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Journal Articles

Fluoropolymer-based nanostructured membranes created by swift-heavy-ion irradiation and their energy and environmental applications

Yamaki, Tetsuya*; Nuryanthi, N.*; Kitamura, Akane; Koshikawa, Hiroshi*; Sawada, Shinichi*; Voss, K.-O.*; Severin, D.*; Tautmann, C.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 435, p.162 - 168, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:74.25(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We used individual single-ion tracks in fluoropolymers with diameters of tens to hundreds of nanometers; chemical etching and ion-track grafting enabled us to develop ion-track and proton-conductive membranes, respectively. In the ion-track membranes of PVDF, strongly-LET-dependent etching was found, so the pore shape as well as the size was exclusively controlled by the track structures. We performed the ion-track grafting of styrene into ETFE to develop nanostructure-controlled proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for applications in PEM fuel cells. Our ion beam technology to develop fluoropolymer-based nanostructures has the potential to apply in the field of filtration processes and fuel cell devices. This would make it possible to provide new microfiltration technology for water treatment, sterilization, petroleum refining and dairy processing.

Journal Articles

Preparation of nano-structure controlled ion-exchange membranes by ion beams and their application to seawater concentration

Yamaki, Tetsuya*; Goto, Mitsuaki*; Sawada, Shinichi*; Koshikawa, Hiroshi*; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*

QST-M-8; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2016, P. 35, 2018/03

We prepared ion exchange membranes by a heavy-ion-track grafting method, and then used them for seawater concentration process. Both the water uptake and resistance were lower for our ion-track grafted membranes than for the conventional $$gamma$$-ray-grafted membranes. The results would be because local and high-density energy deposition due to the ion beam enabled us to control the membrane structure in a nanometer scale. We demonstrate our membranes are suitable for this application.

Journal Articles

Recovery of rare metals using nucleic acid bases and extractants immobilized by grafted polymer chains

Saito, Kyoichi*; Asai, Shiho

Bunseki Kagaku, 66(11), p.771 - 782, 2017/11

Recovery and purification of rare metals, which are essential ingredients for highly functional materials, generally comes with operational difficulty. In this study, we have developed polymer adsorbents specially designed for highly-efficient adsorption of rare metal ions and exhibited their practical adsorption performances. Radiation-induced graft polymerization, one of the effective modification techniques for polymers, was employed for preparing the proposed adsorbents. Among such adsorbents, a 6-nylon fiber with nucleic-acid base, adenine, on the surface of the fiber demonstrated specific adsorption of ruthenium and palladium ions. In addition, a 6-nylon fiber with an extractant HDEHP (bis (2-ethylhexyl) phophoric acid) that has high affinity for lanthanides, achieved higher separation speed than a commercially available HDEHP-impregnated resin.

Journal Articles

Preparation of solid phase extraction cartridges for trace analysis of radionuclides

Asai, Shiho; Saito, Kyoichi*

Biomedical Research on Trace Elements, 28(1), p.1 - 10, 2017/04

Radionuclides are commonly determined with radiometry and mass spectrometry. For $$gamma$$-emitting nuclides, the activities can be measured without chemical separation due to the strong penetration ability. In contrast, the measurements of alpha and beta-emitting nuclides are generally associated with tedious and time-consuming chemical separation procedures to remove concomitants. Thus, an adsorbent that achieves rapid separation is desirable to reduce separation time and workload. Our research team has developed compact cartridge-type solid phase extraction materials which enable to facilitate separation procedures. In this review, basic separation performances of the developed cartridges were overviewed along with two application examples to radionuclide-containing samples.

Journal Articles

Removal of radioactive substances using inorganic compounds entangled by polymer chain grafted onto fiber

Saito, Kyoichi*; Kojima, Takashi*; Asai, Shiho

Bunseki Kagaku, 66(4), p.233 - 242, 2017/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:92.73(Chemistry, Analytical)

Insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide and sodium titanate specifically capture cesium and strontium ions, respectively, in water contaminated with radionuclides which is found in Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The inorganic compounds used in this study were formed as precipitates in the polymer chain grafted onto a commercially available 6-nylon fiber using radiation-induced graft polymerization. An impregnation structure with the precipitates entangled by the grafted polymer chain through an electrostatic interaction via multipoints was indicated. The resultant insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide- or sodium titanate-impregnated fiber exhibited a higher adsorption rate and adsorption capacity per gram of the inorganic compound for cesium or strontium ions in seawater than conventional granular adsorbents.

Journal Articles

Ion-track grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride into poly(ethylene-$$co$$-tetrafluoroethylene) films using different media

Nuryanthi, N.*; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Akane; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Kimio; Sawada, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Shin; Asano, Masaharu; Maekawa, Yasunari; Suzuki, Akihiro*; et al.

Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan, 40(4), p.359 - 362, 2015/12

The ion-track grafting of a vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) into a poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film is necessary for preparing nanostructured hydroxide-ion-conductive electrolyte membranes. A key for success here is to obtain as high graft levels as possible (for higher conductivity) in a smaller number of tracks (for improving the other membrane properties). To this end, therefore, the effect of the medium for the VBC grafting was investigated as part of our continuing effort to optimize the experimental conditions. A 25 $$mu$$m-thick ETFE film was irradiated in a vacuum chamber with 560 MeV $$^{129}$$Xe at different fluences, and then the grafting was performed by immersing the irradiated films in a 20vol% VBC monomer at 60$$^{circ}$$C. A medium was a mixture of water (H$$_{2}$$O) and isopropyl alcohol (iPrOH) at different volume ratios. The degree of grafting increased as the H$$_{2}$$O content became higher, and reached a maximum in pure H$$_{2}$$O. These results can be explained by considering the well-known Trommsdorff effect, in which poor solubility of the grafted polymer in polar media leads to an increased polymerization rate probably due to a lower termination rate.

Journal Articles

Radiation processing in my research life

Tamada, Masao

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (100), P. 16, 2015/10

Collection of a rare metal form hot spring water attracted medias and had a public response by reports of numerous newspapers and television programs in my 35 years' research and development of radiation processing technologies and its technology management. Collection experiments of the rare metal were carried out in Kusatsu Onsen, Gunma prefecture, where discharge of hot spring water is the largest in Japan. We were on standby 6 am there when morning live broadcast started from 8 am. The invention of emersion grafting solved the problems in the cost reduction of adsorbent production owing to its high grafting yield and led the way for technology transfer of filter for the removal of metal ions in ppb level from semiconductor cleaning liquid and adsorbent for radio-active cesium.

Journal Articles

Development of grafted adsorbents for Cs removal from natural water source

Seko, Noriaki; Shibata, Takuya; Kasai, Noboru; Ueki, Yuji; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki

Hoshasen To Sangyo, (138), p.9 - 12, 2015/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Removal of cesium ions from contaminated seawater in closed area using adsorptive fiber

Someya, Takaaki*; Asai, Shiho; Fujiwara, Kunio*; Sugo, Takanobu*; Umeno, Daisuke*; Saito, Kyoichi*

Nippon Kaisui Gakkai-Shi, 69(1), p.42 - 48, 2015/02

A large amount of seriously contaminated sea water with radioactive Cs has been reserved in semi-enclosed coastal sea area which is separated by silt fences and embankments. Insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide (Co-FC) microparticles-impregnated fiber was developed for removing Cs from the contaminated sea water. The resultant Co-FC-impregnated fiber was immersed in either nonradioactive or radioactive Cs solution. The adsorption isotherm well correlated with a Langmuir-type equation. In addition, mass-transfer capacity coefficients were determined by fitting the experimental data of the rate of Cs adsorption onto the Co-FC-impregnated fiber to theoretical adsorption curves based on the Cs concentration difference between the bulk and the interface in seawater as a driving force of the overall adsorption rate. Decontamination factors as functions of fiber weight and the contact time required for the removal of cesium ions from the contaminated seawater in a closed area were estimated.

Journal Articles

The Volume reduction method of radioactively-contaminated plant waste through extraction and removal of radioactive cesium

Saiki, Seiichi; Shibata, Takuya; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Yuji; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki

Nippon Ion Kokan Gakkai-Shi, 25(4), p.170 - 175, 2014/11

Journal Articles

Evaluation of the scandium affinity under the iron coexistence using radiation grafted adsorbents

Hayashi, Natsuki*; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Amada, Haruyo; Yamanobe, Takeshi*; Seko, Noriaki

Nippon Ion Kokan Gakkai-Shi, 25(4), p.105 - 108, 2014/11

Journal Articles

Optimization of grafted fibrous polymer as a solid basic catalyst for biodiesel fuel production

Ueki, Yuji; Saiki, Seiichi; Shibata, Takuya; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki

International Journal of Organic Chemistry, 4(2), p.91 - 105, 2014/06

Grafted fibrous polymer with quaternary amine groups could function as a highly-efficient catalyst for biodiesel fuel (BDF) production. In this study, the optimization of grafted fibrous polymer (catalyst) and transesterification conditions for the effective BDF production was attempted through a batch-wise transesterification of triglyceride (TG) with ethanol (EtOH) in the presence of a cosolvent. Trimethylamine was the optimal quaternary amine group for the grafted fibrous catalyst. The optimal degree of grafting of the grafted fibrous catalyst was 170%. The optimal transesterification conditions were as follows: The molar quantity of quaternary amine groups, transesterification temperature, molar ratio of TG and EtOH, and primary alkyl alcohol were 0.8 mmol, 80$$^{circ}$$C, 1:200, and 1-pentanol, respectively. The grafted fibrous catalyst could be applied to BDF production using natural oils. Furthermore, the grafted fibrous catalyst could be used repeatedly after regeneration involving three sequential processes, i.e., organic acid, alkali, and alcohol treatments, without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

Journal Articles

Hierarchical structure-property relationships in graft-type fluorinated polymer electrolyte membranes using small- and ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering analysis

Tran Duy, T.*; Sawada, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Kimio; Oba, Yojiro*; Onuma, Masato*; Katsumura, Yosuke*; Maekawa, Yasunari

Macromolecules, 47(7), p.2373 - 2383, 2014/04

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:36.51(Polymer Science)

The hierarchical structures of graft-type ETFE-based polymer electrolyte membranes (ETFE-PEMs) were investigated using small- and ultrasmall-angle X-ray cattering experiments. The ETFE-PEMs with IECs $$<$$ 2.4 mmol/g possessed conducting graft domains around lamellar crystals, with a d-spacing of 21.8-29.1 nm, and oriented crystallites with short and long correlation distances of 218-320 and 903-1124 nm, respectively. The membranes with IECs $$>$$ 2.7 mmol/g showed a new phase of crystallite network domains with a d-range of 225-256 nm, indicating a phase transition from oriented crystallite to crystallite network structures in the IEC range of 2.4-2.7 mmol/g. Noted that for the ETFE-PEMs with high IECs higher conductivity at 30% RH and compatible tensile strengths at 100% RH and 80 $$^{circ}$$ C, compared with Nafion, originated from the well-interconnected ion channels around the crystallites and the remaining lamellar crystals and crystallites, respectively.

Journal Articles

Homogeneous transesterification kinetics of triglyceride to biodiesel using grafted fibrous catalyst

Ueki, Yuji; Seko, Noriaki

JAEA-Review 2013-059, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2012, P. 53, 2014/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Influence on the vulcanized rubber physical properties by radiation grafting

Saito, Hiroaki*; Mizote, Norihito*; Ueki, Yuji; Seko, Noriaki

JAEA-Review 2013-059, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2012, P. 57, 2014/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nobel system for uranium recovery from seawater

Seko, Noriaki; Kasai, Noboru; Shimizu, Takao*; Tamada, Masao

Nippon Kaisui Gakkai-Shi, 59(5), p.316 - 319, 2005/10

Braid adsorbent having functional group of amidoxime is a promising material for the recovery of uranium dissolved in the seawater. This long braid adsorbent was made by polyethylene multi-fibers in which amidoxime groups were introduced by radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment. The braid adsorbent obtained was moored at the offing of Okinawa Island. The average U adsorption of the adsorbent became 1.5 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 30 d soaking. The mooring system for braid adsorbent has possibility which reduced the cost for the recovery of uranium from seawater. Annual product of 1200 tons of uranium needs 134 km$$^{2}$$ of mooring area. In addition, there is 6000 km$$^{2}$$ and more of suitable sea area for the collection of the uranium in the regions from Okinawa Islands to Tosa Bay in Japan.

Journal Articles

Performance improvement of fluoropolymer electrolyte membranes by radiation processing

Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asano, Masaharu; Yoshida, Masaru

Gekkan Eko Indasutori, 10(6), p.5 - 11, 2005/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Preparation of chelating fiber by repeated use of monomer solution in radiation-induced graft polymerization

Katakai, Akio; Tamada, Masao; Nagamoto, Hiroyuki*; Miyagawa, Hiroshi*

Nippon Ion Kokan Gakkai-Shi, 16(2), p.122 - 126, 2005/05

A chelating fiber containing an amidoxime group as a chelate-forming group was prepared by radiation-induced cograft polymerization of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid and subsequent conversion of the produced cyano group into the amidoxime group. The effect of repeated use of monomers for radiation-induced graft copolymerization on the composition of the graft chain and its adsorption capacity for metal ions was determined. The degree of cografting decreased by as low as 10% at the fourth cycle of cografting, compared with an initial degree of cografting of 170%, because the amount of homopolymer formed in cografting was negligibly small at 0.15 g/L of the monomer solution. The repeated use of monomers did not affect the amidoxime group density and the adsorption capacities of zinc and cadmium ions, resulting in the cost reduction of the preparation of the chelating fiber.

Journal Articles

Synthesis and practical scale system of braid adsorbent for uranium recovery from seawater

Tamada, Masao; Seko, Noriaki; Kasai, Noboru; Shimizu, Takao*

FAPIG, (169), p.3 - 12, 2005/03

Braid adsorbent having functional group of amidoxime is a promising material for the recovery of uranium dissolved in the seawater. This braid adsorbent was made by polyethylene multi-fibers in which amidoxime groups were introduced by radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment. Reaction time for graft polymerization was 5 h and the resulted braid adsorbent had 2.8 mmol/g-adsorbent of amidoxime group. The braid adsorbent obtained was moored at the offing of Okinawa Island. The adsorption of uranium reached 1.5g/kg-adsorbent for 30 d soaking. The mooring system for braid adsorbent has possibility which reduced the cost for the recovery of uranium from seawater. It is shown that 134 km$$^{2}$$ of mooring area is needed for annual product of 1200 tons of uranium. In addition, there is 6000 km$$^{2}$$ and more of suitable sea area for the collection of the uranium in the regions from Okinawa Islands to Tosa Bay in Japan.

JAEA Reports

Production and setting of fractional elution facility for recovery of useful rare metals from seawater

Seko, Noriaki; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Hasegawa, Shin; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu*

JAERI-Tech 2004-076, 78 Pages, 2005/01

JAERI-Tech-2004-076.pdf:17.11MB

In September 1999, we have soaked 200 kg of fibrous amidoxime adsorbents, synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization, into seawater to evaluate their performance. Fractional elution facility was set effectively to elute the rare metals on adsorbents in Mutsu-Establishment. This facility consists of two parts of pre-washing and elution. The present report dealt with planning, manufacture and setting of fractional facility. Marine organism and slime on adsorbent cassette (290$$times$$290$$times$$160 mm) were washed out and every 72 cassettes were set in elution unit (1210$$times$$1210$$times$$H1460 mm) with nonwoven materials as a packing to avoid elution loss. In the elution process alkaline and alkaline earth metals were eluted with low concentration hydrochloric acid (0.01M) and rare metals were eluted with high concentration (0.5M) after the packing of elution unit into fractional elution facility.

186 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)