Sato, Shunsuke*; Nauchi, Yasushi*; Hayakawa, Takehito*; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Kashima, Takao*; Futakami, Kazuhiro*; Suyama, Kenya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 9 Pages, 2022/10
A new non-destructive method for evaluating Cs activity in spent nuclear fuels was proposed and experimentally demonstrated for physical measurements in burnup credit implementation. Cs activities were quantified using gamma ray measurements and numerical detector response simulations without reference fuels, in which 137Cs activities are well known. Fuel samples were obtained from a lead use assembly (LUA) irradiated in a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) up to 53 GWd/t. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured using a bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillation detector through a collimator attached to a hot cell. The detection efficiency of gamma rays with the detector was calculated using the PHITS particle transport calculation code considering the measurement geometry. The relative activities of Cs, Cs, and Eu in the sample were measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector for more accurate simulations of the detector response for the samples. The absolute efficiency of the detector was calibrated by measuring a standard gamma ray source in another geometry. Cs activity in the fuel samples was quantified using the measured count rate and detection efficiency. The quantified Cs activities agreed well with those estimated using the MVP-BURN depletion calculation code.
Fukaya, Yuji; Ueta, Shohei; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Yan, X.
Nuclear Technology, 208(2), p.335 - 346, 2022/02
When the total volume control on toxicity for nuclear waste management is applied, it becomes a limiting factor for the permittable total operation capacity of nuclear reactors. An alternative conceptual scenario to achieve the control is proposed that aims at toxicity reduction through Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T). Specifically, the electricity generation capacity could be inversely increased up with transmutation of Sr-Cs. Simultaneously, the cooling time before disposal is reduced to 50 years from the 300 years required by the existing scenarios such as (Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Finally, the scenario is also found feasible in terms of energy balance and cost by the neutron source of Li(d,xn) reaction with the deuteron accelerator for transmutation.
Shimada, Asako; Tsukahara, Takehiko*; Nomura, Masao*; Kim, M. S.*; Shimada, Taro; Takeda, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(11), p.1184 - 1194, 2021/11
Determining the completeness of nuclear reactor decommissioning is an important step in safely utilizing nuclear power. For example, Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident can be treated as background radioactivity, so determining the origin of Cs is essential. To accomplish this, measuring the Cs/Cs isotope ratio can be useful, so this study optimized a solvent extraction method, with calixarene-bis(t-octylbenzo-crown-6) [BOBCalixC6] in 1-octanol, to purify radioactive Cs, radiocesium, from a solution of major environmental soil elements and mass spectrometry interference elements. This optimized method was applied to Cs purification in soil samples (40 g), and the final solutions contained a total of 10g/ml of the major soil elements and ng/ml concentrations at most of interfering elements. Soil samples collected near the FDNPS were then purified, and the Cs/Cs isotope ratios were measured, using both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and triple quadrupole induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QQQ). The results of each of these measurements were compared, and we found that Cs isotope ratios obtained by TIMS were more precise, by an order of magnitude, while the ICP-QQQ results possessed good abundance sensitivities. A slightly higher Cs/Cs ratio in the northwest area of the FDNPS was observed, while other areas exhibited similar values, all within the measurement error range, which indicated different origins of radiocesium. These results agreed with previously reported Cs/Cs activity distributions, suggesting that this ratio may be useful in identifying radiocesium origins for evaluating future nuclear reactor decommissions.
Nakano, Masanao; Hosomi, Kenji; Nishimura, Shusaku; Matsubara, Natsumi; Okura, Takehisa; Kuramochi, Akihiko; Kawasaki, Masatsugu; Takeuchi, Erina; Fujii, Yutaka*; Jinno, Tsukasa*; et al.
Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 55(2), p.102 - 109, 2020/06
After the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) Accident in March 2011, the increase was significantly observed in a part of the result of the environmental radiation monitoring in Ibaraki prefecture. "The review meeting of the environmental effect from 1F accident" was established to discuss technically the fluctuation of monitoring data. The review meeting collected the monitoring data from the four nuclear operators, and discussed a fluctuating trend, Cs/Cs activity ratio, and so on. In this report, the results of the dose rate and Cs in fallout, surface soil, flatfish and seabed sediment are introduced. Also the problem solving in the review meeting is introduced.
Yoshimura, Kazuya; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kurikami, Hiroshi
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 217, p.106213_1 - 106213_6, 2020/06
Asai, Shiho*; Ohata, Masaki*; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Horita, Takuma; Yomogida, Takumi; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro
Analytical Chemistry, 92(4), p.3276 - 3284, 2020/02
The long-term safety assessment of spent Cs adsorbents produced during the decontamination of radiocesium-containing water at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant requires one to estimate their Cs content prior to final disposal. Cs is usually quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which necessitates the elution of Cs from Cs adsorbents. However, this approach suffers from the high radiation dose from Cs. To address this challenge, we herein employed laser ablation ICP-MS for direct quantitation of Cs in Cs adsorbents and used a model Cs adsorbent prepared by immersion of a commercially available Cs adsorbent into radiocesium-containing liquid waste to verify the developed technique. The use of the Cs/Cs ratio and Cs radioactivity obtained by gamma spectrometry achieved simple and precise quantitation of Cs and the resulting Cs activity of 0.36 Bq agreed well with that in the original radiocesium-containing liquid waste.
Mikami, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke*; Matsuda, Hideo*; Hoshide, Yoshifumi*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Saito, Kimiaki
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105938_1 - 105938_7, 2019/12
Five intercomparisons of in situ spectrometry by 6-7 participating teams have been conducted between December 2011 and August 2015 at sites in Fukushima prefecture which affected by the fallout of FDNPS accident occurred in March 2011. The evaluated deposition densities agreed within 5-6% in terms of coefficient of variation (CV) for radiocesium (Cs and Cs), by our best achievement, and the ratio of Cs/Cs in deposition density agreed within 1-2% in CV, through five intercomparisons. These results guarantee the accuracy of the measurements of the mapping project. Two different methods for intercomparison were conducted: (1) sequential measurements at an identical point; and (2) simultaneous measurements in a narrow area within 3 m radius. In a comparison between the two methods at a site, no significant difference was observed between the results. The standard protocols for the two different intercomparison methods were proposed based on our experience.
Kurihara, Momo*; Yasutaka, Tetsuo*; Aono, Tatsuo*; Ashikawa, Nobuo*; Ebina, Hiroyuki*; Iijima, Takeshi*; Ishimaru, Kei*; Kanai, Ramon*; Karube, Jinichi*; Konnai, Yae*; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322(2), p.477 - 485, 2019/11
We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of methods for determining low dissolved radiocesium concentrations in freshwater in Fukushima. Twenty-one laboratories pre-concentrated three of 10 L samples by five different pre-concentration methods (prussian-blue-impregnated filter cartridges, coprecipitation with ammonium phosphomolybdate, evaporation, solid-phase extraction disks, and ion-exchange resin columns), and activity of radiocesium was measured. The z-scores for all of the Cs results were within 2, indicating that the methods were accurate. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) indicating the variability in the results from different laboratories were larger than the RSDs indicating the variability in the results from each separate laboratory.
Sanada, Yukihisa; Katata, Genki*; Kaneyasu, Naoki*; Nakanishi, Chika*; Urabe, Yoshimi*; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu*
Science of the Total Environment, 618, p.881 - 890, 2018/03
Although the reconstruction of atmospheric deposition processes of radiocesium during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident is essential, the whole picture of the deposition mechanism in complex topography has not been well understood yet. To understand atmospheric deposition processes of aerosols over the complex mountainous topography, we analyzed altitudinal characteristics of radiocesium released during the accident. At five selected mountainous areas in the eastern Japan, altitudinal characters of air dose rate observed by our high-resolution airborne surveys after the accident was analyzed based on the results of three typical (dry, wet, and cloud water) deposition obtained from the latest atmospheric dispersion.
Hidaka, Akihide; Yokoyama, Hiroya
Proceedings of Symposium on Water Chemistry and Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants in Asia 2017 (AWC 2017) (USB Flash Drive), p.29 - 42, 2017/09
no abstracts in English
Hidaka, Akihide; Yokoyama, Hiroya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(8), p.819 - 829, 2017/08
To clarify what happened during the Fukushima accident, the phenomena within RPV and the discussion of ties with the environmental monitoring are very important. However, the previous study has not necessarily advanced until the present that passed almost six years from the accident. The present study investigated I and Cs release behaviors during the late phase of the accident based on I/Cs ratio of the source terms that were recently evaluated backward by WSPEEDI code based on environmental monitoring data. The I release from the contaminated water in the basement of 1F2 and 1F3 reactor buildings was evaluated to be about 10% of I source term. The increase in Cs release from March 21 to 23 and from March 30 to 31 could be explained by the release of CsBO which is formed as a result of chemical reactions of Cs with BC due to re-ascension of the core temperature caused by slight shortage of the core cooling water.
Hidaka, Akihide; Yokoyama, Hiroya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(8), P. i, 2017/08
no abstracts in English
Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu
Scientific Reports (Internet), 6, p.31376_1 - 31376_14, 2016/08
Nagai, Haruyasu; Terada, Hiroaki; Chino, Masamichi; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Saito, Kimiaki
Proceedings of 16th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-16) (USB Flash Drive), p.4044 - 4052, 2015/08
JAEA has estimated the atmospheric releases of radionuclide during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident by comparing measurements of air concentration of a radionuclide or its dose rate in the environment with the ones calculated by atmospheric transport and deposition model (ATDM). To improve our source term, we are trying to develop more sophisticated estimation method and use new information from severe accident analysis and observation data. As the first step of new trial, we used Cs/Cs ratios of inventories in FNPS1 reactors Unit 1 to 3 and those in surface deposition. By considering temporal change in Cs/Cs ratio of released plume and ATDM simulations, spatial distribution of Cs/Cs ratio in surface deposition was explained. This result can be used to specify from which reactor the dominant release occurred for each time period, and consequently provide useful information to severe accident analysis for the FNPS1 case.
Kokubu, Yoko; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Magara, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Yamazaki, Hideo*; Mitamura, Muneki*; Yoshikawa, Shusaku*
Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 50, p.7 - 13, 2007/03
no abstracts in English
Terada, Hiroaki; Chino, Masamichi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(7), p.651 - 660, 2005/07
The prediction performance of WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information), which consists of the atmospheric dynamic model MM5 and the Lagrangian particle dispersion model GEARN-new, is evaluated by measurements of precipitation and surface deposition of Cs over Europe during the Chernobyl accident. It is concluded that MM5/GEARN-new can predict Cs deposition distribution with good accuracy when accurate precipitation is predicted by using a explicit scheme on cloud microphysics with ice phase processes. High-resolutional calculation is also conducted for the area surrounding Chernobyl by a nesting method. MM5/GEARN-new can predict quite a realistic distribution of Cs deposition around Chernobyl which was not calculated by the previous version.
Terada, Hiroaki; Furuno, Akiko; Chino, Masamichi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(5), p.632 - 640, 2004/05
The new version of WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is developed by introducing the combination of models, the atmospheric dynamic model MM5 and the Lagrangian particle dispersion model GEARN-new to improve the prediction capability. One of the improvements by the new system is that Environmental contaminations in multi domains are predicted simultaneously, and the other is that more precise physical processes are considered by using predicted meteorological conditions with high resolution in time and space. The performance of the system is evaluated for the test calculations of hypothetical nuclear accident in the East Asia region and the Chernobyl accident. The results of test calculation in East Asia seem to be reasonable and the calculated surface air concentrations of Cs from Chernobyl show good agreement with measurements.
Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 106(2), p.165 - 175, 2003/11
Conversion factors for the purpose of mobile survey by car were evaluated quantitatively to convert the gamma ray dose rate level measured on the road to that in the typical land-use around the road by simulation calculations. In the calculation, the width and the surrounding area of the road were assumed as being the real environment contaminated by Cs nuclide. The calculated conversion factors indicated to agree with the conversion factors measured in the field within the accuracy of 20%.
Povinec, P. P.*; Livingston, H. D.*; Shima, Shigeki*; Aoyama, Michio*; Gastaud, J.*; Goroncy, I.*; Hirose, Katsumi*; Huynh-Ngoc, L.*; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro*; Ito, Toshimichi; et al.
Deep Sea Research Part 2: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 50(17-21), p.2607 - 2637, 2003/09
An international sampling cruise, IAEA'97, was carried out in 1997 in the NW Pacif1c Ocean. The main results of this study are following: (1) The levels of oceanographic parameter showed differences from the historical data, (2) Transuranics water profiles showed typical sub-surface concentration maxima with decrease in concentration by about a factor of 4 from the historical results, deepening their positions by about a factor of 2 and declining the water column inventory by about 20% over 24 years, (3) Sr-90 and Cs-137 data confirmed that the observed changes in concentration profiles have been resulting from the regional water masses circulation, and (4) The concentrations of these radionuclides in surface water after 40 years of their main introduction to the NW Pacific are still showing a latitudinal dependence. The results present the most comprehensive recent study on the distribution of radionuclides in the NW Pacific Ocean with the implications for behaviour of these radionuclides in the water column and physical forcing of water mass circulation over the last 24 years.
Ito, Toshimichi; Aramaki, Takafumi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Togawa, Orihiko; Kobayashi, Takuya; Senju, Tomoharu*; Chaykovskaya, E. L.*; Karasev, E. V.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 68(3), p.249 - 267, 2003/07
The anthropogenic radionuclides, Sr, Cs and Pu, in the seawater column of the Japan Sea were measured during 1997-2000. The vertical profiles of radionuclide concentrations showed their typical features; exponential decrease with depth for the Sr and Cs and surface minimum - subsurface maximum for the Pu, and there are no substantial differences between the present study and the previous ones. The area-averaged concentrations and the inventories of radionuclides in the Japan Sea are higher than those in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In the spatial distributions, high inventory area extends and intrudes from the Japan Basin into the Yamato Basin. It is suggested that radionuclides sink by the vertical transport occurring mainly in the Japan Basin then advect into the Yamato Basin after detouring around the Yamato Rise, and finally, they are accumulated in the deep seawater of the Japan Sea.