Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Abe, Yuta; Oishi, Yuji*; Sun, Y.*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Nakatani, Takeshi; Sato, Ikken
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 991, p.164964_1 - 164964_5, 2021/03
Peak shape analysis was performed for the energy spectra of Doppler-broadened prompt -rays generated by neutron capture reactions with various boride or boron samples. Significant differences were observed between nonmetallic and metallic borides. Minor differences between the peak shapes of prompt -rays from zirconium- and ferro-borons were evaluated by a peak fitting method. The identification of zirconium- and ferro-borons and other types of borides was estimated.
Adachi, Nozomu*; Matsuo, Yasutaka*; Todaka, Yoshikazu*; Fujimoto, Mikiya*; Hino, Masahiro*; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi*; Oba, Yojiro; Shiihara, Yoshinori*; Umeno, Yoshitaka*; Nishida, Minoru*
Tribology International, 155, p.106781_1 - 106781_9, 2021/03
Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107867_1 - 107867_11, 2021/02
A new RCCS with passive safety features consists of two continuous closed regions. One is a region surrounding RPV. The other is a cooling region with heat transferred to the ambient air. The new RCCS needs no electrical or mechanical driving devices. We compared the RCCS using atmospheric radiation with that using atmospheric natural circulation in terms of passive safety features and control methods for heat removal. The magnitude relationship for passive safety features is heat conduction radiation natural convection. Therefore, the magnitude for passive safety features of the former RCCS can be higher than that of the latter RCCS. In controlling the heat removal, the former RCCS changes the heat transfer area only. On the other hand, the latter RCCS needs to change the chimney effect. It is necessary to change the air resistance in the duct. Therefore, the former RCCS can control the heat removal more easily than the latter RCCS.
Fukaya, Yuji; Ueta, Shohei; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107937_1 - 107937_9, 2021/02
Feasibility study on Burnable Poison (BP) credit concept to High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel fabrication has been performed. By mixing BP into fuel material in the first place of fuel fabrication, criticality safety is ensured in the all fuel fabrication process even with high enrichment fuel such as 14 wt% used in commercial HTGR. However, the poison effect also prevents the criticality even in the HTGR core, and it may shorten cycle length and achievable burn-up of the core. Therefore, the effect is evaluated by whole core burn-up calculation. As a BP, boron, gadolinium, erbium, and hafnium are investigated. As a result, it is found that boron and gadolinium suit this concept and the 14 wt% fuel can be fabricated in the plant fabricating 9.9 wt% High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel. With the boron and gadolinium, the commercial HTGR fuel can be fabricated with the safety measure as same as Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel facility to treat the fuel with the enrichment up to 5 wt%. Especially, gadolinium is significantly suitable to this concept due to the dependency to spectrum, and more enhanced safety measure is feasible as well.
Johnson, M.*; Journeau, C.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107881_1 - 107881_13, 2021/02
High-resolution X-ray imaging was employed at the JAEA MELT facility to visualize a kilogram-scale interaction between a jet of high temperature molten stainless steel and sodium. A novel software, SPECTRA, has been developed for the quantitative characterization of jet quenching and fragmentation. Tracking and 3D reconstruction of the melt phase traversing the imaging window enabled the detection of 72% of the debris mass recovered post-experiment. The rebounding of melt fragments confirmed a solid outer crust at the melt-coolant interface, while a thermal fragmentation event induced rapid vapor expansion. Jet fragmentation is best explained by the vaporization of coolant entrained within the melt jet generating an internal over-pressure sufficient for fragmentation of the crust. Thermal fragmentation produced a bimodal debris size distribution of coarse jet shells and finer fragments.
Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nakanishi, Takahiro
Chemosphere, 264, p.128480_1 - 128480_9, 2021/02
We investigated characteristic of dissolved Cs leaching from litters collected at a coniforest needle and a deciduous broadleaf forests using litterbags at upstream area of Ohta River in Fukushima. Each leaf type of litters was collected into 36 litterbags, respectively, and installed each forest floor in June and December, 2017. Triplicate samples were collected at each forest floor and readily transported to the laboratory in August, December, 2017 and March, May, August, December, 2018. Samples were put in buckets and soaked in purified water. We took leaching water samples from the buckets at 20 min, 140 min, 1 day after soaking litter samples in the water. These samples were analysed about Cs activity. The main results were that the deciduous broadleaf litter showed much higher leaching ratio of dissolved Cs (0.81-6.6%) than that of the coniferous needle litter (0.13-2.0%). A multi-regression analysis of Cs leaching ratios were conducted against antecedent mean precipitation and temperature, and accumulated temperature during the litterbag experiments. The model can reproduce observed Cs leaching ratios (R = 0.61-0.99).
Kobayashi, Keita; Nakamura, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Machida, Masahiko; Okumura, Masahiko
Computational Materials Science, 188, p.110173_1 - 110173_14, 2021/02
no abstracts in English
Zhang, T.; Lu, K.; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 189, p.104262_1 - 104262_12, 2021/02
Daido, Hiroyuki*; Yamada, Tomonori; Furukawa, Hiroyuki*; Ito, Chikara; Miyabe, Masabumi; Shibata, Takuya; Hasegawa, Shuichi*
Journal of Laser Applications, 33(1), p.012001_1 - 012001_16, 2021/02
Kaburagi, Masaaki; Shimazoe, Kenji*; Kato, Masahiro*; Kurosawa, Tadahiro*; Kamada, Kei*; Kim, K. J.*; Yoshino, Masao*; Shoji, Yasuhiro*; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Takahashi, Hiroyuki*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 988, p.164900_1 - 164900_8, 2021/02
An increasing number of nuclear facilities have been decommissioned worldwide following the 2011 accident of the TEPCO' Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. During the decommissioning, radioactive materials have to be retrieved under proper management. In this study, a small cubic CeBr spectrometer with dimensions of 5 mm 5 mm 5 mm was manufactured to perform -ray spectroscopy under intense -ray fields. Furthermore, thanks to a fast digital process unit and a customized photomultiplier, the device could perform -ray spectroscopy at dose rates of over 1 Sv/h. The energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV ranged from 4.4% at 22 mSv/h to 5.2% at 1407 mSv/h for a Cs radiation field. Correspondingly, at 1333 keV, it ranged from 3.1% at 26 mSv/h to 4.2% at 2221 mSv/h for a Co radiation field, which suggested to realize -ray assessment of Cs, Cs, Co, and Eu at dose rates of over 1 Sv/h.
Ji, Y.-Y.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Hong, S. B.*; Nakama, Shigeo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Mikami, Satoshi
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 179, p.109205_1 - 109205_11, 2021/02
In situ gamma-ray spectrometry using diverse survey platforms has been conducted in contaminated areas with several dose rate levels around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Six survey sites, including two evacuation zones around the FDNPP, were selected for ground-based gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe (high purity Ge) and LaBr(Ce) detectors to assess the radioactive cesium deposition in the ground. The diverse levels of radioactivity of Cs were then distributed to six survey sites from 30 to 3000 kBq m in the measurement period of October 2018. A method to directly calculate the depth profile using in situ measurement was introduced so as to have representation over a wide area, and the results were successfully compared with those of sample analysis at one point in the site.
Tanaka, Kazuya; Kanasashi, Tsutomu*; Takenaka, Chisato*; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Science of the Total Environment, 755(Part 2), p.142598_1 - 142598_8, 2021/02
In this study, we investigated coordination structures of Cs in Cs-doped bark, sapwood, heartwood, needle, and branch samples of trees collected in Fukushima by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We examined four representative tree species in Fukushima, , , , and . EXAFS spectra suggested that Cs was adsorbed as an outer-sphere complex on all parts of the four species, with electrostatic binding to negatively charged functional groups in components of tree tissues. These results were supported by extraction experiments where most of the sorbed Cs was desorbed from all parts of each tree species using 1 M CHCOONH.
Zhang, T.*; Funakoshi, Kanji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*; Kamiyama, Kenji
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 150, p.107856_1 - 107856_10, 2021/01
Zhan, Y.*; Kuwata, Yusuke*; Okawa, Tomio*; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Takata, Takashi
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 120, p.110249_1 - 110249_12, 2021/01
Gens, A.*; Alcoverro, J.*; Blaheta, R.*; Hasal, M.*; Michalec, Z.*; Takayama, Yusuke; Lee, C.*; Lee, J.*; Kim, G. Y.*; Kuo, C.-W.*; et al.
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 137, p.104572_1 - 104572_19, 2021/01
Bentonite-based engineered barriers are a key component of many repository designs for the confinement of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. Given the complexity and interaction of the phenomena affecting the barrier, coupled hydro-mechanical (HM) and thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) numerical analyses are a potentially useful tool for a better understanding of their behaviour. In this context, a Task (INBEB) was undertaken to study, using numerical analyses, the hydro-mechanical and thermohydro-mechanical Interactions in Bentonite Engineered Barriers within the international cooperative project DECOVALEX 2019. Two large scale tests, largely complementary, were selected for modelling: EB and FEBEX. The EB experiment was carried out under isothermal conditions and artificial hydration and it was dismantled after 10.7 years. The FEBEX test was a temperature-controlled non-isothermal test combined with natural hydration that underwent two dismantling operations, a partial one after 5 years of heating and a final one after a total of 18.4 years of heating. Direct observation of the state of the barriers was possible during the dismantling operations. Four teams performed the HM and THM numerical analyses using a variety of computer codes, formulations and constitutive laws. For each experiment, the basic features of the analyses are described and the comparison between calculations and field observations are presented and discussed. Comparisons involve measurements performed during the performance of the test and data gathered during dismantling. A final evaluation of the performance of the modelling closes the paper.
Malins, A.; Imamura, Naohiro*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Junko*; Kim, M.; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Shinomiya, Yoshiki*; Miura, Satoru*; Machida, Masahiko
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01
Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Sasage, Kenichi; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*; Nagai, Takayuki
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 551, p.120393_1 - 120393_8, 2021/01
The chemical state of ruthenium in simulated iron phosphate radioactive waste glass was investigated by conventional X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and imaging XAFS analyses. The EXAFS analysis suggested that ruthenium was contained as glass phase when content of the waste components was less than 10wt.% in 30 mol%FeO-PO base glass. In other samples, crystalline RuO was predominant. According to the imaging XAFS analysis, RuO particles in all samples had length smaller than 50m. Aggregations of RuO, which are found in nuclear waste borosilicate glass, were not seen in any of the iron phosphate glass samples.
Sumita, Takehiro; Kitagaki, Toru; Takano, Masahide; Ikeda, Atsushi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 543, p.152527_1 - 152527_15, 2021/01
Aihara, Jun; Ueta, Shohei; Honda, Masaki*; Mizuta, Naoki; Goto, Minoru; Tachibana, Yukio; Okamoto, Koji*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.107 - 116, 2021/01
The concept of a Pu-burner high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has been proposed for purpose of more safely reducing amount of recovered Pu. This concept employs coated fuel particles (CFPs) with ZrC coated PuO-YSZ kernel and with tristructural (TRISO) coating for very high Pu burn-up and high nuclear proliferation resistance. In this report, we investigate the microstructure of the region that includes the surface of an as-fabricated CeO-YSZ kernel simulating PuO-YSZ kernel. We found both Zr-rich grains and Ce-rich grains to be densely distributed in that region including surface of CeO-YSZ kernel. On the other hand, it has been reported that there was a porous region near surface of the CeO-YSZ kernel of Batch I. This finding confirms that Ce-rich grains near surface of CeO-YSZ kernels coated with ZrC layers have been corroded during the deposition of the ZrC layer, whereas the Zr-rich grains were hardly affected.
Tsujimura, Norio; Yamazaki, Takumi; Takada, Chie
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.40 - 44, 2021/01