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JAEA Reports

Basic properties of the concrete using the low alkaline cement (HFSC) developed by JAEA

Seno, Yasuhiro*; Nakayama, Masashi; Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomo

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-011, 164 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA-Data-Code-2016-011.pdf:8.45MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2016-011-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:0.1MB

The cementitious materials are used as candidate materials for the tunnel support of the deep geological repository of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW).Generally the pH of leachate from concrete mixed Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) shows a range of 12 to 13. The barrier function of bentonite used as a buffer material and that of host rock might be damaged by the high alkaline leachate from cementitious materials. Therefore, low alkalinity that does not damage each barrier function is necessary for cementitious materials used for the tunnel support system of the HLW geological repository. JAEA has developed a low alkaline cement named as HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silicafume Cement) which the pH of the cement leachate could lower approximately 11. We have confirmed the applicability of HFSC for the tunnel support materials, by using experimentally as the shotcreting materials to the part of gallery wall at 140m, 250m and 350m depth in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. And moreover, HFSC has been used as the cast-in-place concrete for the shaft lining concrete at the depth of 374m-380m. This Data/Code summarized the past HFSC mix proportion test results about the fresh concrete properties and hardened concrete properties, in order to offer the information as a reference for selecting the mix proportion of HFSC concrete adopted to the disposal galleries et al. in the future.

JAEA Reports

Long-term immersion experiments of low alkaline cementitious materials

Seno, Yasuhiro*; Noguchi, Akira*; Nakayama, Masashi; Sugita, Yutaka; Suto, Shunkichi; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomo; Sato, Haruo*

JAEA-Technology 2016-011, 20 Pages, 2016/07

JAEA-Technology-2016-011.pdf:7.56MB

Cementitious materials are expected to be used for the construction of an underground repository for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC) would conventionally be used in the fields of civil engineering and architecture, however, OPC has the potential to generate a highly alkaline plume (pH$$>$$12.5), which will likely degrade the performance of other barriers in the repository such as the bentonite buffer and/or host rock. Low alkaline cementitious materials are therefore being developed that will mitigate the generation of a highly alkaline plume. JAEA has developed a High-volume Fly ash Silica fume Cement (HFSC) as a candidate low alkaline cementitious material. The workability of the HFSC shotcrete was confirmed by conducting In-situ full scale construction tests in the Horonobe underground research laboratory. This report summarizes the results of immersion tests to assess the long-term pH behavior of hardened HFSC cement pastes made with mix designs that are expected to be able to be used in the construction of an underground repository in Japan.

JAEA Reports

Passivation condition of carbon steel in bentonite/sand mixture

Taniguchi, Naoki; Kawakami, Susumu; *

JNC-TN8400 2001-025, 27 Pages, 2002/03

JNC-TN8400-2001-025.pdf:0.82MB

It is essential to understand the corrosion type of carbon steel under the repository conditions for the lifetime assessment of carbon steel overpack used for geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste. According to the previous study, carbon steel is hard to passivate in buffer material assuming a chemical condition range of groundwater in Japan. However, concrete support will be constructed around the overpack in the case of repository in the soft rock system and groundwater having a higher pH may infiltrate to buffer material. There is a possibility that the corrosion type of carbon steel will be influenced by the rise of the pH in groundwater. In this study, anodic polarization experiments were performed to understand the passivation condition of carbon steel in buffer material saturated with water contacted with concrete. An ordinary concrete and a low-alkalinity concrete were used in the experiment. The results of the experiments showed that the carbon steel can passivate under the condition that water having pH $$>$$ 13 infiltrate to the buffer material assuming present property of buffer material. If the low-alkalinity concrete is selected as the support material, passivation can not occur on carbon steel overpack. The effect of the factors of buffer material such as dry density and mixing ratio of sand on the passivation of carbon steel was also studied. The results of the study showed that the present property of buffer material is enough to prevent passivation of carbon steel.

JAEA Reports

A study on long term stability of bentonite; The preliminary study on the bentonite stability in the groundwater influenced by cementitious material

*; Mihara, Morihiro;

JNC-TN8430 2001-007, 56 Pages, 2002/01

JNC-TN8430-2001-007.pdf:13.13MB

In the geological disposal concept of radioactive wastes, a kind of clay with sorption ability and low permeability, called bentonite, is envisaged as an engineered barrier system in the geological repository. Also, the cemetitious material is envisaged as the backfill material in the vaults and the structure material of the vaults. The groundwater in contact with the cementitious material will promote hyperalkaline conditions in the repository environment and these conditions will affect the performance of the bentonite. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the interaction between the cementitious material and the bentonite for the evaluation of long term stability of the disposal system. In this study, for the identification and the investigation of the secondary minerals, the batch immersion experiments of the powder bentonite were carried out using synthetic cement leachates (pH=7, 12.5, 14) at 200$$^{circ}$$C. As the results, it was confirmed that Na as exchangeable cations in the bentonite can exchange relatively easily with Ca in the solution from the experiment results. And the ratio of cation exchange was estimated to be about 25% based on the amount of exchangeable cations Ca$$^{2+}$$ between layers. Furthermore, it was concretely shown that the generation of analcime might be affected by the Na concentration from results of the solution analyses and a stability analysis of analcime using the chemical equilibrium model, in addition to the pH in the solution.

JAEA Reports

Direct pH measurement of porewater in compacted bentonite (III); Influence of low alkalinity cement on bentonite porewater

Isogai, Takeshi*; Oda, Chie

JNC-TN8400 2000-025, 48 Pages, 2000/09

JNC-TN8400-2000-025.pdf:2.1MB

Porewater chemistly in compacted bentonite would affect a performance of engineered barrier system in a high-level radioactive waste repository, whereas there are little information of the porewater based on experimental data. The previous study provided a new method of direct pH measurement for highly compacted bentonite system and demonstrated some tests for compacted bentonite samples (the dry densities: 1.6 [g/cm$$^{3}$$] and 1.8 [g/cm$$^{3}$$]) both with the de-ionized water and with the NaCl solution. In this study, the solution equilibrated with low alkalinity cement were used in the direct pH measurement to see the effect of the composition of the external solutions, in which the bentonite column immersed. The result showed that the pH value of porewater in the cementitious condition was around 9 during the immersed time 1 to 3 months, while after 6 months became the porewater pH 10.6, which was equal to pH of the external solution.

JAEA Reports

Degradation studies on granite in alkaline solution

Owada, Hitoshi*; Mihara, Morihiro; *; *

JNC-TN8400 2000-027, 19 Pages, 2000/08

JNC-TN8400-2000-027.pdf:0.75MB

Bactch leaching experiments of granite with the artifitial cement leachate and the leachate of low-alkalinity-cement (LW) were carried out to evaluate the effect of the hiperalkaline plume on the environment of the high-level and TRU radioactive waste repository. Dissolution of Si and Al from feldspar included in the granite and precipitation of C-S-H were confirmed from the results of the leaching experiments with artifitial cement leachate. From this result it was found that the composition of sorrounding rock changed. It also suggested that the retardation factor of migration of radionuclides would change. On the contrary, only decrease of concentrations in Si, Al and Ca in the leachate was observed in the experiment with LW. This result might indicate that C-S-H and/or C-A-S-H precipitated as secondary minerals in the LW case. From these results, it was considered that the hiperalkaline plume from the cementitious leachate might caused the change of disposal conditions such as the change in distribution coefficients of rock by precipitation of the secondary mineral and the increase in hydraulic conductivity by the dissolution of rock. On the other hand, the influences of the LW would be comparatively small, because LW and granite might equilibrate in short time.

JAEA Reports

Experimental investigation of activities and tolerance of denitrifying bacteria under alkaline and reducing condition

Mine, Tatsuya*; Mihara, Morihiro;

JNC-TN8430 2000-009, 35 Pages, 2000/07

JNC-TN8430-2000-009.pdf:0.88MB

In the geological disposal system of TRU wastes, nitrogen generation by denitrifying bacteria could provide significant impact on the assessment of this system, because nitrate contained in process concentrated liquid waste might be electron acceptor for denitrifying bacteria. In this study, the activities and tolerance of denitrifying bacteria under disposal condition were investigated. pseudomonas denitrificans as denitrifying bacteria was used. The results showed that Pseudomonas denitrificans had activity under reducing condition, but under high pH condition (PH$$>$$9.5), the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans was not detected. It is possible that the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans would be low under disposal condition.

JAEA Reports

Effect of leachate of cementitious materials on the geological media; Experimental study of the influence of high pH plume on rock

Kato, Hiroshige*; Sato, Mitsuyoshi*; Owada, Hitoshi*; Mihara, Morihiro;

JNC-TN8430 2000-008, 53 Pages, 2000/05

JNC-TN8430-2000-008.pdf:3.56MB

Cementitious materials will be used in TRU waste disposal repository. In such cases, it is considered that the migration of alkaline leachates from cementitious materials, so called high pH plume, will cause dissolution of rock and precipitation of secondary minerals. In addition, the high pH plume will move along the flow of groundwater, so it is predicted that rock formation and components of high pH groundwater vary with time and space. However, time and spatial dependence of the variations of secondary minerals and groundwater components has not been clarified. In order to acquire the data of variations of secondary minerals and groundwater components, we carried out the rock alteration experiments with column method. The crushed granodiorite was filled into 4 meters length column ($$phi$$3.7 cm) and artificial cement leachate (pH=13.3; Na=0,1 mol/l, K=0.1 mol/l, Ca=0.002 mol/l) was streamed at flow rates of 0.1 ml/min for 7 months at 80$$^{circ}$$C. As the result, secondary minerals confirmed on the rock were calcite and C-S-H at upstream of column and C-S-H at mid-downstream. The pH value of the fluid dominated by Na and K did not be decreased by reaction with the rock. In this study, the data relating to the effect of high pH plume on rock over the long term was acquired.

JAEA Reports

An Investigation of cementitious materials for radioactive waste repository; Mechanical properties of law alkalinity cementitious materials

Owada, Hitoshi*; Mihara, Morihiro; Iriya, Keishiro*; *

JNC-TN8400 99-057, 43 Pages, 2000/03

JNC-TN8400-99-057.pdf:2.45MB

Cementitious materials are considered as candidate materials for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste. As the pH and the Ca content of leachate from the cementitious materials are high, the host rock and the buffer-material would be degraded by the leachate in the long-term. Therefore, transport properties and parameters such as solubilities and distribution coefficients of radionuclides would be changed and affect the performance of the repository. In order to dissolve this "High pH plobrem", the use of a low alkalinity cement is considered for the disposal. In this study, we summarized the necessity of the low alkalinity cement, and developed the approach of the low alkalinization of cement. And, the following were carried out in this study : A leaching test of cement paste, a fluid test of the mortar and a installation test of the concrete to the trial structure. From the leaching test using the cement paste, we confirmed that we were able to obtain the low alkalinity cement (HFSC) by addition of pozzolanic materials such as silica-fume and flyash. From the result of the fluid test of the mortar, we chose the cement for the practicability evaluation. The practicability of low alkalinity concrete was evaluated by installation test to the trial structure.As a result of these examinations, we proved that the pH value of the leachate from the cementitious material was reduced by adding SF and FA to Portland cement. Simultaneously, SF and FA had to be added in order to obtain the good workability. In addition, workability and mechanical strength of the cement which SF and FA were added are almost equivalent to the ordinary Portland cement. The results shows that the HFSC has high practicability.

JAEA Reports

Modelling of the interaction of bentonite with hyperalkaline fluids

Muroi, Masayuki*

JNC-TJ8400 2000-042, 127 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-042.pdf:3.26MB

Hyperalkaline pore water of cementitious material used in TRU waste repository would react with bentonite and cause the increased porosity and the loss of the swelling and sorption ability. This work is a modelling study on bentonite-cement pore water. The possible extent of reaction between bentonite and cement pore water was simulated using the PRECIP reaction-transport code. Three cement pore fluid compositions (leachates 1,2 and 3) were reacted with a 1-D, 1m flowpath of bentonite (+ sand) at 25 and 70$$^{circ}$$C. Key minerals were allowed to dissolve and precipitate using kinetic reaction mechanism. Leachate 1 was the most aggressive fluid (highest pH, Na and K), and leachate 3 (1owest pH, Na and Ca) the least aggressive. Simulation with leachate 1 showed total removal of primary bentonite minerals up to 60 cm from the contact with cement after $$sim$$1000 years. The maximum porosity increase observed was in leachate 1(up to 80-90%) over a narrow zone 1-2 cm. Simulations with all fluids showed total filling of pore with CSH minerals in a zone very close to the interface with the cement, whereas zeolites and sheet silicates formed far away. For a given leachate composition, there was little difference in the profiles at the two temperatures studied. It was suggested that bentonite alteration was not sensitive to the kinetic parameters over the conditions studied. The conceptual model chosen for the modelling study assumed that there was an unlimited amount of cement pore fluid available for reaction with bentonite so that the results of the simulations represent a conservative (pessimistic) estimate. There were a number of uncertainties associated with the modelling which relate to assumptions concerning: the kinetic mechanisms for dissolution and growth of minerals at elevated pH; evolving surface areas of minerals with time; thermodynamic data for CSH minerals, zeolites and aqueous species at high pH; the synergy between changing porosity and fluid ...

JAEA Reports

The Study on degradation of engineered barrier in radioactive waste repositories effect of nitrate and leaching solutions

Iriya, Keishiro*; *; Fujita, Hideki*; Kubo, Hiroshi*

JNC-TJ8400 2000-034, 212 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-034.pdf:7.91MB

Cementious materials and highly compacted bentnite are expectable candidates as materials of TRU waste repositories. It was pointed out that Bentonite might be changed to Zeolite and surrounding rock might be altered by high alkalinity water flow, since cement hydrate leached to pore water of cement and it was changed to alkaline. Transportation of radio-nuclides might be accelerated by organic materials, such as super plasticizer, and nitlate which is contained in nuclear wastes. It was concluded by previous studies that rock and bentonite is stable in alkaline water which pH is less than 10.5. The new type of low alkalinity cement with high silica fume and fly ash content which could keep pH below 11.0 was developed and its performance has been assessed. However since Zeolitation and ilitation were reported upon deterioration of bentonite bated in certain condition, it should be assessed by long term experiment. Since Capacity of keeping integrity of bentonite hasn't been directly checked by experiments upon the developed new type of low alkalinity cement it should be done. Although amount of leaching organic was quantitatively and experimentally assessed at an early age, effect of changing of amount and shape hasn't assessed in leaching of radio nuclides. Although it is pointed out that deterioration of cementitious materials isn't accelerated by condensed nitrate solution at early period after closure, it is considered that it might be accelerated corresponding to chemical composition in case of decrement of concentration of nitrate. In this study, deterioration of materials will be assessed in detail in order to feed back the results to assessment of transportation of radio nuclides. Long term deterioration of bentonite by leaching water of cement will be experimentally assessed, and deteriorating test of bentonite will be carried out by leaching water of low alkalinity cement. Amount of organic and component of it will be measured. Furthermore ...

JAEA Reports

The Study on degradation of engineered barrier in ratioactive waste repositories effect of nitrate and leaching solutions

Iriya, Keishiro*; *; Kubo, Hiroshi*; Fujita, Hideki*

JNC-TJ8400 2000-033, 95 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-033.pdf:11.11MB

Cementious materials and highly compacted bentnite are expectable candidates as materials of TRU waste repositories. It was pointed out that Bentonite might be changed to Zeolite and surrounding rock might be altered by high alkalinity water flow, since cement hydrate leached to pore water of cement and it was changed to alkaline. Transportation of radio-nuclides might be accelerated by organic materials, such as super plasticizer, and nitrate which is contained in nuclear wastes. It was concluded by previous studies that rock and bentonite is stable in alkaline water which pH is less than 10.5. The new type of low alkalinity cement with high silica fume and fly ash content which could keep pH below 11.0 was developed and its performance has been assessed. However since Zeolitation and ilitation were reported upon deterioration of bentonite bated in certain condition, it should be assessed by long term experiment. Since Capacity of keeping integrity of bentonite hasn't been directly checked by experiments upon the developed new type of low alkalinity cement it should be done. Although amount of leaching organic was quantitatively and experimentally assessed at an early age, effect of changing of amount and shape hasn't assessed in leaching of radio nuclides. Although it is pointed out that deterioration of cementitious materials isn't accelerated by condensed nitrate solution at early period after closure, it is considered that it might be accelerated corresponding to chemical composition in case of decrement of concentration of nitrate. In this study, deterioration of materials will be assessed in detail in order to feed back the results to assessment of transportation of radio nuclides. Long term deterioration of bentonite by leaching water of cement will be experimentally assessed, and deteriorating test of bentonite will be carried out by leaching water of low alkalinity cement. Amount of organic and component of it will be measured. Furthermore ...

JAEA Reports

Behavior of fine particle originated from cement

*

JNC-TJ8400 2000-003, 67 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-003.pdf:10.99MB

For the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, it is important to elucidate the effect of colloids on radionuclide migration, which are released with dissolution of cementitious materials composing engineered barricr. In the previous work, we identified and characterized the colloidal particles in the solutions contacting cement hydrates, OPC and low-alkaline cement paste, and observed the release of the colloid particle. In the present work, we performed same experiments as the last year to confirm the reproducibility of the colloid release. We studied the leaching behavior of the colloid when OPC and low-alkaline cement past contact water flow. Furthermore, the effect of an alumina particle was studied, which is used as a barrier material for colloid migration. The following conclusions were derived: (1)In the solution contacting cement paste, the small amount of particles, which are considered as CaCO$$_{3}$$ or silicate colloids were observed. Thus, the reproducibility of the last work was confirmed. (2)The leaching of colloid in the solution was confirmed by water flow through the cement paste. The concentration of particle was as low as 10$$^{3}$$$$sim$$10$$^{5}$$ mL$$^{-1}$$. (3)Al$$_{2}$$0$$_{3}$$ powder, with the diameter of 200$$sim$$150$$mu$$m, was found to be effective to some extent as a barrier for a colloid migration from low-alkaline cement paste.

JAEA Reports

Models of Cement-Water Interaction of Associated Thermodynamic Datand North America

D.Savag*; K.Lemke*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Randolp*; Yui, Mikazu

JNC-TN8400 2000-004, 30 Pages, 2000/01

JNC-TN8400-2000-004.pdf:1.26MB

Modeling approaches that have been proposed for cement-water system are reviewed in this report, and relevant supporting thsrmodynamic data are compiled. The thermodynamic data include standard molal thermodynamic properties of minerals and related compounds comprising cements, and equilibrium constants for associated hydrolysis reactions. Similar data for minerals that are stable in hyperalkaline geologic environments (e.g., zeolites) are also included because these minerals could be formed as hyperalkaline fluids emanating from cementitious matelials in a repository for radioactive wastes interact with the surrounding host rock. Standard molal properties (i.e., standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and standard molal entropies), and/or equilibrium constants for associated hydrolysis reactions, are included for. (1)cement minerals and related compounds (Reardon, 1992; Glasser et al., 1999) (2)calcium-silicate hydrate minerals (Sarkar et al., 1982), and (3)zeolites (calorimetric and estimated values from various sources) All these data are accepted at face value, and it is therefore cautioned that the data, considered as a whole, may not be internally consistent. It is also important to note that the accuracy of these data have not been evaluated in the present study. Several models appropriate for cement-water systems have been proposed in recent years. Most are similar in the sense that they represent empirical fits to laboratory data for the CSH gel-water system, and therefore not thermodynamically defensible. An alternative modeling approach based on thermodynamic principles of solid-solution behavior appropriate for CSH gel has recently been proposed, however. It is reviewed in the present study, and evaluated in relation to experimental results obtained by JNC on cement-water interactions. The solid-solution model is based upon a thermodynamically- and structually-justifiable description of CSH gel in terms of a non-ideal ...

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1150 98-004, 64 Pages, 1998/03

PNC-TJ1150-98-004.pdf:2.1MB

None

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1150 98-003, 99 Pages, 1998/03

PNC-TJ1150-98-003.pdf:4.39MB

None

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1150 97-005, 38 Pages, 1997/03

PNC-TJ1150-97-005.pdf:1.87MB

None

JAEA Reports

None

PNC-TJ1150 97-004, 92 Pages, 1997/03

PNC-TJ1150-97-004.pdf:6.18MB

None

Journal Articles

The effect of low-dose radiation on leucocyte; On leucocyte alkaline phosphatase

; *

Nihon Ketsueki Gakkai Zasshi, 25(3-4), p.0 - 0, 1962/00

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

The In-situ experiment for verification of performance of engineered barrier system in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, 9; Application of low alkaline cement for concrete plug

Nakayama, Masashi; Miura, Norihiko*; Ishida, Tomoko*; Takeda, Nobufumi*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Jo, Mayumi*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

23 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)