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Journal Articles

Nanoscale structural analysis of Bi$$_{0.5}$$Na$$_{0.5}$$TiO$$_3$$

Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Yuji*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 59(SP), p.SPPA01_1 - SPPA01_7, 2020/11

We investigate A-site cation ordering in the ferroelectric perovskite Bi$$_{0.5}$$Na$$_{0.5}$$TiO$$_3$$ (BNT) by synchrotron X-ray total scattering. Although BNT has a problem of a low depolarization temperature, it is promising a lead-free piezoelectric material. Since the depolarization temperature is presumed to correspond to a relaxer like gradual order-disorder phase transition, local structure analysis is necessary to understand the structure of the diorder phase. Through this approach, the elusive connection between chemical heterogeneity and structural heterogeneity is revealed. Because of the large randomness, the Ti off-center shift is averaged out beyond the unit cell and the structure becomes very close to the average structure beyond the unit cell.

Journal Articles

Atomistic modeling of hardening in spinodally-decomposed Fe-Cr binary alloys

Suzudo, Tomoaki; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Caro, A.*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 540, p.152306_1 - 152306_10, 2020/11

Spinodal decomposition in thermally aged Fe-Cr alloys leads to significant hardening, which is the direct cause of the so-called 475C-embrittlement. To illustrate how spinodal decomposition induces hardening by atomistic interactions, we conducted a series of numerical simulations as well as reference experiments. The numerical results indicated that the hardness scales linearly with the short-range order (SRO) parameter, while the experimental result reproduced this relationship within statistical error. Both seemingly suggest that neighboring Cr-Cr atomic pairs essentially cause hardening, because SRO is by definition uniquely dependent on the appearance probability of such pairs. A further numerical investigation supported this notion, as it suggests that the dominant cause of hardening is the pinning effect of dislocations passing over such Cr-Cr pairs.

Journal Articles

Reservoir sediments as a long-term source of dissolved radiocaesium in water system; a mass balance case study of an artificial reservoir in Fukushima, Japan

Funaki, Hironori; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Katengeza, E. W.*

Science of the Total Environment, 743, p.140668_1 - 140668_9, 2020/11

Journal Articles

Construction of virtual reality system for radiation working environment reproduced by gamma-ray imagers combined with SLAM technologies

Sato, Yuki; Minemoto, Kojiro*; Nemoto, Makoto*; Torii, Tatsuo

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 976, p.164286_1 - 164286_6, 2020/10

Journal Articles

Development and application of a $$^3$$He neutron spin filter at J-PARC

Okudaira, Takuya; Oku, Takayuki; Ino, Takashi*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Sakai, Kenji; Hiroi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Shingo*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Endo, Hitoshi*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10

Journal Articles

Neutron diffraction monitoring of ductile cast iron under cyclic tension-compression

Harjo, S.; Kubota, Satoru*; Gong, W.*; Kawasaki, Takuro; Gao, S.*

Acta Materialia, 196, p.584 - 594, 2020/09

Journal Articles

Using natural systems evidence to test models of transformation of montmorillonite

Savage, D.*; Wilson, J.*; Benbow, S.*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Oda, Chie; Walker, C.*; Kawama, Daisuke*; Tachi, Yukio

Applied Clay Science, 195, p.105741_1 - 105741_11, 2020/09

Safety functions for the clay buffer in a repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are fulfilled if the presence of montmorillonite with high swelling capacity and low permeability is maintained in the long-term. The transformation of montmorillonite to the non-swelling mineral likely illite is addressed in most safety assessments by using simple semi-empirical kinetic models, but this approach contrasts with more complex reactive-transport simulations. In the present study, reactive-transport simulations are compared with simple semi-empirical kinetic models. Results suggest that reactive-transport simulations err on the side of conservatism, but may produce unrealistic estimates of illitization. This comparison demonstrates that reactive-transport models may be carefully applied to simulate the long-term evolution of near field environment for HLW disposal.

Journal Articles

A Conventional straddle-sliding-packer system as a borehole extensometer; Monitoring shear displacement of a fault during an injection test

Ishii, Eiichi

Engineering Geology, 275, p.105748_1 - 105748_12, 2020/09

A constant-head step injection test using a conventional straddle-packer system was performed for a normal fault in siliceous mudstone. The test applied a new method whereby axial displacements of isolated test sections in a borehole during injection are monitored by measuring the pressures of sliding packers and the pore pressure in the test section. The measured pressures and axial displacement, and the injection flow rate, were used to estimate the hydraulic aperture, shear displacement, normal compliance, normal stress, shear stiffness and hydraulic dilation angle of the fault during the test. The injection successfully yielded a large shear displacement during normal faulting of up to 13.3-49.5 mm (including the estimation error), which left residual shear displacement of 2.8-10.4 mm after a remarkable shear-slip event. The shear stiffness during faulting is estimated to be 2.3 $$times$$ 10$$^{7}$$ to 8.4 $$times$$ 10$$^{7}$$ Pa m$$^{-1}$$ (considering the estimation error), which is consistent with empirically predicted values based on previous studies. The hydraulic dilation angle was inferred to be effectively zero as the residual shear displacement did not leave any increase in hydraulic aperture. The experimental method applied here does not require specialized equipment and could aid in the investigation of the hydromechanical behavior of subsurface fractures or aquifers.

Journal Articles

Synchronized gravitational slope deformation and active faulting; A Case study on and around the Neodani fault, central Japan

Komura, Keitaro*; Kaneda, Heitaro*; Tanaka, Tomoki*; Kojima, Satoru*; Inoue, Tsutomu*; Nishio, Tomohiro

Geomorphology, 365, p.107214_1 - 107214_22, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0

On the basis of pit excavations and sediment cores at an off-fault deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) site and a trench excavation across the active Neodani fault at a nearby site, we examined the records of DGSD and surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes of the Neodani fault. We found the four most recent DGSD events and the four most recent surface-rupturing earthquakes, respectively and conclude that the ages of events are overlapped each other. We infer that static crustal strain from repeated seismogenic faulting plays an important role in the occurrence of DGSD events, at least in the immediate vicinity of active faults, although coseismic severe shaking would have at least some effect on them. Our case study suggests that off-fault DGSDs can be used to reconstruct or refine the paleoseismic history of a nearby active fault.

Journal Articles

Radiocesium distribution in the sediments of the Odaka River estuary, Fukushima, Japan

Hagiwara, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Hiromi*; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Misono, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Kenso; Kitamura, Akihiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 220-221, p.106294_1 - 106294_9, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Estimation of reliable displacements-per-atom based on athermal-recombination-corrected model in radiation environments at nuclear fission, fusion, and accelerator facilities

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Meigo, Shinichiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 538, p.152261_1 - 152261_9, 2020/09

The displacements-per-atom (dpa) is widely used as an exposure unit to predict the operating lifetime of materials in radiation environments. Because the athermal-recombination-corrected dpa (arc-dpa) model is a more realistic model than the standard Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model, new evaluation of radiation damage will be performed using the arc-dpa model as a standard. In this work, the recent arc-dpa model of various materials are incorporated in PHITS, and the rescaling factors (NRT-dpa/arc-dpa) over a wide energy range are reported. For neutron incidences with the energy spectrum determined in selected nuclear facilities and proton incidences with energies of 600 MeV-50 GeV, the rescaling factor for each material is independent of these irradiation conditions with almost the same value for each material. Our findings will be beneficial for rescaling the NRT-dpa model used for radiation damage applications over a wide energy region.

Journal Articles

Analysis of ion-irradiation induced lattice expansion and ferromagnetic state in CeO$$_{2}$$ by using Poisson distribution function

Yamamoto, Yuki*; Ishikawa, Norito; Hori, Fuminobu*; Iwase, Akihiro*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 4(3), p.26_1 - 26_13, 2020/09

The lattice constant and the magnetic state of CeO$$_{2}$$ are modified by the irradiation with 200 MeV Xe ions. Under the assumption that these modifications are induced in the narrow one-dimensional region (the ion track) along the ion beam path, the dependence of the lattice constant and the saturation magnetization of CeO$$_{2}$$ on the Xe ion fluence can be analyzed by using the Poisson distribution function. The analysis reveals that the lattice constant inside the ion track, which is larger than outside the ion track is not affected by the overlapping of the ion track. The present result implies that the Poisson distribution function is useful for describing the effect of ion track overlapping on the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state in CeO$$_{2}$$.

Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Fatigue crack growth for ferritic steel under negative stress ratio

Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Kunio; Li, Y.

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 142(4), p.041507_1 - 041507_6, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0

The phenomenon of crack closure is important in the prediction of fatigue crack growth. Several experimental data indicate the closing of fatigue cracks both under negative and positive loads at constant amplitude loading cycles, depending on the magnitude of stress amplitude and stress ratio. Appendix A-4300 of the ASME Code Section XI provides two equations of fatigue crack growth rates expressed by the stress intensity factor range for ferritic steels under negative stress ratio. The boundary of two fatigue crack growth rates is classified with the magnitude of applied stress intensity factor range, in consideration of the crack closure. The boundary value provided by the ASME Code Section XI is validated in this study through an investigation of the influence of the magnitude of the applied stress intensity factor range on crack closure, with the application of fatigue crack growth tests using ferritic steel specimens in air environment at room and high temperatures. Crack closures are obtained as a parameter of stress ratio, and herein, were found to occur at a smaller applied stress intensity factor range, as opposed to the definition given by Appendix A-4300.

Journal Articles

Local structure investigations of accumulated damage in irradiated MgAl$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$

Yoshioka, Satoru*; Tsuruta, Konosuke*; Yamamoto, Tomokazu*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Matsumura, Sho*; Sugiyama, Takeharu*; Oba, Yojiro; Ishikawa, Norito; Kobayashi, Eiichi*; Okudaira, Koji*

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 103(8), p.4654 - 4663, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0

X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveal the damaged structures in MgAl$$_{2}$$O$$_{4}$$ spinel induced by swift heavy ions. SAXS indicates the formation of ion tracks with cylindrical shape with a diameter of 5 nm. XANES indicates the cationic disordering between tetrahedral and octahedral sites by the irradiation. Quantitative analysis of XANES also reveals that cations preferably occupy the octahedral sites at high fluence.

Journal Articles

Introduction to nuclear security, 3; Nuclear material detection technique for nuclear security

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Koizumi, Mitsuo

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 62(8), p.452 - 456, 2020/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Cubic CeBr$$_{3}$$ gamma-ray spectrometer suitable for the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Kaburagi, Masaaki; Shimazoe, Kenji*; Otaka, Yutaka*; Uenomachi, Mizuki*; Kamada, Kei*; Kim, K. J.*; Yoshino, Masao*; Shoji, Yasuhiro*; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Takahashi, Hiroyuki*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 971, p.164118_1 - 164118_8, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Microscopic analyses on Zr adsorbed IDA chelating resin by PIXE and EXAFS

Arai, Yoichi; Watanabe, So; Ono, Shimpei; Nomura, Kazunori; Nakamura, Fumiya*; Arai, Tsuyoshi*; Seko, Noriaki*; Hoshina, Hiroyuki*; Hagura, Naoto*; Kubota, Toshio*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 477, p.54 - 59, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Structural characterization of Eu-HONTA complexes by IBIL and EXAFS analyses

Watanabe, So; Sano, Yuichi; Okada, Makoto*; Matsuura, Haruaki*; Hagura, Naoto*; Kada, Wataru*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 477, p.60 - 65, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0

IBIL and EXAFS analyses were applied on strucutral analysis of Eu complex formed in adsorbent developed for extraction chromatography. Those analyses revealed slight structural difference between adsorbent and solvent systems.

Journal Articles

Comparison of antioxidative effects between radon and thoron inhalation in mouse organs

Kobashi, Yusuke*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*

Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 59(3), p.473 - 482, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Biology)

Radon therapy has been traditionally performed globally for oxidative stress-related diseases. Many researchers have studied the beneficial effects of radon exposure in living organisms. However, the effects of thoron, a radioisotope of radon, have not been fully examined. In this study, we aimed to compare the biological effects of radon and thoron inhalation on mouse organs with a focus on oxidative stress. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 15 groups: sham inhalation, radon inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m$$^{3}$$ or 2000 Bq/m$$^{3}$$, and thoron inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m$$^{3}$$ or 2000 Bq/m$$^{3}$$ were carried out. Immediately after inhalation, mouse tissues were excised for biochemical assays. The results showed a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and total glutathione, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxide following thoron inhalation under several conditions. Additionally, similar effects were observed for different doses and inhalation times between radon and thoron. Our results suggest that thoron inhalation also exerts antioxidative effects against oxidative stress in organs. However, the inhalation conditions should be carefully analyzed because of the differences in physical characteristics between radon and thoron.

50717 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)