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Journal Articles

Characterization of liquid targets in Vacuum condition

Yamamoto, Kazami; Ogiwara, Norio*; Kuramochi, Masaya*

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 21(4), p.359 - 364, 2023/07

In recent years, durable target is required according to increase of the beam power. To solve this problem, a liquid film was formed in vacuum and tested it as a target. An ethanol and a mercury were selected as liquid target materials, and we investigated whether the liquid sheet could be formed stably in a vacuum and how about the vacuum pressure. As a result, it was confirmed that the liquid films were stably formed in both case and the pressures with the films were about the vapor pressure of the materials.

Journal Articles

Investigation of niobium surface roughness and hydrogen content with different polishing conditions for performance recovery of superconducting QWRs in JAEA Tokai-Tandem Accelerator

Kamiya, Junichiro; Nii, Keisuke*; Kabumoto, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Harada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Yutaka; Matsuda, Makoto; Moriya, Katsuhiro; Ida, Yoshiaki*; et al.

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 6 Pages, 2023/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of vacuum firing effect on stainless steel from vacuum and surface point of view

Kamiya, Junichiro; Takano, Kazuhiro*; Wada, Kaoru; Yanagibashi, Toru*

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 21, 10 Pages, 2023/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of doped potassium concentrations in stacked two-Layer graphene using real-time XPS

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Tetsuya*; Okigawa, Yuki*; Masuzawa, Tomoaki*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abukawa, Tadashi*; Yamada, Takatoshi*

Applied Surface Science, 605, p.154748_1 - 154748_6, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:62.62(Chemistry, Physical)

Immersion of graphene in KOH solution improves its mobility on SiO$$_{2}$$/Si wafers. This is thought to be due to electron doping by modification with K atoms, but the K atom concentration C$$_{K}$$ in the graphene has not been clarified yet. In this study, the C$$_{K}$$ was determined by XPS analysis using high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The time evolution of C$$_{K}$$ was determined by real-time observation, and the C$$_{K}$$ before irradiation of synchrotron radiation was estimated to be 0.94%. The C 1s spectrum shifted to the low binding energy side with the desorption of K atoms. This indicates that the electron doping concentration into graphene is decreasing, and it is experimentally confirmed that K atoms inject electrons into graphene.

Journal Articles

Restoration of oxygen vacancies on an anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) surface with supersonic seeded oxygen molecular beam

Katsube, Daiki*; Ono, Shinya*; Inami, Eiichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abe, Masayuki*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 65(11), p.526 - 530, 2022/11

The oxidation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$ (001) was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and supersonic O$$_{2}$$ beam (SSMB). The oxygen vacancies at the top surface and subsurface could be eliminated by the supply of hyperthermal oxygen molecules. Oxygen vacancies are present on the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) when it is untreated before transfer to a vacuum chamber. These vacancies, which are stable in the ambient condition, could also be effectively eliminated by using oxygen SSMB. This result is promising as a surface processing for various functional oxides.

Journal Articles

Observation of chemisorbed O$$_2$$ molecule at SiO$$_2$$/Si(001) interface during Si dry oxidation

Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ogawa, Shuichi*; Sakamoto, Tetsuya*; Takakuwa, Yuji*

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 21(1), p.30 - 39, 2022/11

Journal Articles

Finding RHEED conditions sensitive to hydrogen position on Pd(100)

Kawamura, Takaaki*; Fukaya, Yuki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

Surface Science, 722, p.122098_1 - 122098_8, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Chemistry, Physical)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Annealing effect of absorbing property for Cs and CsI in fullerene investigated by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 20(3), p.186 - 195, 2022/07

Cesium-135 having long life, 2.3 million y, that is contained in nuclear wastes may cause long-term pollution. Technology of isotopic separation of such long lived nuclide is indispensable not only for its volume reduction but also annihilation by nuclear transmutation. The recovery of atomic Cs from molecular CsI is mandatory. We have investigated fullerene C$$_{60}$$ as a potential absorber for Cs. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, AR-XPS has been used to analyze the depth concentration distribution of Cs. Experiments were performed at soft X-ray beamline BL27A at KEK PF facility. We report on the annealing effect after deposition of Cs and the effect of heating substrate during deposition. For Cs/C$$_{60}$$ sample, the intensity ratio of Cs-3d/C-1s increased in double at the high temperature. This suggests that Cs atoms remain in the material at high temperatures. On the other hand, for CsI/C$$_{60}$$, the intensity ratio does not change much by elevating temperatures.

Journal Articles

Development of ultraslow, monochromatic, and mass-selected ion source toward measurement of hydrogen ion permeability of graphene

Terasawa, Tomoo; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Asaoka, Hidehito

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 20(4), p.196 - 201, 2022/07

Graphene is a perfect impermeable membrane for gases but permeable to hydrogen ions. Hydrogen ion permeation shows the isotope effect, i.e., deuteron is slower than proton when permeating graphene. However, the permeation mechanism and the origin of the isotope effect are still unclear. Here, we propose a strategy to discuss the hydrogen ion permeation mechanism of graphene by developing an ion source with ultraslow, monochromatic, and mass-selected hydrogen ion beam. We employed a hemispherical monochromator and a Wien filter for the ion source to achieve the energy and mass resolutions of 0.39 eV and 1 atomic mass unit, respectively. The energetically sharp ion beam is expected to allow us to directly measure the permeability of graphene with high accuracy.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen absorption and diffusion behaviors in cube-shaped palladium nanoparticles revealed by ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Tang, J.*; Seo, O.*; Rivera Rocabado, D. S.*; Koitaya, Takanori*; Yamamoto, Susumu*; Namba, Yusuke*; Song, C.*; Kim, J.*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Koyama, Michihisa*; et al.

Applied Surface Science, 587, p.152797_1 - 152797_8, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:83.31(Chemistry, Physical)

The hydrogen absorption and diffusion mechanisms on cube-shaped Pd nanoparticles (NPs) which are important hydrogen-storage materials were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT calculations. In the surface region, hydrogen absorption showed almost similar behavior regardless of the NPs size. It was found that the octahedral sites are more favorable than the tetrahedral sites for hydrogen occupation. We also clarified that the hydrogen atoms absorbing on the smaller-sized Pd NPs diffuse to the subsurface more actively because of the weakened Pd-H bond by the surface disordering, which plays an important role in hydrogen adsorption at a low H$$_{2}$$ pressure.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen-Ti$$^{3+}$$ complex as a possible origin of localized electron behavior in hydrogen-irradiated SrTiO$$_3$$

Ito, Takashi

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 20(3), p.128 - 134, 2022/05

Journal Articles

Evaluation of titanium vacuum chamber as getter pump

Kamiya, Junichiro; Takano, Kazuhiro*; Yuza, Hiromu*; Wada, Kaoru

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 20(2), p.107 - 118, 2022/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Ortho-para conversion of molecularly chemisorbed H$$_{2}$$ on Pd(210)

Ueta, Hirokazu; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(9), p.430 - 434, 2021/09

Journal Articles

Ultrafast surface Dirac fermion dynamics of Sb$$_2$$Te$$_3$$-based topological insulators

Sumida, Kazuki; Ishida, Yukiaki*; G$"u$dde, J.*; H$"o$fer, U.*; Shin, S.*; Kimura, Akio*

Progress in Surface Science, 96(2), p.100628_1 - 100628_15, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:1.39(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Oxidation reaction kinetics on transition metal surfaces observed by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Zhang, B.*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(5), p.218 - 223, 2021/05

The oxidation reaction kinetics on Ti(0001) and Ni(111) surfaces were observed by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation to measure the oxidation state and oxide thickness. After the Ti(0001) surface was wholly covered by TiO with a thickness of 1.2 nm, the rapid growth of n-type TiO$$_{2}$$ proceeded through the diffusion of Ti$$^{4+}$$ ions to the TiO$$_{2}$$ surface at 400$$^{circ}$$C. A saturation of oxygen uptake on the TiO surface indicates that the O$$_{2}$$ sticking coefficient on the TiO surface is negligibly small and the segregation of Ti to the TiO surface is a trigger to initiate the TiO$$_{2}$$ growth. On the Ni(111) surface at 350$$^{circ}$$C, a thermally stable NiO$$_{x}$$ proceeded preferentially and then the growth of p-type NiO was initiated. The time evolution of NiO thickness was represented by a logarithmic growth model, where the NiO growth is governed by the electron tunneling to the NiO surface.

Journal Articles

Synchrotron X-ray standing wave Characterization of atomic arrangement at interface between transferred graphene and $$alpha$$-Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$(0001)

Entani, Shiro*; Honda, Mitsunori; Naramoto, Hiroshi*; Li, S.*; Sakai, Seiji*

Surface Science, 704, p.121749_1 - 121749_6, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:31.04(Chemistry, Physical)

Graphene is expected to be one of the most promising materials for nanoelectronics and spintronics. In most graphene-based devices, the graphene channel is placed on insulating substrates. Therefore, the study of inter-facial interactions between graphene and the insulator surface is of critical importance. In this study, the vertical arrangement of graphene which is transferred on $$alpha$$-Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$(0001) has been studied by normal incidence X-ray standing wave (NIXSW) technique. The analysis of the NIXSW profile reveals that the graphene layer is located at 3.57 (${AA}$) above the $$alpha$$-Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$(0001) surface, which is larger than the interlayer distance of graphite at 3.356 (${AA}$). Micro- Raman spectroscopy shows that the transferred graphene has a limited spatial distribution of hole concentration. The present study shows that transferred graphene on the sapphire substrate followed by vacuum-annealing has an atomically flat surface free from residual contaminations such as organic compounds and there occurs the hole-doping in graphene.

Journal Articles

Development of ${it spatiotemporal}$ measurement and analysis techniques in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; From NAP-HARPES to 4D-XPS

Toyoda, Satoshi*; Yamamoto, Tomoki*; Yoshimura, Masashi*; Sumida, Hirosuke*; Mineoi, Susumu*; Machida, Masatake*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Suzuki, Satoru*; Yokoyama, Kazushi*; Ohashi, Yuji*; et al.

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(2), p.86 - 91, 2021/02

We have developed ${it spatiotemporal}$ measurement and analysis techniques in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To begin with, time-division depth profiles of gate stacked film interfaces have been achieved by NAP-HARPES (Near Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Angle-Resolved Photo Emission Spectroscopy) data. We then have promoted our methods to quickly perform peak fittings and depth profiling from time-division ARPES data, which enables us to realize 4D-XPS analysis. It is found that the traditional maximum entropy method (MEM) combined with Jackknife averaging of sparse modeling in NAP-HARPES data is effective to perform dynamic measurement of depth profiles with high precision.

Journal Articles

Precise chemical state analyses of ultrathin hafnium films deposited on clean Si(111)-7$$times$$7 surface using high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy

Kakiuchi, Takuhiro*; Matoba, Tomoki*; Koyama, Daisuke*; Yamamoto, Yuki*; Kato, Daiki*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Surface Science, 701, p.121691_1 - 121691_8, 2020/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:6.93(Chemistry, Physical)

Ultrathin hafnium films on Si(111)-7$$times$$7 were studied using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopies to reveal the chemical states at interface and surface. Ultrathin Hf layers grow on clean Si(111)-7$$times$$7 surface by lever rule. Surface and interface of Hf/Si(111) contain three components (metallic Hf layers, Hf monosilicide (HfSi) and Si-rich Hf silicide). Ultrathin Hf layers changes HfSi$$_{2}$$ islands on bared Si(111)-7$$times$$7 surface after annealing at 1073 K. It was found that the long axes of the rectangle islands expand the direction connecting the corner holes in DAS model of clean Si(111)-7$$times$$7 surface.

Journal Articles

Initial oxidation kinetics of Si(113)-(3$$times$$2) investigated using supersonic seeded molecular beams

Ono, Shinya*; Tanaka, Kazuma*; Kodama, Hiraku*; Tanaka, Masatoshi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden*

Surface Science, 697, p.121600_1 - 121600_6, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:6.93(Chemistry, Physical)

The initial oxidation on silicon surfaces with (113) orientation has been investigated by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. In the present study, we investigated both the Si2p state and O1s state to evaluate the oxide thickness, composition, and to assess the strain at the SiO$$_{2}$$/Si interface. In the Si2p state, the oxidized components (Si$$^{1+}$$, Si$$^{2+}$$, Si$$^{3+}$$, Si$$^{4+}$$) were analyzed. In the O1s state, a low-binding-energy component (LBC) and a high-binding-energy component (HBC) were analyzed. To investigate the non-thermal oxidation process, we utilized the supersonic seeded molecular beam (SSMB) to enhance the translational kinetic energies ($$E_{rm t}$$) of oxygen molecules. We demonstrate that the oxide quality and oxidation kinetics are largely altered by changing $$E_{rm t}$$.

Journal Articles

Initial oxidation processes of ultrathin hafnium film and hafnium disilicide islands on Si(100)-2$$times$$1 surfaces studied using core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Kakiuchi, Takuhiro*; Yamasaki, Hideki*; Tsukada, Chie*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Surface Science, 693, p.121551_1 - 121551_8, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:22.2(Chemistry, Physical)

We investigated the initial oxidation of ultrathin hafnium (Hf) film on Si(100)-2$$times$$1 using photoelectron spectroscopy. Metallic Hf rapidly oxidized, transforming into hafnium dioxide (HfO$$_{2}$$) and its suboxides. The other HfSi component at the interface was nearly unreactive with O$$_{2}$$ molecules. These facts suggest that the metallic Hf component plays a vital role in the initial oxidation of the ultrathin Hf/Si(100) film. After annealing from 873 K to 973 K, the Hf suboxides in low ionic valences progressed into fully oxidized HfO$$_{2}$$. Once the annealing temperature reached c.a.1073 K, oxygen atoms were entirely removed from the ultrathin HfO$$_{2}$$/Si(100) film containing SiO$$_{2}$$ at the interface. Simultaneously, ultrathin HfO$$_{2}$$ layers changed into islands of Hf disilicide ($$i$$-HfSi$$_{2}$$) on a bare Si(100)-2$$times$$1 surface. The $$i$$-HfSi$$_{2}$$ component showed slight reactivity with O$$_{2}$$ molecules at 298 K. In contrast to the initial oxidation of clean Si(100)-2$$times$$1 surface, the dangling bonds on bare Si(100)-2$$times$$1 surface among $$i$$-HfSi$$_{2}$$ oxidized preferentially.

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