Ishijima, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Abe, Hitoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 70(6), p.192 - 198, 2021/06
The time dependence of corrosion behavior on tantalum used in nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment in sodium hydroxide solution was investigated by immersion corrosion tests, and the mechanism of aging change was discussed from surface observations and electrochemical measurements. The immersion tests were carried out at room temperature with NaOH concentrations ranging from 1 to 7 mol/L and immersion times ranging from 24 to 168 hr, respectively. The corrosion rate increased with NaOH concentration, but peaked with immersion time and then decreased. The time to peak of corrosion rate was shorter with higher NaOH concentration. The SEM observations and Raman analysis at the surface of the specimens that were cleaned and weighed after the immersion test did not show any film formation. On the other hand, the polarization resistance showed a constant value or an increase after a decrease immediately after immersion. It is suggested that the change in corrosion rate is affected by the formation of film by immersion, since the value of polarization resistance is almost the same as the sum of film resistance and charge transfer resistance. The film was considered to be mainly NaTaO formed by the dissolution of Ta.
Hirota, Noriaki; Takeda, Kiyoko*; Tachibana, Yukio; Masaki, Yasuhiro*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 70(3), p.68 - 76, 2021/03
Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and Ni-based alloys were evaluated in a sulfuric acid decomposition gas at high temperature. The evaluation were carried out in an environment simulated in the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction vessel for thermochemical hydrogen production process (IS process). Their corrosion films were also analyzed for better understanding of the corrosion behavior. As a result, after 100 hour corrosion test, Ni-based alloy containing 2.4% Si showed good corrosion resistance. Ferritic stainless steel containing 3% Al (3Al-Ferrite) showed better corrosion resistance. Its corrosion rate was lower than that of SiC (0.1mm/year), which is a candidate material for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction vessel. On the other hand, Ni-based alloy pre-filmed with AlO is prepared as the relative corrosion film of 3Al-Ferrite. Its corrosion rate was significantly higher than that of 3Al-Ferrite. As the result of EPMA analysis of these oxide films, Ni-based alloy containing 2.4% Si formed Si oxide film which had some cracks after the long term corrosion test. Therefore S penetrated into grain boundaries of the matrix through the oxide film. 3Al-Ferrite formed a thin and uniform AlO film, and the penetration of S into the grain boundaries was not observed. AlO pre-film of Ni-based alloy also showed S penetration in the matrix because the AlO pre-film had many small defects originally. The corrosion oxide film of 3Al-Ferrite consisted of only -AlO, while the AlO pre-film consist of -AlO and -AlO. Those results suggest that the better corrosion resistance of 3Al-Ferrite is due to the uniform formation of dense -AlO film at the early stage of the corrosion.
Otani, Kyohei; Tsukada, Takashi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki
Zairyo To Kankyo, 69(9), p.246 - 252, 2020/09
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of artificial sea water concentration on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under air/solution alternating condition, and to clarify the corrosion mechanism of carbon steel that changes with artificial seawater concentration. Mass measurements showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in the alternating condition accelerates with increasing concentration in the concentration region between deionized water to 200 times diluted artificial seawater (ASW), and the corrosion rate decreases with increasing concentration in the concentration region between 20 times diluted ASW to undiluted ASW. It can be considered that the reason why the carbon steel corrosion was suppressed in highly concentrated artificial seawater would Mg ions and Ca ions in the artificial seawater precipitate and cover on the surface due to the increase in pH near the surface by oxygen reduction reaction.
Zairyo To Kankyo 2020 Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.9 - 16, 2020/05
The author has been continuing research and development for corrosion science for about forty years. One of the main targets of his research is applying computational science techniques on corrosion problems. The results are briefly introduced in this article. Also, the author organized some workshop for corrosion problems of 1F decommissioning procedure for several years. Such activities are evaluated for receiving the society award in JSCE.
Omori, Atsushi*; Akiyama, Eiji*; Abe, Hiroshi*; Hata, Kuniki; Sato, Tomonori; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa*; Seito, Hajime*; Tada, Eiji*; et al.
Zairyo To Kankyo, 69(4), p.107 - 111, 2020/04
To evaluate the effect of oxidants, which are formed by radiolysis of water under gamma ray irradiation, on the corrosion of a carbon steel in humid environment, ozone was introduced as a model oxidant in to humidity-controlled air at 50C in a thermo-hygrostat chamber. Corrosion monitoring was performed by using an Atmospheric Corrosion Monitor-type (ACM) sensor consisting of a carbon steel anode and an Ag cathode. The output current of the ACM sensor was increased with the increase in relative humidity and it was obviously increased with the increase in the introduced ozone concentration at each relative humidity. The results indicate that ozone accelerates the corrosion of the carbon steel. The effect of ozone on the corrosion acceleration is attributed to the fast reduction reaction and fast dissolution reaction in to water compared to that of oxygen.
Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(9), p.240 - 247, 2019/09
In order to study environment assisted cracking mechanism of stainless steel under BWR primary coolant condition, effects of applied load on oxidation in the vicinity of crack tips of CT specimens were evaluated. Loaded CT specimens were immersed in an aqueous condition at 290C as a simulated BWR coolant condition, and microstructural observation on oxide near the tips of pre-cracks was carried out. Oxide inner layers, which consisted of fine grain magnetite containing Fe and Cr were formed, and oxide outer layers consisting of large grains of FeO were observed to cover the inner layers. FEM analysis of stress and strain in the loaded CT specimen suggests that both of dislocations due to localized plastic deformation and elastic strain could play important roles to accelerate inner oxide formation in the vicinity of the crack tip of the specimens.
Otani, Kyohei; Tsukada, Takashi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(8), p.205 - 211, 2019/08
In the present study, the iron rust layer formed on the low ally steel in air-solution alternating condition was investigated by cross-sectional observation and analysis, and the mechanism of accelerated corrosion of the steel in the alternating condition was clarified. Observation and analysis showed that the multi-layered iron rust layer composed of red rust layer (FeOOH), rust crust layer (FeO), inner crystal (FeO), and inner rust layer was formed on the low alloy steel. It can be considered that the multi-layered iron rust layer accelerated the cathodic reaction rate of the steel in the alternating condition. This acceleration would be the reason why the corrosion rate of the low alloy steel in the alternating condition was accelerated.
Hirota, Noriaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X.; Tachibana, Yukio
Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(6), p.137 - 142, 2019/06
New corrosion test equipment for high temperature gas of decomposed sulfuric acid was manufactured in order to ascertain flow rate of sulfuric acid in the piping, occurrence of sulfuric acid decomposition reaction in the equipment, and temperature distribution inside the furnace tube. The flow rate of the sulfuric acid solution was constantly measured using an ultrasonic flowmeter. The SO concentration at the inlet of the test equipment was almost the same as that at the inlet of the sulfuric acid decomposer in the hydrogen production plant assuming a high-temperature gas cooled reactor hydrogen-power cogeneration system (GTHTR300C). On the other hand, during a test, leakage of sulfuric acid occurred from the fitting part at the outlet side. Hence the temperature distribution of the fitting part at the outlet side was investigated using fluid analysis. As a result, it was found that the temperature at the fitting was low enough to use fluorine joint grease when the distance was 0.05 m or more away from the outlet side pipe. An improved furnace tube was manufactured and the temperature was measured again at fitting part of the outlet side. The temperature was lower that the temperature limit of the joint grease and almost the same as the temperature distribution in the fluid analysis, and leakage of sulfuric acid has not occurred to date.
Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(1), p.2 - 8, 2019/01
It is important to control the cooling water of light water reactors (boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor) to suitable quality in order to reduce corrosion of structural materials and generation of radioactive corrosion products. For that purpose, monitoring of water quality using electrochemical measurement method is necessary. In this article, the application of ECP measurement to BWR is mainly focused, I describe the water quality of light water reactors and the necessity of electrochemical measurement.
Taniguchi, Naoki; Nakayama, Masashi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(12), p.487 - 494, 2018/12
This article describes the current status of corrosion monitoring methods and examples of the measurement under deep underground environments for carbon steel overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Based on the studies on corrosion monitoring using AC Impedance technique, some of the typical measurement systems such as the electrodes arrangement are introduced. In-situ corrosion monitoring in engineering scale test is also being attempted using a deep underground research facility, and the measurement method and results are presented in this article.
Haruna, Takumi*; Miyataki, Yuki*; Hirohata, Yohei*; Shibata, Toshio*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.375 - 380, 2018/09
This research aimed to confirm the formation of FeO film on Fe immersed in aqueous 45 mass% NaOH solution containing some oxidants at the boiling temperature, to recognize the optimum immersion time for the formation of thick and protective film, and to reveal the absorption behavior of DO in the FeO film at room temperature. The results were obtained as follows. It was confirmed that FeO film was formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for a time more than 0.6 ks, and the film thickness increased parabolically with an increase in the immersion time. DO absorption test was carried out to the films formed in the NaOH solution for immersion times of 1.2 and 3.6 ks. An amount of DO absorbed into the film increased with an increase in an absorption time up to 1000 ks, and an absorption time more than 1000 ks made an amount of DO constant. The constant amount of DO was larger for the film formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for 3.6 ks than that for 1.2 ks. The transient of the amount of DO absorbed into the film was analyzed on the basis of Fick's law for diffusion, and diffusion coefficients of DO were obtained to be 5.110 cm s and 9.910 cm s for the films formed for 1.2 and 3.6 ks, respectively. Therefore it was estimated that the diffusion coefficient of the FeO film was in the region from 5.110 cm s to 9.910 cm s.
Soma, Yasutaka; Komatsu, Atsushi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.381 - 385, 2018/09
In-situ measurement of electrical conductivity of solution within crevice of SUS316L stainless steel in 288C water has been conducted with newly developed electrochemical sensor system. The sensor measures local electrical conductivity of crevice solution beneath the electrode () with electrochemical impedance method. The sensors were installed at different positions within tapered crevice of SUS316L stainless steel. The crevice specimen with the sensors were immerged into 288C, 8 MPa, pure oxygen saturated high purity water for 100 h. at a position with crevice gap of 59.3m was 8-11S/cm, least deviate from conductivity of 288C pure water (4.4S/cm) and no localized corrosion occurred. On the contrary, at a position with crevice gap of 4.4m increased with time and showed maximum value of 1600S/cm at 70 h. Localized corrosion occurred in the vicinity of this position. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation showed of 1600S/cm being equivalent to pH of 3 to 3.7. It can be concluded that acidification occurred in tight crevice even under high purity bulk water and resulted in localized corrosion.
Soma, Yasutaka; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(5), p.222 - 228, 2018/05
Localized corrosion in crevice of SUS316 stainless steel after immersion in 288C high purity water with dissolved oxygen concentration of 32 ppm for 100 h was analyzed. Two different types of localized corrosion initiated on grain boundary and inclusions. The former initiated on grain boundary and oxide grown into grain matrix. The oxidized area showed duplex structure composed of microcrystalline FeCrO and island-shaped residual metals. The latter initiated on inclusions containing Ca and S and microcrystalline FeCrO grown into metal matrix. These localized corrosion occurred selectively in oxygen depleted area indicated formation of macroscopic corrosion cell with the corroded area as anode and surrounding oxygenated area as cathode.
Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Chihiro; Nakashima, Kazuo*; Tojo, Masayuki*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(5), p.180 - 187, 2017/05
In spent fuel pool (SFP) under loss-of-cooling or loss-of-coolant severe accident condition, the spent fuels will be exposed to air and heated by their own residual decay heat. Integrity of fuel cladding is crucial for SFP safety therefore study on cladding oxidation in air at high temperature is important. Zircaloy-2 (Zry2) and zircaloy-4 (Zry4) were applied for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) in different temperatures and different air flow rates in this work. Oxidation rate increased with temperature. In range of air flow rate predicted in spent fuel lack during SFP accident, influence of flow rate was not clearly observed below 950C for Zry2 and below 1050C for Zry4. Over these temperature, oxidation rates appeared obviously higher in higher air flow rate, and this trend became clearer when temperature increased. Oxide layers were carefully examined after the oxidation tests and compared with the mass gain data in TGA to investigate detail of air oxidation process. The results revealed that mass gain data in the pre breakaway transition stage reflects growth of the dense oxide film on specimen surface, and in the post breakaway transition stage, it reflects growth of porous oxide layer beneath the breakaway cracking of the oxide film.
Ambai, Hiromu; Sano, Yuichi; Nishizuka, Yusuke*; Iijima, Shizuka; Uchida, Naoki
Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(5), p.169 - 172, 2017/05
We study the effect of sulfate ion which is one component of seawater or concrete on the corrosion behavior in high active liquid waste tank environment. The corrosion tests were conducted using SUS316L and surrogate high active liquid waste containing some metal ions and nitric acid. The results showed that sulfate ion inhibited the corrosion rates. The XPS results indicated the attachment of sulfate ion to material surfaces suppressed the anode reaction.
Zairyo To Kankyo 2017 Koenshu (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2017/05
The committee surveying the corrosion losses in Japan was established in 1976, with conjunction of the Japan Society of Corrosion Engineering and the Japan Association of Corrosion Control. The report made by the committee introduced that corrosion loss was estimated to be about 1.8% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). About quarter century had passed after the first survey, JSCE and JACC made the second surveying committee for the cost of corrosion in Japan in 1998. During that time, Japan's economic circumstances had changed drastically. In this report, results and problems of the former two researches are summarized.
Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(1), p.3 - 12, 2017/01
The laboratory simulation tests which could be reproduced the corrosion reactions propagating in the actual environments were utilized to analyze the mechanism of corrosion phenomena. In this report, some results are introduced in the cases of maritime structures and nuclear facilities. Experimental apparatus was originally designed to obtain the data in high radioactive condition simulating actual plants. One is a result showing the effect of Np ion to the corrosion of stainless steel in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Corrosion mechanism was revealed that Np ion is reduced to Np ion by a corrosion reaction of stainless steel and then re-oxidized to Np ion in the bulk solution. And repetition of this cycle accelerated corrosion of stainless steel by a little amounts of Np addition in nitric acid solution. Another result is introduced that an effect of HO created by radiolysis of cooling water at high radioactive environment in light water reactor.
Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Fushoku Boshoku Kyokai Dai-63-Kai Zairyo To Kankyo Toronkai Koenshu, p.253 - 256, 2016/10
Contribution of corrosion to advance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel in high temperature water must be assessed because serious corrosion can be found within SCC of light water reactors. The corrosion took the form of both intergranular and grain-matrix attack indicate aggressive corrosion condition was formed in the crevice of the SCC. We have investigated the crevice environment electrochemically and found that local electrical conductivity of the crevice solution at satisfactory narrow crevice gap having more than 100 times higher than that of bulk solution. In this research we assessed effect of cyclic deaerated and aerated bulk solution to the crevice environment. The result showed that electrical conductivity of the crevice solution under the deaerated bulk solution increased more than 10times by injection of pure oxygen suggest that the dissolved oxygen caused aggressive corrosion condition within the crevice.
Zairyo To Kankyo, 65(9), p.363 - 364, 2016/09
no abstracts in English
Yukawa, Takuji*; Inoue, Hiroyuki*; Kojima, Takao*; Iwase, Akihiro*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu*
Zairyo To Kankyo 2016 Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.359 - 362, 2016/05
The immersion tests of pure titanium were carried out in aqueous solution containing carbonate/bicarbonate with 50 mM-chloride ion under gamma irradiation. The effect of pH on general corrosion rate of titanium were studied. The experimental results showed that the concentration of hydrogen preoxide was increased with pH, and the corrosion rate increased with the hydrogen preoxide concentration. The corrosion rate in pH12 and 13 were 5 to10 times larger than those under unirradiated conditions.