Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(9), p.240 - 247, 2019/09
In order to study environment assisted cracking mechanism of stainless steel under BWR primary coolant condition, effects of applied load on oxidation in the vicinity of crack tips of CT specimens were evaluated. Loaded CT specimens were immersed in an aqueous condition at 290C as a simulated BWR coolant condition, and microstructural observation on oxide near the tips of pre-cracks was carried out. Oxide inner layers, which consisted of fine grain magnetite containing Fe and Cr were formed, and oxide outer layers consisting of large grains of FeO were observed to cover the inner layers. FEM analysis of stress and strain in the loaded CT specimen suggests that both of dislocations due to localized plastic deformation and elastic strain could play important roles to accelerate inner oxide formation in the vicinity of the crack tip of the specimens.
Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Suzuki, Eriko; Osaka, Masahiko
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05
Cesium chemisorption models were developed for estimation of amount of cesium chemisorbed onto stainless steel type 304 (SS304) during light water reactor severe accident. However, existing chemisorption models cannot accurately reproduce experimental results. In this study, a modified cesium chemisorption model was constructed based on a penetration theory for gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction and was able to adequately describe effects on concentration of cesium hydroxide in gaseous phase and silicon content in SS304. It was found that the modified model can more accurately reproduce the experimental data than the existing model.
Kasahara, Shigeki; Fukuya, Koji*; Fujimoto, Koji*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Chimi, Yasuhiro
JAEA-Review 2018-013, 171 Pages, 2019/01
For structural integrity assessment of reactor internals of light water reactors, it is important to evaluate and predict the property changes of structural materials, based on existing data obtained from austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons. Compilation of the data into tables is valuable for discussing the representative or the most probable values of the properties applied to the assessment. When the data compilation, the data must be distinguished clearly in consideration of different service conditions of core internals of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors. Main objective of this work is to provide material property tables of irradiated austenitic stainless steel which will be applicable for assessment of structural integrity of core internals of PWRs. To compile the table, published literature reporting irradiated stainless steel data were surveyed and screened by considering the service conditions of PWRs. In addition to the data, various parameters for the data evaluation, e.g. chemical compositions and pre-treatments of the materials, irradiation and examination conditions, were extracted from the literature, and listed into tables.
Kasahara, Shigeki; Fukuya, Koji*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Chimi, Yasuhiro
JAEA-Review 2018-012, 180 Pages, 2018/11
For structural integrity assessment of reactor internals of light water reactors, it is important to evaluate and predict the property changes of structural materials, based on existing data obtained from austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons. Compilation of the data into tables is valuable for discussing the representative or the most probable values of the properties applied to the assessment. In the process of the data compilation, the data must be distinguished clearly in consideration of different service conditions of core internals of boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors. Main objective of this work is to provide material property tables of irradiated austenitic stainless steel which will be applicable for assessment of structural integrity of core internals of BWRs. To compile the table, published literature reporting irradiated stainless steel data were surveyed and screened by considering the service conditions of BWRs. In addition to the data, various parameters for the data evaluation, e.g. chemical compositions and pre-treatments of the materials, irradiation and examination conditions, were extracted from the literature, and listed into the tables.
Kokubo, Hiroki*; Nishi, Tsuyoshi*; Ota, Hiromichi*; Yamano, Hidemasa
Nippon Kinzoku Gakkai-Shi, 82(10), p.400 - 402, 2018/09
It is important to obtain the viscosity of a mixed alloy consisting of molten stainless steel and boron-carbide (SUS316L + BC alloy) for the improvement of severe accident assessment methodology for sodium-cooled fast reactors. In this study, the viscosities of the molten nickel (Ni) and stainless steel (SUS316L) were measured by the oscillating crucible method to confirm the performance of the viscosity measurement apparatus as a first step. The viscosities of molten Ni and SUS316L melts were measured up to 1823 K. It was found that the measured viscosity values of molten Ni and SUS316L were estimated from the deviation of the experimental data, were 4% and 3%, respectively. It was also found that those of molten Ni and SUS316L were close to those of the literature values of molten Ni and similar composite stainless steels. Moreover, we tentatively measured the viscosity of molten SUS316L-5 mass%BC alloy. The fitted results of the viscosity for molten Ni and SUS316L were obtained.
Soma, Yasutaka; Komatsu, Atsushi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.381 - 385, 2018/09
In-situ measurement of electrical conductivity of solution within crevice of SUS316L stainless steel in 288C water has been conducted with newly developed electrochemical sensor system. The sensor measures local electrical conductivity of crevice solution beneath the electrode () with electrochemical impedance method. The sensors were installed at different positions within tapered crevice of SUS316L stainless steel. The crevice specimen with the sensors were immerged into 288C, 8 MPa, pure oxygen saturated high purity water for 100 h. at a position with crevice gap of 59.3m was 8-11S/cm, least deviate from conductivity of 288C pure water (4.4S/cm) and no localized corrosion occurred. On the contrary, at a position with crevice gap of 4.4m increased with time and showed maximum value of 1600S/cm at 70 h. Localized corrosion occurred in the vicinity of this position. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation showed of 1600S/cm being equivalent to pH of 3 to 3.7. It can be concluded that acidification occurred in tight crevice even under high purity bulk water and resulted in localized corrosion.
Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi
Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 3, p.123 - 128, 2018/08
A mercury target vessel, composed of SUS316L, is used for the pulsed neutron source and is assembled via TIG welding. While in operation, the target vessel suffers ca. 10 loading cycles with a high strain rate of ca. 50 s because of the proton-beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. The gigacycle fatigue strength for solution annealed SUS316L stainless steels and its welded specimens were investigated through ultrasonic fatigue tests. The experimental results showed that an obvious fatigue limit was not observed at fewer than 10 cycles for the base metal. In the case of no weld defects observed via penetration tests, the fatigue strength of the removed-weld-bead specimen, in which the weld lines were arranged at the center of the specimen, appeared to be slightly higher than that of the base metal. By contrast, as-welded specimens with the weld bead intact showed apparent degradation of the fatigue strength owing to the stress concentration around the weld toe.
Soma, Yasutaka; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(5), p.222 - 228, 2018/05
Localized corrosion in crevice of SUS316 stainless steel after immersion in 288C high purity water with dissolved oxygen concentration of 32 ppm for 100 h was analyzed. Two different types of localized corrosion initiated on grain boundary and inclusions. The former initiated on grain boundary and oxide grown into grain matrix. The oxidized area showed duplex structure composed of microcrystalline FeCrO and island-shaped residual metals. The latter initiated on inclusions containing Ca and S and microcrystalline FeCrO grown into metal matrix. These localized corrosion occurred selectively in oxygen depleted area indicated formation of macroscopic corrosion cell with the corroded area as anode and surrounding oxygenated area as cathode.
Iida, Yoshihisa; Nakadoi, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 24(1), p.53 - 64, 2017/06
The information on the contaminated water treatment in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station announced by Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (TEPCO) were summarized in terms of the management of the secondary wastes, for the purpose of accumulating technical knowledge for long-term storage of the wastes. Concerns for the long-term soundness of waste storage containers were pointed out as follows, corrosion of stainless steel containers exposed to radiation in the presence of chloride ions, corrosion of stainless steel containers under acidic conditions or in the presence of activated carbon, and radiation degradation of the high-performance container (HIC) in which slurry was stored.
Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Nakano, Hiroko; Uehara, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.451 - 454, 2016/12
no abstracts in English
Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Fushoku Boshoku Kyokai Dai-63-Kai Zairyo To Kankyo Toronkai Koenshu, p.253 - 256, 2016/10
Contribution of corrosion to advance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel in high temperature water must be assessed because serious corrosion can be found within SCC of light water reactors. The corrosion took the form of both intergranular and grain-matrix attack indicate aggressive corrosion condition was formed in the crevice of the SCC. We have investigated the crevice environment electrochemically and found that local electrical conductivity of the crevice solution at satisfactory narrow crevice gap having more than 100 times higher than that of bulk solution. In this research we assessed effect of cyclic deaerated and aerated bulk solution to the crevice environment. The result showed that electrical conductivity of the crevice solution under the deaerated bulk solution increased more than 10times by injection of pure oxygen suggest that the dissolved oxygen caused aggressive corrosion condition within the crevice.
Hojo, Kiminobu*; Hayashi, Shotaro*; Nishi, Wataru*; Kamaya, Masayuki*; Katsuyama, Jinya; Masaki, Koichi*; Nagai, Masaki*; Okamoto, Toshiki*; Takada, Yasukazu*; Yoshimura, Shinobu*
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(4), p.16-00083_1 - 16-00083_16, 2016/08
Performance demonstration certification of non-destructive inspection for cast stainless steel (CASS) has been planned but the target flaw depth to be detected has not been determined yet in Japan. The target flaw size is closely connected to the allowable flaw size which is determined by flaw evaluation of the rules on fitness-for-service. For rational mitigation of the acceptable flaw size, application of probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is one of the useful countermeasures compared with deterministic approach. In this paper, benchmark problems for a CASS pipe were proposed with intention applying and verifying PFM codes. As the fracture modes, fatigue crack extension, plastic collapse and ductile crack initiation were assumed. Six organizations participated in the benchmark analysis and failure probabilities from them were compared. As a result the failure probability of each problem showed good agreement and the code for application of CASS issue has been verified.
Hatano, Masaharu*; Kubota, Yoshiki*; Shobu, Takahisa; Mori, Shigeo*
Philosophical Magazine Letters, 96(6), p.220 - 227, 2016/06
We have investigated the formation process of '-martensite from the -phase induced by external strain using in-situ synchrotron diffraction experiments, combined with Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM observations. It is clearly demonstrated that -martensite with hexagonal symmetry appears as an intermediate structure during the plastic deformation of SUS304 stainless steel. In addition to stacking faults and dislocations, interfaces between the twin structures presumably play a key role in the formation of -martensite.
Irisawa, Eriko; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Hitoshi
Zairyo To Kankyo, 65(4), p.134 - 137, 2016/04
In order to investigate the effect of boiling under reduced pressure on corrosion of stainless steel in the nitric acid solution, the corrosion tests simulating the high-level radioactive liquid waste evaporator were performed. The results of immersion tests of stainless steels in the solution with and without boiling showed that the corrosion rates in boiling solution were larger than those in not boiling solution in case of same temperature of solution. Moreover, the cathode polarization curves showed that the corrosion potential of stainless steel in boiling solutions were shifted nobler, and the current intensity became larger than that in not boiling solutions. According to these results, it can be concluded that boiling of solution under reduced pressure accelerate the corrosion rates.
Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Oishi, Makoto; Ito, Masayasu; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Keyakida, Satoshi*
Hozengaku, 14(4), p.83 - 90, 2016/01
Authors previously reported that magnetic data obtained by using Eddy current method and AC magnetization method showed correlation with the increase of susceptibility of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) on neutron irradiated austenitic stainless alloy specimens. To discuss the mechanism of the correlation, microstructure observation was conducted on the irradiated specimen, and magnetic permalloy phase (FeNi) formation along grain boundary was revealed in this work. From this result, the radiation induced magnetic phase formation along grain boundary seems to be a factor of the magnetic property change of the irradiated materials, and related to the correlation between magnetic data and IASCC susceptibility. In addition, sensor probe development was conducted in this work to obtain higher sensitivity and resolution. It was applied for magnetic measurement on type304 stainless steel irradiated up to different doses. In this case, magnetic ferrite phase was existed in the type304 stainless steel sample before irradiation therefore it was concerned that magnetic measurement on the irradiated ones would be disturbed by the magnetic signal from the pre-existing ferrite phase. In the magnetic measurements, increase of the magnetic data was clearly seen on the irradiated specimens. Thus, it was thought that the developed magnetic measurement technics can be applied for the irradiated austenite stainless steels which contain certain quantity of ferrite phase before irradiation.
Naoe, Takashi; Xiong, Z.; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 468, p.331 - 338, 2016/01
Mercury enclosure vessel of the JSNS made of an austenitic stainless steel suffers radiation damage in the proton and neutron environment. In addition to the radiation damage, the vessel suffers the cyclic impact loading caused from the pressure waves. The JSNS target vessel suffers higher than 210 cyclic loading. Furthermore, strain rate of the beam window portion of the target vessel reaches to 50s at the maximum, which is much higher than the conventional fatigues. Very high cycle fatigue strengths up to 10 cycles for solution annealed (SA) and 10% cold-worked 316L (CW) were investigated through the ultrasonic fatigue test. The result showed that the fatigue strengths of SA and CW tested in high-strain rate were higher than that of the conventional fatigue. On the other hand, the fatigue failure occurred regardless of material and temperature in the very high-cycle region ( cycles) at the stress amplitude of below the conventional fatigue limit.
Kato, Chiaki; Sato, Tomonori; Nakano, Junichi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamagishi, Isao; Yamamoto, Masahiro
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 14(3), p.181 - 188, 2015/09
In relation to the consideration for long-term storage of spent Cs adsorption vessels containing zeolites in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, corrosion of the vessel material in the spent Cs adsorption vessel is one of important issues. We performed electrochemical tests of stainless steel (SUS 316L) in the zeolites containing artificial seawater under -ray irradiation. The spontaneous potential () and critical pitting potential (), of SUS 316L were measured to understand the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel in this study. The rest potential of the stainless steel increased with increasing time after -ray irradiation. The , defined as the steady rest potential, increased with increasing dose rate, while increasing was suppressed by contact with the zeolites. Concentration of HO in bulk water increased with increasing dose rate. The concentration increasing was suppressed by contact with the zeolites due to decomposition of HO. There was good relationship between and the concentration of HO. The of SUS 316L contacted with the zeolites decreased with increasing Cl ion concentration and is slightly smaller than the in the bulk water. The contact with the zeolites causes the suppressant of increasing under the irradiation. The contact with the zeolite can reduce probability in the localized corrosion for SUS 316L.
Aoki, So; Taniguchi, Tomomi*; Sakai, Junichi*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 64(9), p.414 - 420, 2015/09
The objective of this study is to clarify the preferential dissolution mechanism of a duplex stainless steel (DSS) at its corrosion potential by means of in-situ Scanning Electrochemical Microscope observation. Probe electrode was fixed above ferritic and austenitic each phase of DSS at corrosion potential. Potential of the probe electrode was polarized toward noble direction, and probe current was measured. In a probe potential range of 0-0.70 V (SHE), anodic current due to hydrogen oxidation reaction could be detected. This anodic current was larger above austenitic phase than that above ferritic phase. In a probe potential range of 0.70-1.2 V, anodic current due to Fe oxidation reaction to Fe could be detected. This anodic current was larger above ferritic phase than that above austenitic phase. Based on these results, a preferential dissolution mechanism model of a DSS at the corrosion potential is proposed using internal polarization curves.
Fuji, Hiroyuki*; Aoki, So; Ishii, Tomohiro*; Sakai, Junichi*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 64(5), p.178 - 182, 2015/05
This study focused on a breakdown of passive film which is followed by rust staining, and the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of stability of passive film on the resistance of rust staining of stainless steels. Atomospheric exposure test was carried out for 12 months. In order to compare the stability of passive film, measurements of potential-decay curves, and potentiostatic polarization tests were performed in acidic aqueous chloride solution. As a result, rust area of austenitic stainless steel was higher than that of ferritic stainless steel. This order didn't follow the orders of pitting potentials and densities of inclusions on surface between specimens. On the contrary, the order of the resistance of rust staining of stainless steels followed the order of the stability of passive film. One of the reasons why the resistance of rust staining of austenitic stainless steel was worse than that of ferritic stainless steel was seemed that chloride more easily broke passive film on the surface of austenitic stainless and formed micro pits which become initiations of rust staining and increase density of stains.
Sato, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kato, Chiaki
Zairyo To Kankyo, 64(3), p.91 - 97, 2015/03
In the boiling water reactors (BWRs), reactor cooling water is maintained in high purity condition by controlling of a deionizing and deaerating apparatus, however HO contains by water radiolysis. In order to determine the corrosive condition in high-temperature pure water containing HO, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed in this study. To simulate BWR condition precisely, the measurements were performed without any electrolyte. The obtained impedance responses were changed with the HO concentration. The solution resistance and polarization resistance were determined by the equivalent circuit analyses. The conductivity was determined by the obtained solution resistance and the calculation of the current flow between the working electrode and the counter electrode by the 3-demensional finite element method. The value, 4.410 S/cm, was obtained as the conductivity of the pure water at 288C. The reciprocal of the obtained polarization resistance increased in proportion with HO concentration. This indicates that the corrosion current density was determined by the diffusion limiting current density of HO. The diffusion coefficient of HO at 288C was determined using the relationship between the reciprocal of the polarization resistance and HO concentration. The obtained diffusion coefficient was 1.510 cm/s. This is about twice larger than that of the reported value of O.