Mihara, Takeshi; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(8), p.724 - 730, 2019/08
Kamidaira, Yuki; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Uchiyama, Yusuke*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(8), p.752 - 763, 2019/08
Oceanic regional downscaling capability was implemented into Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency to enable us to predict more realistically the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides at higher spatiotemporal resolutions for broader applications. The system consisted of a double-nested oceanic downscaling circulation model with tidal forcing and an oceanic radionuclide dispersion model. This system was used to comparatively examine downscaling and tidal effects on the dispersion of radionuclides hypothetically released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in the colder season. The simulated dissolved Cs distribution was different from that obtained using coarser-resolution models because downscaling enhanced both horizontal and vertical mixing. The suppression of horizontal mixing and the promotion of vertical mixing by tidal forcing synergistically reduced offshore Cs transport. In addition, the submesoscale effects strengthened the three-dimensional Cs fluctuations by 10 times, while the tidal effects promoted slightly increased the intensity of three-dimensional Cs fluctuations by approximately 3%. This indicated that the submesoscale effects substantially surpassed tidal forcing in oceanic mixing in the coastal margin off Fukushima in the colder season.
Maeda, Makoto; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Kureta, Masatoshi; Ozu, Akira; Komeda, Masao; Toh, Yosuke
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(7), p.617 - 628, 2019/07
Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(7), p.650 - 660, 2019/07
Oi, Motoki; Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Ikeda, Yujiro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(7), p.573 - 579, 2019/07
In pulsed neutron sources, a neutron absorber called decoupler is attached to the moderator to sharpen the neutron pulses for achieving good neutron energy resolutions. Cadmium and boron carbide (BC) are widely used as the decoupler materials. However, it is difficult to use BC in MW-class spallation neutron sources owing to high burn-up, which decreases cut-off energy and increase of helium gas swelling. To solve these issues, we introduce the concept of pre-decoupler to reduce neutron absorption in the BC decoupler, which is sandwiched by appropriate neutron absorption materials. Then, we study impacts of the pre-decouplers on BC decoupler in terms of burn-up by performing simplified model calculations. It is shown that neutron absorption in BC is reduced by 60% by using a Cd pre-decoupler without neutron intensity penalty. Moreover, helium gas swelling in BC is restrained to be one-third of the value when not using the pre-decoupler.
Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Terada, Kazushi*; Nakao, Taro*; Mizuyama, Kazuhito*; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu; Harada, Hideo; Katabuchi, Tatsuya*; Igashira, Masayuki*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.479 - 492, 2019/06
Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya*; Uno, Masayoshi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.521 - 532, 2019/06
Nakamura, Shoji; Kitatani, Fumito; Kimura, Atsushi; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.493 - 502, 2019/06
The thermal-neutron capture cross-section()and resonance integral(I) were measured for the Np(n,)Np reaction by an activation method. A method with a Gadolinium filter, which is similar to the Cadmium difference method, was used to measure the with paying attention to the first resonance at 0.489 eV of Np, and a value of 0.133 eV was taken as a cut-off energy. Neptunium-237 samples were irradiated at the pneumatic tube of the Kyoto University Research Reactor in Institute for Integral Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University. Wires of Co/Al and Au/Al alloys were used as monitors to determine thermal-neutron fluxes and epi-thermal Westcott's indices at an irradiation position. A -ray spectroscopy was used to measure activities of Np, Np and neutron monitors. On the basis of Westcott's convention, the and I values were derived as 186.96.2 barn, and 100990 barn, respectively.
Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.461 - 470, 2019/06
no abstracts in English
Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya; Uno, Masayoshi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.513 - 520, 2019/06
This study revealed melting points and thermal conductivities of four samples generated by sodium-concrete reaction (SCR). We prepared the samples using two methods such as firing mixtures of sodium and grinded concrete powder, and sampling depositions after the SCR experiments. In the former, the mixing ratios were determined from the past experiment. The latter simulated the more realistic conditions such as the temperature history and the distribution of Na and concrete. The thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA) measurement showed the melting points were 865-942C, but those of the samples containing metallic Na couldn't be clarified. In the two more realistic samples, the compression moldings in a furnace were observed. The observation revealed the softening temperature was 800-840C and the melting point was 840-850C, which was 10-20C lower than the TG-DTA results. The thermodynamics calculation of FactSage 7.2 revealed the temperature of the onset of melting was caused by melting of the some components such as NaSiO and/or NaSiO. Moreover, the thermal conductivity was =1-3W/m-K, which was comparable to xNaO-1-xSiO (x=0.5, 0.33, 0.25), and those at 700C were explained by the equation of .
Hasegawa, Kunio; Li, Y.; Kim, Y.-J.*; Lacroix, V.*; Strnadel, B.*
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 141(3), p.031201_1 - 031201_5, 2019/06
When discrete multiple flaws are in the same plane, and they are close to each other, it can be determined whether they are combined or standalone in accordance with combination rules provided by Fitness-For-Service (FFS) codes. However, specific criteria of the rules are different amongst these FFS codes. On the other hand, plastic collapse bending stresses for stainless steel pipes with two circumferential similar flaws were obtained by experiments and the prediction procedure for collapse stresses for pipes with two similar flaws were developed analytically. Using the experimental data and the analytical procedure, plastic collapse stresses for pipes with two similar flaws are compared with the stresses in compliance with the flaw combination criteria. It is shown that the calculated plastic collapse stresses based on the flaw combination criteria are significantly different from the experimental and analytical stresses.
Riyana, E. S.*; Suda, Shoya*; Ishibashi, Kenji*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Katakura, Junichi*; Sun, G. M.*; Katano, Yoshiaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.369 - 375, 2019/05
Nuclear reactors produce a great number of electron antineutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may have information on fuel burn-up and may be detected in future with advanced measurement technology. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectra from various reactors such as typical PWR reactor and others types of reactors for comparison. Our result shows the electron antineutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel by accumulated nuclides with low Q values in beta decay.
Li, F.; Mihara, Takeshi; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.432 - 439, 2019/05
Furutachi, Naoya*; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.412 - 424, 2019/05
A phenomenological level density model that has different level density parameter sets for the state densities of the spherical and the deformed states, and the optimization of the parameters using the experimental data of the average s-wave neutron resonance spacing are presented. The transition to the spherical state from the deformed one is described using the parameters derived from a microscopic nuclear structure calculation. The nuclear reaction calculation has been performed by the statistical model using the present level density. Resulting cross sections for various reactions with the spherical, deformed and transitional target nuclei shows a fair agreement with the experimental data, which indicates the effectiveness of the present model. The role of the rotational collective enhancement in the calculations of those cross sections is also discussed.
Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.385 - 393, 2019/05
At high energy accelerator facilities, various radionuclides are produced by nuclear reactions of high energy particles with structure and/or ambient air of the facilities. Consequently, the radionuclides are potential sources of internal exposure for works of the facilities. However, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) do not provide dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per intake, for the short-lived radionuclides whose half-lives are shorter than 10 minutes in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. Then, we estimated the dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of these short-lived radionuclides in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. In addition, we compared the dose coefficients with those in accordance with the ICRP 1990 Recommendations. As a result, a decreasing tendency was shown in the dose coefficients for inhalation cases; an increasing tendency was observed in those for ingestion cases. It was found that these changes in dose coefficients were mainly caused by the revision of the dose calculation procedures, alimentary tract models. The result of this study will be useful for planning of radiation protection at the high energy facilities.
Pshenichnikov, A.; Yamazaki, Saishun; Bottomley, D.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.440 - 453, 2019/05
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.394 - 411, 2019/05
Water columns were adopted in the pressure measurement system of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit-3. Part of these water columns evaporated during the accident condition jeopardizing correct understanding on actual pressure. Through comparison of RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) and S/C pressures with D/W pressure, such water-column effect was evaluated. Correction for this effect was developed enabling clarification of slight pressure difference among RPV, S/C and D/W. This information was then integrated with other available data such as, water level, CAMS and environmental dose rate, into an interpretation of accident focusing on RPV and PCV pressurization/depressurization and radioactive material release to environment. It is suggested that dryout of in-vessel and ex-vessel debris was likely causing pressure decrease. S/C water poured into pedestal heated by relocated debris was the likely cause of pressurization. Cyclic reflooding of pedestal debris and dryout was likely.
Irisawa, Eriko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Ban, Yasutoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(4), p.337 - 344, 2019/04
Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(4), p.345 - 354, 2019/04
Particle transport simulations based on the Monte Carlo method have been applied to shielding calculations. Estimation of not only statistical uncertainty related to the number of trials but also systematic one induced by unclear physical quantities is required to confirm the reliability of calculated results. In this study, we applied a method based on analysis of variance to shielding calculations. We proposed random- and three-condition methods. The first one determines randomly the value of the unclear quantity, while the second one uses only three values: the default value, upper and lower limits. The systematic uncertainty can be estimated adequately by the random-condition method, though it needs the large computational cost. The three-condition method can provide almost the same estimate as the random-condition method when the effect of the variation is monotonic. We found criterion to confirm convergence of the systematic uncertainty as the number of trials increases.
Mares, V.*; Hasegawa, Kunio; Li, Y.; Lacroix, V.*
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 141(2), p.021203_1 - 021203_6, 2019/04
Appendix C-5320 of ASME BPV Code Section XI provides an equation of bending stress at the plastic collapse, where the equation is applicable for both inner and outer surface cracks. That is, the collapse stresses for pipes with inner and outer surface cracks are the same. Authors considered the separated pipe mean radii at the cracked ligament and at the un-cracked ligament and equations of plastic collapse stresses for both inner and outer cracked pipes were developed. As the results of the calculations, when the crack angle and depth are the same, the collapse stress for outer cracked pipe is lower than that calculated by the Appendix C equation. It is found that the Appendix C equation gives un-conservative plastic collapse stress.