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Journal Articles

Comparison between passive reactor cavity cooling systems based on atmospheric radiation and atmospheric natural circulation

Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107867_1 - 107867_11, 2021/02

A new RCCS with passive safety features consists of two continuous closed regions. One is a region surrounding RPV. The other is a cooling region with heat transferred to the ambient air. The new RCCS needs no electrical or mechanical driving devices. We compared the RCCS using atmospheric radiation with that using atmospheric natural circulation in terms of passive safety features and control methods for heat removal. The magnitude relationship for passive safety features is heat conduction $$>$$ radiation $$>$$ natural convection. Therefore, the magnitude for passive safety features of the former RCCS can be higher than that of the latter RCCS. In controlling the heat removal, the former RCCS changes the heat transfer area only. On the other hand, the latter RCCS needs to change the chimney effect. It is necessary to change the air resistance in the duct. Therefore, the former RCCS can control the heat removal more easily than the latter RCCS.

Journal Articles

Feasibility study on burnable poison credit concept to HTGR fuel fabrication from core specification perspective

Fukaya, Yuji; Ueta, Shohei; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151( ), p.107937_1 - 107937_9, 2021/02

Feasibility study on Burnable Poison (BP) credit concept to High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel fabrication has been performed. By mixing BP into fuel material in the first place of fuel fabrication, criticality safety is ensured in the all fuel fabrication process even with high enrichment fuel such as 14 wt% used in commercial HTGR. However, the poison effect also prevents the criticality even in the HTGR core, and it may shorten cycle length and achievable burn-up of the core. Therefore, the effect is evaluated by whole core burn-up calculation. As a BP, boron, gadolinium, erbium, and hafnium are investigated. As a result, it is found that boron and gadolinium suit this concept and the 14 wt% fuel can be fabricated in the plant fabricating 9.9 wt% High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel. With the boron and gadolinium, the commercial HTGR fuel can be fabricated with the safety measure as same as Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel facility to treat the fuel with the enrichment up to 5 wt%. Especially, gadolinium is significantly suitable to this concept due to the dependency to spectrum, and more enhanced safety measure is feasible as well.

Journal Articles

Characterization of high-temperature nuclear fuel-coolant interactions through X-ray visualization and image processing

Johnson, M.*; Journeau, C.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107881_1 - 107881_13, 2021/02

High-resolution X-ray imaging was employed at the JAEA MELT facility to visualize a kilogram-scale interaction between a jet of high temperature molten stainless steel and sodium. A novel software, SPECTRA, has been developed for the quantitative characterization of jet quenching and fragmentation. Tracking and 3D reconstruction of the melt phase traversing the imaging window enabled the detection of 72% of the debris mass recovered post-experiment. The rebounding of melt fragments confirmed a solid outer crust at the melt-coolant interface, while a thermal fragmentation event induced rapid vapor expansion. Jet fragmentation is best explained by the vaporization of coolant entrained within the melt jet generating an internal over-pressure sufficient for fragmentation of the crust. Thermal fragmentation produced a bimodal debris size distribution of coarse jet shells and finer fragments.

Journal Articles

Leaching characteristics of $$^{137}$$Cs for forest floor affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident; A Litterbag experiment

Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nakanishi, Takahiro

Chemosphere, 264, p.128480_1 - 128480_9, 2021/02

We investigated characteristic of dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs leaching from litters collected at a coniforest needle and a deciduous broadleaf forests using litterbags at upstream area of Ohta River in Fukushima. Each leaf type of litters was collected into 36 litterbags, respectively, and installed each forest floor in June and December, 2017. Triplicate samples were collected at each forest floor and readily transported to the laboratory in August, December, 2017 and March, May, August, December, 2018. Samples were put in buckets and soaked in purified water. We took leaching water samples from the buckets at 20 min, 140 min, 1 day after soaking litter samples in the water. These samples were analysed about $$^{137}$$Cs activity. The main results were that the deciduous broadleaf litter showed much higher leaching ratio of dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs (0.81-6.6%) than that of the coniferous needle litter (0.13-2.0%). A multi-regression analysis of $$^{137}$$Cs leaching ratios were conducted against antecedent mean precipitation and temperature, and accumulated temperature during the litterbag experiments. The model can reproduce observed $$^{137}$$Cs leaching ratios (R$$^{2}$$ = 0.61-0.99).

Journal Articles

Performance of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry in the assessment of radioactive cesium deposition around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Ji, Y.-Y.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Hong, S. B.*; Nakama, Shigeo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Mikami, Satoshi

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 179, p.109205_1 - 109205_11, 2021/02

In situ gamma-ray spectrometry using diverse survey platforms has been conducted in contaminated areas with several dose rate levels around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Six survey sites, including two evacuation zones around the FDNPP, were selected for ground-based gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe (high purity Ge) and LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce) detectors to assess the radioactive cesium deposition in the ground. The diverse levels of radioactivity of $$^{137}$$Cs were then distributed to six survey sites from 30 to 3000 kBq m$$^{-2}$$ in the measurement period of October 2018. A method to directly calculate the depth profile using in situ measurement was introduced so as to have representation over a wide area, and the results were successfully compared with those of sample analysis at one point in the site.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of heat transfer behavior in EAGLE ID1 in-pile test using finite volume particle method

Zhang, T.*; Funakoshi, Kanji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*; Kamiyama, Kenji

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 150, p.107856_1 - 107856_10, 2021/01

Journal Articles

Experimental study on secondary droplets produced during liquid jet impingement onto a horizon solid surface

Zhan, Y.*; Kuwata, Yusuke*; Okawa, Tomio*; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Takata, Takashi

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 120, p.110249_1 - 110249_12, 2021/01

Journal Articles

XAFS analysis of ruthenium in simulated iron phosphate radioactive waste glass

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Sasage, Kenichi; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*; Nagai, Takayuki

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 551, p.120393_1 - 120393_8, 2021/01

The chemical state of ruthenium in simulated iron phosphate radioactive waste glass was investigated by conventional X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and imaging XAFS analyses. The EXAFS analysis suggested that ruthenium was contained as glass phase when content of the waste components was less than 10wt.% in 30 mol%Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$-P$$_{2}$$O$$_{5}$$ base glass. In other samples, crystalline RuO$$_{2}$$ was predominant. According to the imaging XAFS analysis, RuO$$_{2}$$ particles in all samples had length smaller than 50$$mu$$m. Aggregations of RuO$$_{2}$$, which are found in nuclear waste borosilicate glass, were not seen in any of the iron phosphate glass samples.

Journal Articles

Solidification and re-melting mechanisms of SUS-B$$_{4}$$C eutectic mixture

Sumita, Takehiro; Kitagaki, Toru; Takano, Masahide; Ikeda, Atsushi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 543, p.152527_1 - 152527_15, 2021/01

Journal Articles

A Unique high natural background radiation area; Dose assessment and perspectives

Hosoda, Masahiro*; Nugraha, E. D.*; Akata, Naofumi*; Yamada, Ryohei; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Sasaki, Michiya*; Kelleher, K.*; Yoshinaga, Shinji*; Suzuki, Takahito*; Rattanapongs, C. P.*; et al.

Science of the Total Environment, 750, p.142346_1 - 142346_11, 2021/01

The biological effects of low dose-rate radiation exposures on humans remains unknown. In fact, the Japanese nation still struggles with this issue after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Recently, we have found a unique area in Indonesia where naturally high radiation levels are present, resulting in chronic low dose-rate radiation exposures. We aimed to estimate the comprehensive dose due to internal and external exposures at the particularly high natural radiation area, and to discuss the enhancement mechanism of radon. A car-borne survey was conducted to estimate the external doses from terrestrial radiation. Indoor radon measurements were made in 47 dwellings over three to five months, covering the two typical seasons, to estimate the internal doses. Atmospheric radon gases were simultaneously collected at several heights to evaluate the vertical distribution. The absorbed dose rates in air in the study area vary widely between 50 nGy h$$^{-1}$$ and 1109 nGy h$$^{-1}$$. Indoor radon concentrations ranged from 124 Bq m$$^{-3}$$ to 1015 Bq m$$^{-3}$$. That is, the indoor radon concentrations measured exceed the reference levels of 100 Bq m$$^{-3}$$ recommended by the World Health Organization. Furthermore, the outdoor radon concentrations measured were comparable to the high indoor radon concentrations. The annual effective dose due to external and internal exposures in the study area was estimated to be 27 mSv using the median values. It was found that many residents are receiving radiation exposure from natural radionuclides over the dose limit for occupational exposure to radiation workers. This enhanced outdoor radon concentration might be as a result of the stable atmospheric conditions generated at an exceptionally low altitude. Our findings suggest that this area provides a unique opportunity to conduct an epidemiological study related to health effects due to chronic low dose-rate radiation exposure.

JAEA Reports

Research and development (R&D) for the Fukushima Daiichi Accident; 10 years' activities on Fukushima Revitalization

Sector of Fukushima Research and Development

JAEA-Review 2020-023, 140 Pages, 2020/12

The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, caused the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Ltd. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as a designated institution of the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures, supported lots of activities on emergency response, environmental remediation and so on. As a unique nuclear R&D institution, JAEA conducted the Research and Development on Fukushima Daiichi Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration. This report summarizes the 10 years' JAEA activities on Fukushima Revitalization, including emergency responses just after the accident, construction on the R&D organization and infrastructures, results of R&D towards 1F decommissioning and environmental restoration and so on.

Journal Articles

Neutronics design for molten salt accelerator-driven system as TRU burner

Sugawara, Takanori

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 149, p.107818_1 - 107818_7, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0

Treatment of surplus plutonium has been one of the most important issues in the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. This study investigates a molten salt accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute transuranic (TRU) nuclides to address the issue. MARDS (Molten salt Accelerator Driven System) concept employs lead chloride (PbCl$$_2$$) as a fuel salt to achieve a hard spectrum. Since the fuel salt is used as a spallation target, a dedicated spallation target is not required in this concept. Furthermore, a beam window which is a boundary between an accelerator and subcritical core is designed to avoid touching the fuel salt. It mitigates the difficulties of the beam design for ADS. Neutronics calculation for the MARDS concept was performed for a condition of 400 MW thermal power with 800 MeV proton beam. The calculation results showed that the proton beam current was about 7 mA and about 4400 kg plutonium could be transmuted during 40-year operation.

Journal Articles

Role of advection in atmospheric ammonia; A Case study at a Japanese lake basin influenced by agricultural ammonia sources

Kubota, Tomohiro; Kuroda, Hisao*; Watanabe, Mirai*; Takahashi, Akiko*; Nakazato, Ryoji*; Tarui, Mika*; Matsumoto, Shunichi*; Nakagawa, Keita*; Numata, Yasuko*; Ouchi, Takao*; et al.

Atmospheric Environment, 243, p.117856_1 - 117856_9, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The dry and wet depositions of atmospheric ammonia (NH$$_{3}$$) is one of the important pathways of nitrogen loads to aquatic ecosystems. Crop and livestock agriculture, one of the largest emitters of NH$$_{3}$$ in Asian countries, are known to cause high spatial and seasonal variation of NH$$_{3}$$ and influence the surrounding lake basin areas via its dry and wet deposition. However, the spatial characteristics of the NH$$_{3}$$ concentration in basin scale are not completely understood for regulation in NH$$_{3}$$ emission. Here we aim to clarify dominant factors of spatial and seasonal variations of the NH$$_{3}$$ concentration in a eutrophic lake basin surrounded by agricultural areas in Japan. Passive sampling over various land use categories in the basin was conducted at 36 sites in total from October 2018 to January 2020. Interestingly, the observed NH$$_{3}$$ concentration near the livestock houses were higher in winter than summer, which was inconsistent with knowledge of seasonal changes of current NH$$_{3}$$ emission inventory based on temperature-driven volatilization process. Comparing monthly NH$$_{3}$$ concentrations with various meteorological factors, we suggested the importance of seasonal advection of NH$$_{3}$$ from high emission sources to which has been rarely paid attention by the previous past studies. As for this, should be considered for lake ecosystem management since deposition of NH$$_{3}$$ is known to be closely related to the ecological processes such as phytoplankton blooming.

Journal Articles

Impact of non-linear elastic behavior on bentonite density evolution at the FEBEX

Takayama, Yusuke

International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 136, p.104538_1 - 104538_8, 2020/12

It is necessary to apply reliable numerical simulation techniques to assess the mechanical behaviour of repositories for the geological disposal of radioactive waste over a long period of time. Having a constitutive model that can describe the mechanical behaviour of bentonite is key to such numerical simulations. In this study, the applicability of linear elastic constitutive model with swelling term is examined focusing on the density heterogeneity by applying to the in situ Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment (FEBEX) in Grimsel. It was confirmed that this constitutive model underestimates the density change. Instead, mechanical behaviour was re-simulated by unsaturated elasto-plastic constitutive model using the changes in degree of saturation as input data. Although no feedback effects of mechanical behaviour on hydraulic and thermal behaviour were taken into account, two-dimensional stress and density could be reproduced.

Journal Articles

Oxygen potential measurement of (U,Pu,Am)O$$_{2 pm x}$$ and (U,Pu,Am,Np)O$$_{2 pm x}$$

Hirooka, Shun; Matsumoto, Taku; Kato, Masato; Sunaoshi, Takeo*; Uno, Hiroki*; Yamada, Tadahisa*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 542, p.152424_1 - 152424_9, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The measurement of oxygen potential was conducted at 1,673, 1,773, and 1,873 K for (U$$_{0.623}$$Pu$$_{0.350}$$Am$$_{0.027}$$)O$$_{2}$$ and at 1,873 and 1,923 K for (U$$_{0.553}$$Pu$$_{0.285}$$Am$$_{0.015}$$Np$$_{0.147}$$)O$$_{2}$$ by using a thermo-gravimeter and an oxygen sensor. Am inclusion in terms of substituting the U significantly increased the oxygen potential. Similarly, the inclusion of Np as a substitute for U increased the oxygen potential; however, the effect was not as large as that with the Pu or Am addition at the same rate. The results were analyzed via defect chemistry and certain defect formations were suggested in the reducing region and the near-stoichiometric region by plotting the relationship between PO$$_{2}$$ and the deviation from the stoichiometry. The equilibrium constants of the defect reactions were arranged to reproduce the experiment such that Am/Np contents were included in the entropy with coefficients fitting the experimental data.

Journal Articles

Oxygen self-diffusion in near stoichiometric (U,Pu)O$$_{2}$$ at high temperatures of 1673-1873 K

Watanabe, Masashi; Kato, Masato; Sunaoshi, Takeo*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 542, p.152472_1 - 152472_7, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The oxygen self-diffusion coefficients in near stoichiometric (U,Pu)O$$_{2}$$ at high temperatures were successfully measured by thermogravimetry combined with the oxygen isotope exchange method. The activation energy for oxygen diffusion in the stoichiometric composition of (U,Pu)O$$_{2}$$ was evaluated from experimental data, and the value was determined to be 248 kJ/mol. In addition, the defect migration energies of (U,Pu)O$$_{2 pm x}$$ were derived, and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficients were evaluated using these. As a result, good agreement was found between the experimental data and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficients calculated using the defect migration energies.

Journal Articles

Pressure wave induced sound measurement for diagnosing the operation status of the J-PARC pulsed spallation neutron source

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 982, p.164566_1 - 164566_6, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0

A liquid mercury target for the spallation neutron source is installed in the J-PARC. The liquid mercury is enclosed with the multi-walled stainless steel vessel. At the time of highly intense proton beams hits the target at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, pressure waves, that causes cavitation erosion, are generated owing the rapidly thermal expansion of mercury. We have installed the target diagnostic system consisting of a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and a dynamic microphone to remotely investigate the structural integrity of the target under high-radiation environment. In this study, aiming to understand correlation between the acoustic vibration and the operation conditions such as the proton beam power and beam profile, proton beam induced acoustic vibration was measured by parametrically changing the target operation conditions. The result showed that the sound is well correlated with the operation conditions.

Journal Articles

$$^{rm 208,207,206,nat}$$Pb(p,x)$$^{207}$$Bi and $$^{209}$$Bi(p,x)$$^{207}$$Bi excitation functions in the energy range of 0.04 - 2.6 GeV

Titarenko, Yu. E.*; Batyaev, V. F.*; Pavlov, K. V.*; Titarenko, A. Yu.*; Malinovskiy, S. V.*; Rogov, V. I.*; Zhivun, V. M.*; Kulevoy, T. V.*; Chauzova, M. V.*; Lushin, S. V.*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 984, p.164635_1 - 164635_8, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The paper presents the $$^{207}$$Bi production cross-sections measured by the direct gamma-spectrometry technique in the samples of lead enriched with isotopes 208, 207 and 206, as well as in the samples of natural lead and bismuth, irradiated by protons of 11 energies in the range from 0.04 to 2.6 GeV. The obtained experimental results are compared with the previous measurements, with the TENDL-2019 data-library evaluations and the simulated data by means of the high-energy transport codes MCNP6.1 (CEM03.03), PHITS (INCL4.6/GEM), and Geant4 (INCL++/ABLA). The observed discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data are discussed.

Journal Articles

Modernization of the DCHAIN-PHITS activation code with new features and updated data libraries

Ratliff, H.; Matsuda, Norihiro; Abe, Shinichiro; Miura, Takamitsu*; Furuta, Takuya; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 484, p.29 - 41, 2020/12

JAEA Reports

Test methods for robots for nuclear emergency response and decommissioning; Tests for running performances of robots (JAEA-TM-0001, JAEA-TM-0002 and JAEA-TM-0003)

Kawabata, Kuniaki; Yamada, Taichi; Abe, Hiroyuki*

JAEA-Technology 2020-015, 37 Pages, 2020/11


This report describes the test procedures for evaluating running performances of remotely operated robot utilized for nuclear emergency responses and decommissioning. After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings Inc. (FDNPS) occurred, remotely operated robots have been deployed and utilized in the response tasks. Such post-accident work experience and lessons learned are very valuable for developing the robots in the future. Therefore, we were motivated to develop the test methods for performance evaluation of the robot by referring with such experiences and lessons. Based on our examinations, in order to execute the response and decommissioning tasks, the robots are required to run through the space without enough margin and avoiding collisions, to move on stairs while avoiding tumbling or falling down and to drag a cable while avoiding problems caused by the cable entwining around objects. This report describes three test procedures for quantitatively evaluating the performances which are for running narrow passage, climbing up/down on the stairs and running with dragging the cable. Typical course layout and the demonstration of test running are also illustrated for the references.

109302 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)