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Journal Articles

Effect of seawater components on corrosion rate of steel in air/solution alternating condition

Otani, Kyohei; Tsukada, Takashi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki

Zairyo To Kankyo, 69(9), p.246 - 252, 2020/09

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of artificial sea water concentration on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under air/solution alternating condition, and to clarify the corrosion mechanism of carbon steel that changes with artificial seawater concentration. Mass measurements showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in the alternating condition accelerates with increasing concentration in the concentration region between deionized water to 200 times diluted artificial seawater (ASW), and the corrosion rate decreases with increasing concentration in the concentration region between 20 times diluted ASW to undiluted ASW. It can be considered that the reason why the carbon steel corrosion was suppressed in highly concentrated artificial seawater would Mg ions and Ca ions in the artificial seawater precipitate and cover on the surface due to the increase in pH near the surface by oxygen reduction reaction.

Journal Articles

Aim for computational science on corrosion problems and prompt approach for corrosion of 1F decommissioning in JSCE

Yamamoto, Masahiro

Zairyo To Kankyo 2020 Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.9 - 16, 2020/05

The author has been continuing research and development for corrosion science for about forty years. One of the main targets of his research is applying computational science techniques on corrosion problems. The results are briefly introduced in this article. Also, the author organized some workshop for corrosion problems of 1F decommissioning procedure for several years. Such activities are evaluated for receiving the society award in JSCE.

Journal Articles

Corrosion monitoring in humidity-controlled environment simulating gamma ray irradiation

Omori, Atsushi*; Akiyama, Eiji*; Abe, Hiroshi*; Hata, Kuniki; Sato, Tomonori; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa*; Seito, Hajime*; Tada, Eiji*; et al.

Zairyo To Kankyo, 69(4), p.107 - 111, 2020/04

To evaluate the effect of oxidants, which are formed by radiolysis of water under gamma ray irradiation, on the corrosion of a carbon steel in humid environment, ozone was introduced as a model oxidant in to humidity-controlled air at 50$$^{circ}$$C in a thermo-hygrostat chamber. Corrosion monitoring was performed by using an Atmospheric Corrosion Monitor-type (ACM) sensor consisting of a carbon steel anode and an Ag cathode. The output current of the ACM sensor was increased with the increase in relative humidity and it was obviously increased with the increase in the introduced ozone concentration at each relative humidity. The results indicate that ozone accelerates the corrosion of the carbon steel. The effect of ozone on the corrosion acceleration is attributed to the fast reduction reaction and fast dissolution reaction in to water compared to that of oxygen.

Journal Articles

Influence of applied load on oxidation in the vicinity of crack tips of stainless steel under high temperature water

Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(9), p.240 - 247, 2019/09

In order to study environment assisted cracking mechanism of stainless steel under BWR primary coolant condition, effects of applied load on oxidation in the vicinity of crack tips of CT specimens were evaluated. Loaded CT specimens were immersed in an aqueous condition at 290$$^{circ}$$C as a simulated BWR coolant condition, and microstructural observation on oxide near the tips of pre-cracks was carried out. Oxide inner layers, which consisted of fine grain magnetite containing Fe and Cr were formed, and oxide outer layers consisting of large grains of Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ were observed to cover the inner layers. FEM analysis of stress and strain in the loaded CT specimen suggests that both of dislocations due to localized plastic deformation and elastic strain could play important roles to accelerate inner oxide formation in the vicinity of the crack tip of the specimens.

Journal Articles

Analysis for the mechanism of accelerated corrosion on low alloy steel in air-solution alternating condition

Otani, Kyohei; Tsukada, Takashi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(8), p.205 - 211, 2019/08

In the present study, the iron rust layer formed on the low ally steel in air-solution alternating condition was investigated by cross-sectional observation and analysis, and the mechanism of accelerated corrosion of the steel in the alternating condition was clarified. Observation and analysis showed that the multi-layered iron rust layer composed of red rust layer (FeOOH), rust crust layer (Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$), inner crystal (Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$), and inner rust layer was formed on the low alloy steel. It can be considered that the multi-layered iron rust layer accelerated the cathodic reaction rate of the steel in the alternating condition. This acceleration would be the reason why the corrosion rate of the low alloy steel in the alternating condition was accelerated.

Journal Articles

Development of new corrosion test equipment simulating sulfuric acid decomposition gas environment in a thermochemical hydrogen production process

Hirota, Noriaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X. L.; Tachibana, Yukio

Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(6), p.137 - 142, 2019/06

New corrosion test equipment for high temperature gas of decomposed sulfuric acid was manufactured in order to ascertain flow rate of sulfuric acid in the piping, occurrence of sulfuric acid decomposition reaction in the equipment, and temperature distribution inside the furnace tube. The flow rate of the sulfuric acid solution was constantly measured using an ultrasonic flowmeter. The SO$$_{3}$$ concentration at the inlet of the test equipment was almost the same as that at the inlet of the sulfuric acid decomposer in the hydrogen production plant assuming a high-temperature gas cooled reactor hydrogen-power cogeneration system (GTHTR300C). On the other hand, during a test, leakage of sulfuric acid occurred from the fitting part at the outlet side. Hence the temperature distribution of the fitting part at the outlet side was investigated using fluid analysis. As a result, it was found that the temperature at the fitting was low enough to use fluorine joint grease when the distance was 0.05 m or more away from the outlet side pipe. An improved furnace tube was manufactured and the temperature was measured again at fitting part of the outlet side. The temperature was lower that the temperature limit of the joint grease and almost the same as the temperature distribution in the fluid analysis, and leakage of sulfuric acid has not occurred to date.

Journal Articles

IV. Electrochemical measurements in various environments; Nuclear power plant I (Electrochemical measurement in nuclear power plant)

Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(1), p.2 - 8, 2019/01

It is important to control the cooling water of light water reactors (boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor) to suitable quality in order to reduce corrosion of structural materials and generation of radioactive corrosion products. For that purpose, monitoring of water quality using electrochemical measurement method is necessary. In this article, the application of ECP measurement to BWR is mainly focused, I describe the water quality of light water reactors and the necessity of electrochemical measurement.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical measurements in various environments; Corrosion monitoring of carbon steel in deep underground environment

Taniguchi, Naoki; Nakayama, Masashi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(12), p.487 - 494, 2018/12

This article describes the current status of corrosion monitoring methods and examples of the measurement under deep underground environments for carbon steel overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Based on the studies on corrosion monitoring using AC Impedance technique, some of the typical measurement systems such as the electrodes arrangement are introduced. In-situ corrosion monitoring in engineering scale test is also being attempted using a deep underground research facility, and the measurement method and results are presented in this article.

Journal Articles

Diffusion behavior of D$$_{2}$$O in Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ film on Fe formed in an NaOH solution containing oxidants

Haruna, Takumi*; Miyataki, Yuki*; Hirohata, Yohei*; Shibata, Toshio*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu*

Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.375 - 380, 2018/09

This research aimed to confirm the formation of Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ film on Fe immersed in aqueous 45 mass% NaOH solution containing some oxidants at the boiling temperature, to recognize the optimum immersion time for the formation of thick and protective film, and to reveal the absorption behavior of D$$_{2}$$O in the Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ film at room temperature. The results were obtained as follows. It was confirmed that Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ film was formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for a time more than 0.6 ks, and the film thickness increased parabolically with an increase in the immersion time. D$$_{2}$$O absorption test was carried out to the films formed in the NaOH solution for immersion times of 1.2 and 3.6 ks. An amount of D$$_{2}$$O absorbed into the film increased with an increase in an absorption time up to 1000 ks, and an absorption time more than 1000 ks made an amount of D$$_{2}$$O constant. The constant amount of D$$_{2}$$O was larger for the film formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for 3.6 ks than that for 1.2 ks. The transient of the amount of D$$_{2}$$O absorbed into the film was analyzed on the basis of Fick's law for diffusion, and diffusion coefficients of D$$_{2}$$O were obtained to be 5.1$$times$$10$$^{-15}$$ cm$$^{2}$$ s$$^{-1}$$ and 9.9$$times$$10$$^{-15}$$ cm$$^{2}$$ s$$^{-1}$$ for the films formed for 1.2 and 3.6 ks, respectively. Therefore it was estimated that the diffusion coefficient of the Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ film was in the region from 5.1$$times$$10$$^{-15}$$ cm$$^{2}$$ s$$^{-1}$$ to 9.9$$times$$10$$^{-15}$$ cm$$^{2}$$ s$$^{-1}$$.

Journal Articles

In-situ measurement of electrical conductivity of solution within crevice of stainless steel in high temperature and high purity water

Soma, Yasutaka; Komatsu, Atsushi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.381 - 385, 2018/09

In-situ measurement of electrical conductivity of solution within crevice of SUS316L stainless steel in 288$$^{circ}$$C water has been conducted with newly developed electrochemical sensor system. The sensor measures local electrical conductivity of crevice solution beneath the electrode ($$kappa$$$$_{crev}$$) with electrochemical impedance method. The sensors were installed at different positions within tapered crevice of SUS316L stainless steel. The crevice specimen with the sensors were immerged into 288$$^{circ}$$C, 8 MPa, pure oxygen saturated high purity water for 100 h. $$kappa$$$$_{crev}$$ at a position with crevice gap of $$approx$$59.3$$mu$$m was 8-11$$mu$$S/cm, least deviate from conductivity of 288$$^{circ}$$C pure water (4.4$$mu$$S/cm) and no localized corrosion occurred. On the contrary, $$kappa$$$$_{crev}$$ at a position with crevice gap of $$approx$$4.4$$mu$$m increased with time and showed maximum value of $$approx$$1600$$mu$$S/cm at 70 h. Localized corrosion occurred in the vicinity of this position. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation showed $$kappa$$$$_{crev}$$ of 1600$$mu$$S/cm being equivalent to pH of 3 to 3.7. It can be concluded that acidification occurred in tight crevice even under high purity bulk water and resulted in localized corrosion.

Journal Articles

Localized corrosion in crevice of SUS316 stainless steel in oxygenated high temperature and high purity water

Soma, Yasutaka; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(5), p.222 - 228, 2018/05

Localized corrosion in crevice of SUS316 stainless steel after immersion in 288$$^{circ}$$C high purity water with dissolved oxygen concentration of 32 ppm for 100 h was analyzed. Two different types of localized corrosion initiated on grain boundary and inclusions. The former initiated on grain boundary and oxide grown into grain matrix. The oxidized area showed duplex structure composed of microcrystalline FeCr$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$ and island-shaped residual metals. The latter initiated on inclusions containing Ca and S and microcrystalline FeCr$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$ grown into metal matrix. These localized corrosion occurred selectively in oxygen depleted area indicated formation of macroscopic corrosion cell with the corroded area as anode and surrounding oxygenated area as cathode.

Journal Articles

Oxidation behavior of fuel cladding tube in spent fuel pool accident condition

Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Chihiro; Nakashima, Kazuo*; Tojo, Masayuki*

Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(5), p.180 - 187, 2017/05

In spent fuel pool (SFP) under loss-of-cooling or loss-of-coolant severe accident condition, the spent fuels will be exposed to air and heated by their own residual decay heat. Integrity of fuel cladding is crucial for SFP safety therefore study on cladding oxidation in air at high temperature is important. Zircaloy-2 (Zry2) and zircaloy-4 (Zry4) were applied for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) in different temperatures and different air flow rates in this work. Oxidation rate increased with temperature. In range of air flow rate predicted in spent fuel lack during SFP accident, influence of flow rate was not clearly observed below 950$$^{circ}$$C for Zry2 and below 1050$$^{circ}$$C for Zry4. Over these temperature, oxidation rates appeared obviously higher in higher air flow rate, and this trend became clearer when temperature increased. Oxide layers were carefully examined after the oxidation tests and compared with the mass gain data in TGA to investigate detail of air oxidation process. The results revealed that mass gain data in the pre breakaway transition stage reflects growth of the dense oxide film on specimen surface, and in the post breakaway transition stage, it reflects growth of porous oxide layer beneath the breakaway cracking of the oxide film.

Journal Articles

Effect of sulfate ion on corrosion behavior of SUS316L in high active liquid waste

Ambai, Hiromu; Sano, Yuichi; Nishizuka, Yusuke*; Iijima, Shizuka; Uchida, Naoki

Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(5), p.169 - 172, 2017/05

We study the effect of sulfate ion which is one component of seawater or concrete on the corrosion behavior in high active liquid waste tank environment. The corrosion tests were conducted using SUS316L and surrogate high active liquid waste containing some metal ions and nitric acid. The results showed that sulfate ion inhibited the corrosion rates. The XPS results indicated the attachment of sulfate ion to material surfaces suppressed the anode reaction.

Journal Articles

Former researches on cost of corrosion in Japan

Yamamoto, Masahiro

Zairyo To Kankyo 2017 Koenshu (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2017/05

The committee surveying the corrosion losses in Japan was established in 1976, with conjunction of the Japan Society of Corrosion Engineering and the Japan Association of Corrosion Control. The report made by the committee introduced that corrosion loss was estimated to be about 1.8% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). About quarter century had passed after the first survey, JSCE and JACC made the second surveying committee for the cost of corrosion in Japan in 1998. During that time, Japan's economic circumstances had changed drastically. In this report, results and problems of the former two researches are summarized.

Journal Articles

Estimation of corrosion mechanisms from the data obtained by the reproduced experiments considering the actual environments; Maritime structures and nuclear facilities

Yamamoto, Masahiro

Zairyo To Kankyo, 66(1), p.3 - 12, 2017/01

The laboratory simulation tests which could be reproduced the corrosion reactions propagating in the actual environments were utilized to analyze the mechanism of corrosion phenomena. In this report, some results are introduced in the cases of maritime structures and nuclear facilities. Experimental apparatus was originally designed to obtain the data in high radioactive condition simulating actual plants. One is a result showing the effect of Np ion to the corrosion of stainless steel in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Corrosion mechanism was revealed that Np$$^{6+}$$ ion is reduced to Np$$^{5+}$$ ion by a corrosion reaction of stainless steel and then re-oxidized to Np$$^{6+}$$ ion in the bulk solution. And repetition of this cycle accelerated corrosion of stainless steel by a little amounts of Np addition in nitric acid solution. Another result is introduced that an effect of H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ created by radiolysis of cooling water at high radioactive environment in light water reactor.

Journal Articles

Electrical conductivity and potential response within crevice of stainless steel in high temperature water under cyclic deaerated and aerated condition

Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Fushoku Boshoku Kyokai Dai-63-Kai Zairyo To Kankyo Toronkai Koenshu, p.253 - 256, 2016/10

Contribution of corrosion to advance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel in high temperature water must be assessed because serious corrosion can be found within SCC of light water reactors. The corrosion took the form of both intergranular and grain-matrix attack indicate aggressive corrosion condition was formed in the crevice of the SCC. We have investigated the crevice environment electrochemically and found that local electrical conductivity of the crevice solution at satisfactory narrow crevice gap having more than 100 times higher than that of bulk solution. In this research we assessed effect of cyclic deaerated and aerated bulk solution to the crevice environment. The result showed that electrical conductivity of the crevice solution under the deaerated bulk solution increased more than 10times by injection of pure oxygen suggest that the dissolved oxygen caused aggressive corrosion condition within the crevice.

Journal Articles

Expectations for corrosion science and technology from the viewpoint of long-term prediction

Taniguchi, Naoki

Zairyo To Kankyo, 65(9), p.363 - 364, 2016/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in high pH solution under $$gamma$$ irradiation

Yukawa, Takuji*; Inoue, Hiroyuki*; Kojima, Takao*; Iwase, Akihiro*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu*

Zairyo To Kankyo 2016 Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.359 - 362, 2016/05

The immersion tests of pure titanium were carried out in aqueous solution containing carbonate/bicarbonate with 50 mM-chloride ion under gamma irradiation. The effect of pH on general corrosion rate of titanium were studied. The experimental results showed that the concentration of hydrogen preoxide was increased with pH, and the corrosion rate increased with the hydrogen preoxide concentration. The corrosion rate in pH12 and 13 were 5 to10 times larger than those under unirradiated conditions.

Journal Articles

Estimation of corrosion mechanism from the data obtained by the reproduced experiment considering the actual environment; e.g. maritime structures and nuclear facilities

Yamamoto, Masahiro

Zairyo To Kankyo 2016 Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.1 - 8, 2016/05

I will make a presentation for "Go Okamoto Memorial Lecture" at coming Zairyo to Kankyo 2016 Symposium. I will introduce the data analysis method using reproducing experiment for an actual environment. The examples will be shown in case of maritime structure and nuclear engineering plant.

Journal Articles

Effect of boiling under reduced pressure on corrosion of stainless steels in nitric acid solution simulating high-level radioactive liquid waste

Irisawa, Eriko; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Hitoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 65(4), p.134 - 137, 2016/04

In order to investigate the effect of boiling under reduced pressure on corrosion of stainless steel in the nitric acid solution, the corrosion tests simulating the high-level radioactive liquid waste evaporator were performed. The results of immersion tests of stainless steels in the solution with and without boiling showed that the corrosion rates in boiling solution were larger than those in not boiling solution in case of same temperature of solution. Moreover, the cathode polarization curves showed that the corrosion potential of stainless steel in boiling solutions were shifted nobler, and the current intensity became larger than that in not boiling solutions. According to these results, it can be concluded that boiling of solution under reduced pressure accelerate the corrosion rates.

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