 4-MU treatment from cell experiments and model estimations. We generated experimental surviving fractions of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) after 4-MU treatment combined with X-ray irradiation. Meanwhilst, we also modelled the pharmacological effects of 4-MU treatment and theoretically analyzed the synergetic effects between 4-MU treatment and X-ray irradiation. The results show that the enhancement of cell killing by 4-MU treatment is the greatest in the intermediate dose range of around 4 Gy, which indicates the involvement of intercellular communication. In addition, the oxidative stress level, which leads to DNA damage induction, significantly increased under 4-MU treatment, and the radiosensitization by 4-MU can be suppressed by the inhibitors for intercellular communication. These findings suggest that the synergetic effects between 4-MU treatment and irradiation are predominantly attributed to intercellular communication and provide more efficient tumour control than conventional X-ray therapy.
Suno, Hiroya; Machida, Masahiko; Dohi, Terumi; Omura, Yoshihito*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.8228_1 - 8228_13, 2021/04
We evaluate stability of caesium (Cs) and other alkali-metal cation complexes of lichen metabolites in both gas and aqueous phases to discuss why lichens can retain radioactive Cs in the thalli over several years. We focus on oxalic acid, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, and protocetraric acid, which are common metabolite substances in various lichens including, e.g., and retaining Cs in Fukushima, Japan. By performing quantum chemical calculations, their gas-phase complexation energies and aqueous-solution complexation free energies with alkali-metal cations are computed for their neutral and deprotonated cases. Consequently, all the molecules are found to energetically favor cation complexations and the preference order is LiNaKRbCs for all conditions, indicating no specific Cs selectivity but strong binding with all alkali cations. Comparing complexation stabilities among these metabolites, lecanoric and protocetraric acids seen in medullary layer are found to keep higher affinity in their neutral case, while (+)-usnic acid and atranorin in upper cortex exhibit rather strong affinity only in deprotonated cases through forming stable six atoms' ring containing alkali cation chelated by two oxygens. These results suggest that the medullary layer can catch all alkali cations in a wide pH range around the physiological one, while the upper cortex can effectively block penetration of metal ions when the metal stress grows. Such insights highlight a physiological role of metabolites like blocking of metal-cation migrations into intracellular tissues, and explain long-term retention of alkali cations including Cs in lichens containing enough such metabolites to bind them.
Takeda, Naoya*; Kashima, Motohiko*; Odani, Sachika*; Uchiyama, Yusuke*; Kamidaira, Yuki; Mitarai, Satoshi*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.6963_1 - 6963_10, 2021/03
A massive coral bleaching event occurred in 2016 in the interior of Japan's largest coral lagoon, the Sekisei Lagoon, located in the Kuroshio upstream region in southwestern Japan. Recovery of the coral lagoon will require the influx of coral spawn and larvae; therefore, it is important to identify and conserve source sites. A surface particle tracking simulation of coral spawn and larvae was used to identify source areas in the exterior Sekisei Lagoon for restoration of the interior lagoon. The northern coastal zone of Iriomote Island, including Hatoma Island, was identified as a major source area. Hatoma Island was also identified as a key source for the Kuroshio downstream region, making it one of the most important source areas in the Nansei Archipelago.
Morishita, Yuki; Kurosawa, Shunsuke*; Yamaji, Akihiro*; Hayashi, Masateru*; Sasano, Makoto*; Makita, Taisuke*; Azuma, Tetsushi*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.5948_1 - 5948_11, 2021/03
The internal exposure of workers who inhale plutonium dioxide particles in nuclear facilities is a crucial matter for human protection from radiation. To determine the activity median aerodynamic diameter values at the working sites of nuclear facilities in real time, we developed a high-resolution alpha imager using a ZnS(Ag) scintillator sheet, an optical microscope, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. Then, we designed and applied a setup to measure a plutonium dioxide particle and identify the locations of the individual alpha particles in real time. Employing a Gaussian fitting, we evaluated the average spatial resolution of the multiple alpha particles was evaluated to be 16.2 umFWHM with a zoom range of 5 x. Also, the spatial resolution for the plutonium dioxide particle was 302.7 umFWHM due to the distance between the plutonium dioxide particle and the ZnS(Ag) scintillator. The influence of beta particles was negligible, and alpha particles were discernible in the alpha-beta particle contamination. The equivalent volume diameter of the plutonium dioxide particle was calculated from the measured count rate. These results indicate that the developed alpha imager is effective in the plutonium dioxide particle measurements at the working sites of nuclear facilities for internal exposure dose evaluation.
Miura, Hikaru*; Ishimaru, Takashi*; Ito, Yukari*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi*; Sakaguchi, Aya*; Misumi, Kazuhiro*; Tsumune, Daisuke*; Kubo, Atsushi*; Higaki, Shogo*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.5664_1 - 5664_11, 2021/03
For the first time, we isolated and investigated seven CsMPs (radioactive caesium-bearing microparticles) from marine particulate matter and sediment. From the elemental composition, the Cs/Cs activity ratio, and the Cs activity per unit volume results, we inferred that the five CsMPs collected from particulate matter were emitted from Unit 2 of the FDNPP, whereas the two CsMPs collected from marine sediment were possibly emitted from Unit 3. The presence of CsMPs can cause overestimation of the solid-water distribution coefficient of Cs in marine sediments and particulate matter and a high apparent radiocaesium concentration factor for marine biota. CsMPs emitted from Unit 2, which were collected from the estuary of a river that flowed through a highly contaminated area, may have been deposited on land and then transported by the river. By contrast, CsMPs emitted from Unit 3 were possibly transported eastward by the wind and deposited directly onto the ocean surface.
Tsuda, Yasutaka; Gueriba, J. S.*; Makino, Takamasa*; Dio, W. A.*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Okada, Michio*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.3906_1 - 3906_8, 2021/02
Su, Y.; Oikawa, Kenichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Kai, Tetsuya; Horino, Takashi*; Idohara, Osamu*; Misaka, Yoshitaka*; Tomota, Yo*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.4155_1 - 4155_14, 2021/02
Sasaki, Miyuki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Katengeza, E. W.*; Yamamoto, Akio*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.1857_1 - 1857_11, 2021/01
This study proposed a new method to visualize the ambient dose rate distribution using artificial neural networks from the results of airborne radiation monitoring. The method used airborne radiation monitoring conducted around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant by an unmanned aerial vehicle. A lot of survey data which had obtained in the past was used as training data for building a network. The reliability of the artificial neural network method was evaluated by comparison with the ground-based survey data. The dose rate map that was created by the artificial neural networks method reproduced the ground-based survey results better than traditional methods.
Inoue, Rintaro*; Oda, Takashi*; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Taiki*; Saio, Tomohide*; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Shimizu, Masahiro*; Okuda, Aya*; Morishima, Ken*; Sato, Nobuhiro*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.21678_1 - 21678_10, 2020/12
Incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (iQENS) is a fascinating technique for investigating the internal dynamics of protein. However, both low flux of neutron beam and absence of analytical procedure for extracting the internal dynamics from iQENS profile have been obstacles for studying it under physiological condition (in solution). Thanks to the recent development of neutron source, spectrometer and computational technique, they enable us to decouple internal dynamics, translational and rotational diffusions from the iQENS profile. The internal dynamics of two proteins: globular domain protein (GDP) and intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) in solution were studied. It was found that the average relaxation rate of IDP was larger than that of GDP. Through the detailed analyses on their internal dynamics, it was revealed that the fraction of mobile H atoms in IDP was much higher than that in GDP. Interestingly, the fraction of mobile H atoms was closely related to the fraction of H atoms on highly solvent exposed surfaces. The iQENS study presented that the internal dynamics were governed by the highly solvent exposed amino acid residues depending upon protein molecular architectures.
Martin, P. G.*; Jones, C. P.*; Bartlett, S.*; Ignatyev, K.*; Megson-Smith, D.*; Satou, Yukihiko; Cipiccia, S.*; Batey, D. J.*; Rau, C.*; Sueki, Keisuke*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.22056_1 - 22056_17, 2020/12
Suzui, Nobuo*; Shibata, Takuya; Yin, Y.-G.*; Funaki, Yoshihito*; Kurita, Keisuke; Hoshina, Hiroyuki*; Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka*; Fujimaki, Shu*; Seko, Noriaki*; Watabe, Hiroshi*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.16155_1 - 16155_9, 2020/10
Tanaka, Sota; Kinouchi, Tadatoshi*; Fujii, Tsuguru*; Imanaka, Tetsuji*; Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Fukutani, Satoshi*; Maki, Daisuke*; Notomi, Akihiro*; Takahashi, Sentaro*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.16055_1 - 16055_7, 2020/09
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, morphological abnormalities of the lepidopteran insects have been reported. However, it is unclear whether the abnormalities were caused directly by radiation because they did not study on absorbed dose and dose-effect relationship. In this study, we conducted an internal exposure experiment on silkworm using CsCl-supplemented artificial diet and estimated the absorbed dose to evaluate the morphological abnormalities in silkworm. The ratio of wing to whole body of pupae was compared between the CsCl-exposured and control groups and no significant differences were observed between the groups. This result suggest that morphological abnormalities in lepidopterans are unlikely due to direct radiation effects from Cs contamination after the FDNPP accident.