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Journal Articles

Restoration of oxygen vacancies on an anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) surface with supersonic seeded oxygen molecular beam

Katsube, Daiki*; Ono, Shinya*; Inami, Eiichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abe, Masayuki*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 65(11), p.526 - 530, 2022/11

The oxidation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$ (001) was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and supersonic O$$_{2}$$ beam (SSMB). The oxygen vacancies at the top surface and subsurface could be eliminated by the supply of hyperthermal oxygen molecules. Oxygen vacancies are present on the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) when it is untreated before transfer to a vacuum chamber. These vacancies, which are stable in the ambient condition, could also be effectively eliminated by using oxygen SSMB. This result is promising as a surface processing for various functional oxides.

Journal Articles

Ortho-para conversion of molecularly chemisorbed H$$_{2}$$ on Pd(210)

Ueta, Hirokazu; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(9), p.430 - 434, 2021/09

Journal Articles

Oxidation reaction kinetics on transition metal surfaces observed by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Zhang, B.*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(5), p.218 - 223, 2021/05

The oxidation reaction kinetics on Ti(0001) and Ni(111) surfaces were observed by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation to measure the oxidation state and oxide thickness. After the Ti(0001) surface was wholly covered by TiO with a thickness of 1.2 nm, the rapid growth of n-type TiO$$_{2}$$ proceeded through the diffusion of Ti$$^{4+}$$ ions to the TiO$$_{2}$$ surface at 400$$^{circ}$$C. A saturation of oxygen uptake on the TiO surface indicates that the O$$_{2}$$ sticking coefficient on the TiO surface is negligibly small and the segregation of Ti to the TiO surface is a trigger to initiate the TiO$$_{2}$$ growth. On the Ni(111) surface at 350$$^{circ}$$C, a thermally stable NiO$$_{x}$$ proceeded preferentially and then the growth of p-type NiO was initiated. The time evolution of NiO thickness was represented by a logarithmic growth model, where the NiO growth is governed by the electron tunneling to the NiO surface.

Journal Articles

Development of ${it spatiotemporal}$ measurement and analysis techniques in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; From NAP-HARPES to 4D-XPS

Toyoda, Satoshi*; Yamamoto, Tomoki*; Yoshimura, Masashi*; Sumida, Hirosuke*; Mineoi, Susumu*; Machida, Masatake*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Suzuki, Satoru*; Yokoyama, Kazushi*; Ohashi, Yuji*; et al.

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(2), p.86 - 91, 2021/02

We have developed ${it spatiotemporal}$ measurement and analysis techniques in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To begin with, time-division depth profiles of gate stacked film interfaces have been achieved by NAP-HARPES (Near Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Angle-Resolved Photo Emission Spectroscopy) data. We then have promoted our methods to quickly perform peak fittings and depth profiling from time-division ARPES data, which enables us to realize 4D-XPS analysis. It is found that the traditional maximum entropy method (MEM) combined with Jackknife averaging of sparse modeling in NAP-HARPES data is effective to perform dynamic measurement of depth profiles with high precision.

Journal Articles

${it In situ}$ optical microscopy of crystal growth of graphene using thermal radiation

Terasawa, Tomoo; Taira, Takanobu*; Obata, Seiji*; Saiki, Koichiro*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Asaoka, Hidehito

Vacuum and Surface Science, 62(10), p.629 - 634, 2019/10

Graphene, an atomically thin sheet composed of sp$$^{2}$$ carbon atoms, has been the most attractive material in this decade. The fascinating properties of graphene are exhibited when it is monolayer. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce monolayer graphene selectively in large-area. Here we introduce "radiation-mode optical microscopy" which we have developed in order to realize the ${it in situ}$ observation of the CVD growth of graphene. We show the method to observe graphene as bright contrast on Cu substrates in thermal radiation images. The growth mechanism, the nucleation site and rate limiting process, revealed by the ${it in situ}$ observation is presented. Finally, we show the CVD growth of graphene on Au substrates, resulting in the tuning of the emissivity of graphene by the pre-treatment procedures. Our method is not only a way to observe the graphene growth but also shed light on the thermal radiation property of graphene.

Journal Articles

Turbomolecular pump as main pump in a high-power proton accelerator vacuum system

Kamiya, Junichiro; Kinsho, Michikazu; Ogiwara, Norio*; Sakurai, Mitsuru*; Mabuchi, Takuya*; Wada, Kaoru*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 62(8), p.476 - 485, 2019/08

J-PARC 3GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is one of the highest beam power proton accelerators. Challenges for achieving low pressure region in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) in the beam line are the large outgassing source. We focused turbo molecular pumps (TMP) as maing pump because it can evacuate the continuous and additional outgassing with large pumping speed in wide pressure range. It is also possible to evacuate from low vacuum to UHV with only a few hours by using TMP, which ensures users' experimental time after vacuum device maintenance. During more than 10 years operation of the vacuum system, many experiences have been accumulated about the usage of TMP in RCS. In this presentation, we discussed about validity of TMP as main pump in high power proton beam accelerator by showing the performance of the beam line pressure during the beam operation. Further, in anticipation of upgrade higher beam power more than 1 MW, validity of a combination of TMP and NEG pump will be mentioned.

Journal Articles

Development of a gas distribution measuring system for 2-D beam profile monitor

Yamada, Ippei; Ogiwara, Norio*; Hikichi, Yusuke*; Kamiya, Junichiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

Vacuum and Surface Science, 62(7), p.400 - 405, 2019/07

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Simultaneous observation of Si oxidation rate and oxidation-induced strain using XPS

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 62(6), p.350 - 355, 2019/06

Thermal oxidation of Si substrate is an indispensable process for the Si device fabrication. However, the influence of oxidation induced strain cannot be ignored for thin films. Synchrotron radiation real-time photoelectron spectroscopy was used as a method to measure simultaneously oxidation induced strain and oxidation rate. It was found that the acceleration of interfacial oxidation induced by thermal strain was observed for the rapid thermal oxidation. The results can be explained by the model in which point defects caused by strain become reaction sites at the SiO$$_{2}$$/Si interface.

Journal Articles

Electronic states of highly ordered DNTT and picene molecular layer

Hasegawa, Yuri; Yamada, Yoichi*; Sasaki, Masahiro*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 61(6), p.366 - 371, 2018/06

Molecular arrangements and electronic states of well-ordered (DNTT) and picene thin film on single crystal were measured by means of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, respectively. DNTT and picene form single crystalline-like molecular arrangement on inert Au(111) substrate. Splitting of HOMO energy due to overlapping with adjacent molecules was suggested by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. On the other hand, one-dimensional ordering of those molecule was observed on anisotropic Ag(110) substrate. However, the HOMO band dispersion was found to be 200 meV at maximum, showing that the overlapping of HOMO was smaller in such arrangement comparing with that in their single crystal.

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