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Journal Articles

Application of USV to marine monitoring after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident and its applicability as a nuclear disaster prevention tool

Sanada, Yukihisa; Misono, Toshiharu; Shiribiki, Takehiko*

Kaiyo Riko Gakkai-Shi, 27(2), p.37 - 44, 2023/12

This paper summarizes the general situation of marine monitoring conducted after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the experience of development and operation of USVs, and the possibility of applying unmanned vessels as a tool for nuclear disaster prevention in the future. 0.01 Bq/L or less for seawater and 10 Bq/L or less for seabed soil. Operational tests of three USVs have been continuously conducted for use in such environmental radiation monitoring. Development of these UAVs is underway with a view to utilizing them for seawater sampling, direct measurement of the seafloor soil surface layer, and seafloor soil sampling, depending on their performance. It is necessary to promote the development of USVs for future nuclear power plant accidents.

Journal Articles

Seafood dose parameters; Updating $$^{210}$$Po retention factors for cooking, decay loss and mariculture

Johansen, M. P.*; Carpenter, J. G.*; Charmasson, S.*; Gwynn, J. P.*; McGinnity, P.*; Mori, Airi; Orr, B.*; Simon-Cornu, M.*; Osvath, I.*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 268-269, p.107243_1 - 107243_10, 2023/11

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Decontamination and solidification treatment on spent liquid scintillation cocktail

Watanabe, So; Takahatake, Yoko; Ogi, Hiromichi*; Osugi, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Takumi; Sato, Junya; Arai, Tsuyoshi*; Kajinami, Akihiko*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 585, p.154610_1 - 154610_6, 2023/11

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Neutron-production double-differential cross sections of $$^{rm nat}$$Pb and $$^{209}$$Bi in proton-induced reactions near 100 MeV

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Sugihara, Kenta*; $c{C}$elik, Y.*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 544, p.165107_1 - 165107_15, 2023/11

The lack of double-differential cross-section (DDX) data for neutron production below the incident proton energy of 200 MeV hinders the validation of spallation models in technical applications, such as research and development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). The present study aims to obtain experimental DDX data for ADS spallation target materials in this energy region and identify issues related to the spallation models by comparing them with the analytical predictions. The DDXs for the ($$p, xn$$) reactions of $$^{rm nat}$$Pb and $$^{209}$$Bi in the 100-MeV region were measured over an angular range of 30$$^{circ}$$ to 150$$^{circ}$$ using the time-of-flight method. The measurements were conducted at Kyoto University utilizing the FFAG accelerator. The DDXs obtained were compared with calculation results from Monte Carlo-based spallation models and the evaluated nuclear data library, JENDL-5. Comparison between the measured DDX and analytical values based on the spallation models and evaluated nuclear data library indicated that, in general, the CEM03.03 model demonstrated the closest match to the experimental values. Additionally, the comparison highlighted several issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the reproducibility of the proton-induced neutron-production DDX in the 100 MeV region by these spallation models and evaluated nuclear data library.

Journal Articles

Assessment of ambient dose equivalent rate distribution patterns in a forested-rugged terrain using field-measured and modeled dose equivalent rates

Yasumiishi, Misa*; Masoudi, P.*; Nishimura, Taku*; Ochi, Kotaro; Ye, X.*; Aldstadt, J.*; Komissarov, M.*

Radiation Measurements, 168, p.106978_1 - 106978_16, 2023/11

In this study, we surveyed air dose rates using hand-held and backpack-type scintillators in a forest of deciduous and evergreen trees in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The effects of topographic features on air dose rates were examined using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) against five selected topographic parameters. The air dose rates were distributed unevenly in the forest, and air dose rates varied by more than 1$$mu$$Sv/h as a function of time, likely owing to ground wetness etc. The effect of different topographic parameters varied between survey dates. The MARS model predictions with all topographic parameters yielded an R$$^{2}$$ of 0.54 or higher. To discuss whether the effect of topography on air dose rates and soil contamination levels is consistent, air dose rates measured in the field were compared with those estimated from the depth profile of radiocesium in soil. Most air dose rates estimated from the soil samples were in the range of field measurements.

Journal Articles

Root endophytic bacterial and fungal communities in a natural hot desert are differentially regulated in dry and wet seasons by stochastic processes and functional traits

Taniguchi, Takeshi*; Isobe, Kazuo*; Imada, Shogo*; Eltayeb, M. M.*; Akaji, Yasuaki*; Nakayama, Masataka; Allen, M. F.*; Aronson, E. L.*

Science of the Total Environment, 899, p.165524_1 - 165524_13, 2023/11

Dryland ecosystems experience seasonal cycles of severe drought and moderate precipitation. Desert plants typically have patchy distributions, and many may develop symbiotic relationships with root endophytic microbes to survive under the repeated wet and extremely dry conditions. Although community coalescence has been found in many systems, the colonization by functional microbes and its relationship to seasonal transitions in arid regions are not well understood. Here we examined root endophytic microbial taxa, and their traits in relation to their root colonization, during the dry and wet seasons in a hot desert of the southwestern United States. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS gene profiling of five desert shrubs, and analyzed the seasonal change in endophytic microbial lineages. In summer, Actinobacteria increased, although this was not genus-specific. For fungi, Glomeraceae selectively increased in summer. In winter, Gram-negative bacterial genera, including those capable of nitrogen fixation and plant growth promotion, increased. Neutral model analysis revealed a strong stochastic influence on endophytic bacteria but a weak effect for fungi, especially in summer. The taxa with higher frequency than that predicted by the neutral model shared environmental adaptability and symbiotic traits, whereas the frequency of pathogenic fungi was at or under the predicted value. These results suggest that community assembly of bacteria and fungi is regulated differently. The bacterial community was affected by stochastic and deterministic processes via the bacterial response to drought (response trait) and beneficial effect on plants (effect trait). For fungi, mycorrhizal fungi were selected by plants in summer. The regulation of beneficial microbes by plants in both dry and wet seasons suggests the presence of plant-soil positive feedback in this natural desert ecosystem.

Journal Articles

Effects of dislocation arrangement and character on the work hardening of lath martensitic steels

Dannoshita, Hiroyuki*; Hasegawa, Hiroshi*; Higuchi, Sho*; Matsuda, Hiroshi*; Gong, W.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Harjo, S.; Umezawa, Osamu*

Scripta Materialia, 236, p.115648_1 - 115648_5, 2023/11

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Conversion of clay minerals to photocatalysts for Cr$$^{VI}$$ reduction and salicylic acid decomposition

Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Masanobu*; Shimoyama, Iwao

Applied Clay Science, 243, p.107074_1 - 107074_8, 2023/10

We have investigated the conversion of biotite, a subgroup of clay minerals, into photocatalysts by heat treatment with CaCl$$_{2}$$. The reaction products obtained after heat treatment were examined in terms of composition, structure, and photocatalytic activity against Cr$$^{VI}$$ and salicylic acid (SA). When mixtures of biotite and CaCl$$_{2}$$ were heated at temperatures up to 600$$^{circ}$$C, the biotite crystal structure was retained, whereas a phase transformation from biotite to octahedral wadalite crystals occurred upon heating to 700$$^{circ}$$C. The photocatalytic reduction rate of Cr$$^{VI}$$ per unit surface area and the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of SA increased significantly with increasing treatment temperature. Even the samples that retained the biotite structure after heat treatment displayed some photocatalytic activity, suggesting that this method may also be suitable for preparing photocatalysts from other common natural materials.

Journal Articles

Lattice parameters of fluorite-structured uranium-americium mixed oxides

Vauchy, R.; Hirooka, Shun; Watanabe, Masashi; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Murakami, Tatsutoshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 584, p.154576_1 - 154576_11, 2023/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Precise lifetime measurement of $$^4_Lambda$$H hypernucleus using in-flight $$^4$$He$$(K^-, pi^0)^4_Lambda$$H reaction

Akaishi, Takaya; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Tanida, Kiyoshi; 35 of others*

Physics Letters B, 845(10), p.138128_1 - 138128_4, 2023/10

JAEA Reports

Operation, test, research and development of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) (FY2021)

Department of HTTR

JAEA-Review 2023-016, 82 Pages, 2023/09


The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first Japanese High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with 30MW in thermal power and 950$$^{circ}$$C of maximum outlet coolant temperature that is constructed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency located at Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, Japan. The purpose of the HTTR is establishment of basic HTGR technologies, demonstration of HTGR safety characteristics and so on. The HTTR has had a lot of experience of HTGRs' operation and maintenance throughout rated power operations, safety demonstration tests, long-term high temperature operations and demonstration tests relevant to HTGRs' R&Ds. In the fiscal year 2021, as the HTTR completed activities to conform to the New Regulatory Requirements of Nuclear Regulation Authority, The HTTR restarted since the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and carried out the Loss-of-forced cooling test without Vessel Cooling System (VCS) operational at 9MW (Three gas circulators trip and VCS is stopped.) as the safety demonstration test. This report summarizes the activities carried out in the fiscal year 2021, which were the situation of the New Regulatory Requirements screening of the HTTR, the operation and maintenance of the HTTR, R&Ds relevant to commercial-scale HTGRs, the international cooperation on HTGRs and so on.

JAEA Reports

Operation report on review results of the nuclear ship "MUTSU"

Aomori Research and Development Center

JAEA-Review 2023-014, 31 Pages, 2023/09


With regard to "Offshore Floating Nuclear Power", which is currently under-consideration for design and development, the findings from the Nuclear Ship "MUTSU" are attracting attention from the perspective of operating at sea. The Nuclear Ship "MUTSU" is the only nuclear-powered ship designed, built and operated in Japan. Utilizing this knowledge will be extremely useful for the realization of future "Offshore Floating Nuclear Power". For this purpose, we examined the materials related to the Nuclear Ship "MUTSU" and confirmed the materials that proposed the points to be improved in equipment, based on the power increase test and the experimental voyage, etc. by the persons concerned at that time. We believe that these materials are useful for the design and construction of next-generation nuclear-powered vessels and will be helpful in considering the design and development of "Offshore Floating Nuclear Power". Since these materials have not yet been released, they will be re-edited the contents of 1994 so that they can be made available to the public, and their findings will be able to be made widely available.

JAEA Reports

Acquisition of saltwater infiltration behavior data in unsaturated compacted bentonite

Sato, Hisashi*; Takayama, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hideaki*; Sato, Daisuke*

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-010, 47 Pages, 2023/09


When a high-level radioactive waste repository is constructed in a coastal area, it is necessary to fully evaluate the impact of seawater-based groundwater on engineered barriers, including buffer materials. In this report, one-dimensional saltwater infiltration tests were conducted to obtain data to understand the impact of seawater-based groundwater on the migration phenomena of water and solutes in the buffer material during the transient period. As a result, it was confirmed that the infiltration rate increased as the NaCl concentration in the infiltration solution increased. And it was confirmed that the water content ratio distribution changed as the NaCl concentration in the infiltration solution increased. As a result of analysis of the chloride ion concentration of the post-test specimens confirmed that chloride ion enrichment was occurred with infiltration. As a result of verifying the mechanism by which chloride ion enrichment occurs, it was confirmed that the phenomenon of chloride ion enrichment due to infiltration depends on the initial water content ratio.

JAEA Reports

HFB-1 borehole survey data collection

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Hayano, Akira; Sato, Naomi; Nakata, Kotaro*; Hasegawa, Takuma*

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-009, 103 Pages, 2023/09


This borehole investigation was carried out to confirm the validity of the distribution of low flow areas deep underground estimated based on the geophysical survey in FY 2020, as a part of an R&D supporting program titled "Research and development on Groundwater Flow Evaluation Technology in Bedrock" under contract to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2021, 2022 FY, Grant Number: JPJ007597). The borehole name is Horonobe Fossil seawater Boring-1 and is referred to as HFB-1 borehole. HFB-1 is a vertical borehole drilled adjacent to the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), which was drilled from the surface to a depth of 200 m in FY2021 and from a depth of 200 m to 500 m in FY2022. This report summarizes information related to the drilling of HFB-1 and various data (rock core description, geophysical logging, chemical analysis, etc.) obtained from the borehole investigation.

Journal Articles

Oxygen interstitials make metastable $$beta$$ titanium alloys strong and ductile

Chong, Y.*; Gholizadeh, R.*; Guo, B.*; Tsuru, Tomohito; Zhao, G.*; Yoshida, Shuhei*; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi*; Godfrey, A.*; Tsuji, Nobuhiro*

Acta Materialia, 257, p.119165_1 - 119165_14, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:0

Metastable $$beta$$ titanium alloys possess excellent strain-hardening capability, but suffer from a low yield strength. As a result, numerous attempts have been made to strengthen this important structural material in the last decade. Here, we explore the contributions of grain refinement and interstitial additions in raising the yield strength of a Ti-12Mo (wt.%) metastable $$beta$$ titanium alloy. Surprisingly, rather than strengthening the material, grain refinement actually lowers the ultimate tensile strength in this alloy. This unexpected and anomalous behavior is attributed to a significant enhancement in strain-induced $$alpha^{primeprime}$$ martensite phase transformation, where in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis reveals, for the first time, that this phase is much softer than the parent $$beta$$ phase. Instead, a combination of both oxygen addition and grain refinement is found to realize an unprecedented strength-ductility synergy in a Ti-12Mo-0.3O (wt.%) alloy. The advantageous effect of oxygen solutes in this ternary alloy is twofold. Firstly, solute oxygen largely suppresses strain-induced transformation to the $$alpha^{primeprime}$$ martensite phase, even in a fine-grained microstructure, thus avoiding the softening effect of excessive amounts of $$alpha^{primeprime}$$ martensite. Secondly, oxygen solutes readily segregate to twin boundaries, as revealed by atom probe tomography. This restricts the growth of $${332}langle113rangle$$ deformation twins, thereby promoting more extensive twin nucleation, leading to enhanced microstructural refinement. The insights from our work provide a cost-effective rationale for the design of strong yet tough metastable $$beta$$ titanium alloys, with significant implications for more widespread use of this high strength-to-weight structural material.

Journal Articles

Quantitatively evaluating respective contribution of austenite and deformation-induced martensite to flow stress, plastic strain, and strain hardening rate in tensile deformed TRIP steel

Mao, W.; Gao, S.*; Gong, W.; Bai, Y.*; Harjo, S.; Park, M.-H.*; Shibata, Akinobu*; Tsuji, Nobuhiro*

Acta Materialia, 256, p.119139_1 - 119139_16, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:0

Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted steels exhibit an excellent combination of strength and ductility due to enhanced strain hardening rate associated with deformation-induced martensitic transformation (DIMT). Quantitative evaluation on the role of DIMT in strain hardening behavior of TRIP-assisted steels and alloys can provide guidance for designing advanced materials with strength and ductility synergy, which is, however, difficult since the phase composition keeps changing and both stress and plastic strain are dynamically partitioned among constituent phases during deformation. In the present study, tensile deformation with ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction measurement was performed on an Fe-24Ni-0.3C (wt.%) TRIP-assisted austenitic steel. The analysis method based on stress partitioning and phase fractions measured by neutron diffraction was proposed, by which the tensile flow stress and the strain hardening rate of the specimen were resolved into factors associated with each phase, i.e., the austenite matrix, deformation-induced martensite, and the transformation rate of DIMT after differentiation, and then the role of each factor in the global strain hardening behavior was discussed. In addition, the plastic strain partitioning between austenite and martensite was indirectly estimated using the dislocation density measured by diffraction profile analysis, which constructed the full picture of stress and strain partitioning between austenite and martensite in the material. The results suggested that both the transformation rate and the phase stress borne by the deformation-induced martensite played important roles in the global tensile properties of the material. The proposed decomposition analysis method could be widely applied to investigating mechanical behavior of multi-phase alloys exhibiting the TRIP phenomenon.

Journal Articles

Effects of radioactive cesium from suspended matter and fallout on agricultural products

Nihei, Naoto*; Yoshimura, Kazuya

Agricultural Implications of Fukushima Nuclear Accident (IV), p.33 - 40, 2023/09

Journal Articles

Compact moving particle semi-implicit method for incompressible free-surface flow

Wang, Z.; Matsumoto, Toshinori; Duan, G.*; Matsunaga, Takuya*

Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 414, p.116168_1 - 116168_49, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Effect of soil organic matter on the fate of $$^{137}$$Cs vertical distribution in forest soils

Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nishimura, Shusaku

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 262, p.115177_1 - 115177_9, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Environmental Sciences)

Predicting the fate of radiocesium ($$^{137}$$Cs) vertical distribution in Japanese forest soils is key to assessing the radioecological consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. It is well documented that in mineral soil, the $$^{137}$$Cs behavior is mostly governed by interaction with clay minerals; however, observations have also been accumulated suggesting the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in enhancing the mobility of $$^{137}$$Cs. Here, we hypothesized that soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration profile determines the ultimate vertical distribution of $$^{137}$$Cs in Japanese forest soils. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the detailed vertical distributions of $$^{137}$$Cs in four Japanese forest soils with varying SOC concentration profiles roughly half a century after global fallout in the early 1960s. Results revealed that $$^{137}$$Cs retention ratios in each of 2-cm thick soil layers were negatively correlated with SOC concentrations of the layers, across all soils and depths. This demonstrates that the long-term fate of $$^{137}$$Cs vertical distribution is predictable as a function of SOC concentration for Japanese forest soils.

Journal Articles

Residual stress relaxation by bending fatigue in induction-hardened gear studied by neutron Bragg edge transmission imaging and X-ray diffraction

Su, Y. H.; Oikawa, Kenichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Kai, Tetsuya; Horino, Takashi*; Idohara, Osamu*; Misaka, Yoshitaka*; Tomota, Yo*

International Journal of Fatigue, 174, p.107729_1 - 107729_12, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.01(Engineering, Mechanical)

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