Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Yuji*
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 59(SP), p.SPPA01_1 - SPPA01_7, 2020/11
We investigate A-site cation ordering in the ferroelectric perovskite BiNaTiO (BNT) by synchrotron X-ray total scattering. Although BNT has a problem of a low depolarization temperature, it is promising a lead-free piezoelectric material. Since the depolarization temperature is presumed to correspond to a relaxer like gradual order-disorder phase transition, local structure analysis is necessary to understand the structure of the diorder phase. Through this approach, the elusive connection between chemical heterogeneity and structural heterogeneity is revealed. Because of the large randomness, the Ti off-center shift is averaged out beyond the unit cell and the structure becomes very close to the average structure beyond the unit cell.
Suzudo, Tomoaki; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Caro, A.*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 540, p.152306_1 - 152306_10, 2020/11
Spinodal decomposition in thermally aged Fe-Cr alloys leads to significant hardening, which is the direct cause of the so-called 475C-embrittlement. To illustrate how spinodal decomposition induces hardening by atomistic interactions, we conducted a series of numerical simulations as well as reference experiments. The numerical results indicated that the hardness scales linearly with the short-range order (SRO) parameter, while the experimental result reproduced this relationship within statistical error. Both seemingly suggest that neighboring Cr-Cr atomic pairs essentially cause hardening, because SRO is by definition uniquely dependent on the appearance probability of such pairs. A further numerical investigation supported this notion, as it suggests that the dominant cause of hardening is the pinning effect of dislocations passing over such Cr-Cr pairs.
Funaki, Hironori; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Katengeza, E. W.*
Science of the Total Environment, 743, p.140668_1 - 140668_9, 2020/11
Sato, Yuki; Minemoto, Kojiro*; Nemoto, Makoto*; Torii, Tatsuo
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 976, p.164286_1 - 164286_6, 2020/10
Okudaira, Takuya; Oku, Takayuki; Ino, Takashi*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Sakai, Kenji; Hiroi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Shingo*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Endo, Hitoshi*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10
Harjo, S.; Kubota, Satoru*; Gong, W.*; Kawasaki, Takuro; Gao, S.*
Acta Materialia, 196, p.584 - 594, 2020/09
Savage, D.*; Wilson, J.*; Benbow, S.*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Oda, Chie; Walker, C.*; Kawama, Daisuke*; Tachi, Yukio
Applied Clay Science, 195, p.105741_1 - 105741_11, 2020/09
Safety functions for the clay buffer in a repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are fulfilled if the presence of montmorillonite with high swelling capacity and low permeability is maintained in the long-term. The transformation of montmorillonite to the non-swelling mineral likely illite is addressed in most safety assessments by using simple semi-empirical kinetic models, but this approach contrasts with more complex reactive-transport simulations. In the present study, reactive-transport simulations are compared with simple semi-empirical kinetic models. Results suggest that reactive-transport simulations err on the side of conservatism, but may produce unrealistic estimates of illitization. This comparison demonstrates that reactive-transport models may be carefully applied to simulate the long-term evolution of near field environment for HLW disposal.
Engineering Geology, 275, p.105748_1 - 105748_12, 2020/09
A constant-head step injection test using a conventional straddle-packer system was performed for a normal fault in siliceous mudstone. The test applied a new method whereby axial displacements of isolated test sections in a borehole during injection are monitored by measuring the pressures of sliding packers and the pore pressure in the test section. The measured pressures and axial displacement, and the injection flow rate, were used to estimate the hydraulic aperture, shear displacement, normal compliance, normal stress, shear stiffness and hydraulic dilation angle of the fault during the test. The injection successfully yielded a large shear displacement during normal faulting of up to 13.3-49.5 mm (including the estimation error), which left residual shear displacement of 2.8-10.4 mm after a remarkable shear-slip event. The shear stiffness during faulting is estimated to be 2.3 10 to 8.4 10 Pa m (considering the estimation error), which is consistent with empirically predicted values based on previous studies. The hydraulic dilation angle was inferred to be effectively zero as the residual shear displacement did not leave any increase in hydraulic aperture. The experimental method applied here does not require specialized equipment and could aid in the investigation of the hydromechanical behavior of subsurface fractures or aquifers.
Komura, Keitaro*; Kaneda, Heitaro*; Tanaka, Tomoki*; Kojima, Satoru*; Inoue, Tsutomu*; Nishio, Tomohiro
Geomorphology, 365, p.107214_1 - 107214_22, 2020/09
On the basis of pit excavations and sediment cores at an off-fault deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) site and a trench excavation across the active Neodani fault at a nearby site, we examined the records of DGSD and surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes of the Neodani fault. We found the four most recent DGSD events and the four most recent surface-rupturing earthquakes, respectively and conclude that the ages of events are overlapped each other. We infer that static crustal strain from repeated seismogenic faulting plays an important role in the occurrence of DGSD events, at least in the immediate vicinity of active faults, although coseismic severe shaking would have at least some effect on them. Our case study suggests that off-fault DGSDs can be used to reconstruct or refine the paleoseismic history of a nearby active fault.
Hagiwara, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Hiromi*; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Misono, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Kenso; Kitamura, Akihiro
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 220-221, p.106294_1 - 106294_9, 2020/09
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Meigo, Shinichiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 538, p.152261_1 - 152261_9, 2020/09
The displacements-per-atom (dpa) is widely used as an exposure unit to predict the operating lifetime of materials in radiation environments. Because the athermal-recombination-corrected dpa (arc-dpa) model is a more realistic model than the standard Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model, new evaluation of radiation damage will be performed using the arc-dpa model as a standard. In this work, the recent arc-dpa model of various materials are incorporated in PHITS, and the rescaling factors (NRT-dpa/arc-dpa) over a wide energy range are reported. For neutron incidences with the energy spectrum determined in selected nuclear facilities and proton incidences with energies of 600 MeV-50 GeV, the rescaling factor for each material is independent of these irradiation conditions with almost the same value for each material. Our findings will be beneficial for rescaling the NRT-dpa model used for radiation damage applications over a wide energy region.
Yamamoto, Yuki*; Ishikawa, Norito; Hori, Fuminobu*; Iwase, Akihiro*
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 4(3), p.26_1 - 26_13, 2020/09
The lattice constant and the magnetic state of CeO are modified by the irradiation with 200 MeV Xe ions. Under the assumption that these modifications are induced in the narrow one-dimensional region (the ion track) along the ion beam path, the dependence of the lattice constant and the saturation magnetization of CeO on the Xe ion fluence can be analyzed by using the Poisson distribution function. The analysis reveals that the lattice constant inside the ion track, which is larger than outside the ion track is not affected by the overlapping of the ion track. The present result implies that the Poisson distribution function is useful for describing the effect of ion track overlapping on the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state in CeO.
Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Nakashima, Koki*; Nakagawa, Naoki*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; Chikhray, Y.*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2020-008, 16 Pages, 2020/08
As a summer holiday practical training 2019, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the U enrichment and burnable poison of the fuel, which enables continuous operation for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW, were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a fuel with U enrichment of 12%, radius of burnable poison and natural boron concentration of 1.5 cm and 2wt% are required. As a next step, the downsizing of core will be studied.
Abe, Tomohisa; Ogiya, Takashi*; Shibata, Katsuya*; Hanawa, Tatsuaki*; Sanada, Yukihisa
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-004, 280 Pages, 2020/08
After the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency has carried on survey for distribution situation of radiation materials under the direction of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (later the Nuclear Regulatory Agency) from June 2011 to FY2019. This report is mainly summarized as data-base of air dose rate, integrated dose and radionuclide concentration of some types of environmental sample (airborne dust, soil, pine needles) in the radiation monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture (20 km far from FDNPS). The results of radiation monitoring were analyzed for temporal change at each measurement site under the unification format. Furthermore, the effective half-life and the dispersion at each location and sample were evaluated based on these big data.
Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.
Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08
To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped GdAlGaO (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:YAlO, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.
Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Kunio; Li, Y.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 142(4), p.041507_1 - 041507_6, 2020/08
The phenomenon of crack closure is important in the prediction of fatigue crack growth. Several experimental data indicate the closing of fatigue cracks both under negative and positive loads at constant amplitude loading cycles, depending on the magnitude of stress amplitude and stress ratio. Appendix A-4300 of the ASME Code Section XI provides two equations of fatigue crack growth rates expressed by the stress intensity factor range for ferritic steels under negative stress ratio. The boundary of two fatigue crack growth rates is classified with the magnitude of applied stress intensity factor range, in consideration of the crack closure. The boundary value provided by the ASME Code Section XI is validated in this study through an investigation of the influence of the magnitude of the applied stress intensity factor range on crack closure, with the application of fatigue crack growth tests using ferritic steel specimens in air environment at room and high temperatures. Crack closures are obtained as a parameter of stress ratio, and herein, were found to occur at a smaller applied stress intensity factor range, as opposed to the definition given by Appendix A-4300.
Yoshioka, Satoru*; Tsuruta, Konosuke*; Yamamoto, Tomokazu*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Matsumura, Sho*; Sugiyama, Takeharu*; Oba, Yojiro; Ishikawa, Norito; Kobayashi, Eiichi*; Okudaira, Koji*
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 103(8), p.4654 - 4663, 2020/08
X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveal the damaged structures in MgAlO spinel induced by swift heavy ions. SAXS indicates the formation of ion tracks with cylindrical shape with a diameter of 5 nm. XANES indicates the cationic disordering between tetrahedral and octahedral sites by the irradiation. Quantitative analysis of XANES also reveals that cations preferably occupy the octahedral sites at high fluence.
Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Koizumi, Mitsuo
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 62(8), p.452 - 456, 2020/08
no abstracts in English
Kaburagi, Masaaki; Shimazoe, Kenji*; Otaka, Yutaka*; Uenomachi, Mizuki*; Kamada, Kei*; Kim, K. J.*; Yoshino, Masao*; Shoji, Yasuhiro*; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Takahashi, Hiroyuki*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 971, p.164118_1 - 164118_8, 2020/08
Arai, Yoichi; Watanabe, So; Ono, Shimpei; Nomura, Kazunori; Nakamura, Fumiya*; Arai, Tsuyoshi*; Seko, Noriaki*; Hoshina, Hiroyuki*; Hagura, Naoto*; Kubota, Toshio*
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 477, p.54 - 59, 2020/08