Hagiwara, Hiroki; Konishi, Hiromi*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki; Kitamura, Akihiro
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 211, p.106042_1 - 106042_10, 2020/01
Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Komiya, Tomokazu; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Hiraga, Shogo*; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2019-016, 116 Pages, 2019/11
By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the FDNPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter has been conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2018 were summarized in this report. Discrimination method of gamma rays from Rn-progenies was also utilized to evaluate their effect on aerial radiation monitoring. In addition, analysis taken topographical effects into consideration was applied to previous results of airborne monitoring to improve the precision of conventional method.
Tanaka, Sota; Kakinuma, Hotaru*; Adachi, Taro*; Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Takahashi, Sentaro*
KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.179 - 182, 2019/11
The concentration of Cs in flying insects was investigated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The insects were collected at about 11 km north west of the FDNPP at two different sites in the forest and riverside. The median concentration of Cs in flying insects in the forest was significantly higher than riverside. However, high concentration of Cs in detritus fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was observed at both sites. The concentration of fly at the forest and riverside were 1610 Bq/kg fw and 1810 Bq/kg fw, respectively. The result shows that the concentration of radiocesium in detritus fly were still high 8 years after the accident. This suggests that detritus food chain is a dominant transfer pathway of radiocesium to higher trophic level species such as spiders.
Isotope News, (765), p.22 - 25, 2019/10
Temporal change in concentration of radiocesium in Fukushima river water are outlined. Radiocesium concentration in river water keeps decreasing after several years, however, the declining trend for the dissolved radiocesium concentration is gradually decreasing with time.
Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sato, Seiji; Matsumoto, Takumi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.311 - 314, 2019/10
There has been significant concern about an increase of exposure dose in living sphere due to the accumulation of radiocesium discharged from contaminated mountainous forest in Fukushima. In this study, we investigated the history of radiocesium deposition on some floodplains in Fukushima. Radiocesium concentrations of river suspended particles and air dose rates at floodplains were also observed continuously. In many situations, annual sediment accumulation at floodplains was only several kg m and its radiocesium concentration was gradually decreasing in line with that of suspended particle. Simultaneously, air dose rates on floodplains were decreasing with time. In 2015 with heavy flood discharge, several hundred kg m of sediment accumulation and sharply decrease of air dose rate was observed at rivers without reservoir. Conversely, radiocesium accumulation at floodplain was significant reduced due to deposition on upstream reservoir.
Suno, Hiroya; Machida, Masahiko
Chemical Physics Letters, 730, p.26 - 31, 2019/09
We perform quantum chemical calculations for the Cs, K, and Na complexes of norbadione A (NBA), a pigment molecule in mushrooms known to accumulate Cs. A numerical two-step approach, by Ota , is employed to examine its alkali-metal-cation complexation selectivity in aqueous solutions. Applying it to the neutral, di- and tetra-deprotonated NBAs, we confirm that the complexation selectivity on Cs emerges only in high pHs, in which the di-protonated NBA dominates, in agreement with experimental results. This is the first demonstration of the approach for a biological molecule whose selectivity is known to be anomalous.
Knebel, K.*; Jokiniemi, J.*; Bottomley, D.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.772 - 789, 2019/09
Revaporisation of the fission products deposited in the primary circuit of a reactor was identified as a possible late source of fission product release during a severe accident: eg. loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Subsequent testing has shown that revaporisation is very likely to occur given a breach of the reactor and is an important contributor for the source term release to the containment and biosphere. The first part reviews the revaporisation mechanisms of Cs and other volatile or semi-volatile fission products transported in the primary circuit that were derived from the Phebus FP and associated programmes. The second part examines the separate effects testing to determine the high temperature chemistry ofvolatile and semi-volatile fission products (I, Mo, Ru) and structural materials (Ag, B) as well as atmospheric effects which substantially affect the source term. Finally, it examines Cs data from reactor accident sites that is providing additional knowledge of longer-term fission product chemistry. The results have been summarised in the form of a table and schematic diagram. This accumulated knowledge and experience has important applications to minimising contamination during decommissioning and site remediation techniques, as well as improving SA simulation codes and raising nuclear safety.
Onuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Namba, Kenji*; Neda, Hitoshi*; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi; Watanabe, Naoko*; Kozaki, Tamotsu*
Environmental Science; Processes & Impacts, 21(7), p.1164 - 1173, 2019/07
The fate of radioactive Cs deposited after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its associated radiological impacts are largely dependent on its mobility from surface soils to forest ecosystems. We measured the accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit bodies of wild fungi in the forest at Iidate, Fukushima, Japan. The transfer factors (TFs) of radioactive Cs from soil to the fruit bodies of wild fungi were between 10 to 10, a range similar to those reported for the fruit bodies collected in Europe after the Chernobyl accident and in parts of Japan contaminated by nuclear bomb test fallout. Comparison of the TFs of the wild mushroom and that of the fungal hyphae of 704 stock strains grown on agar medium containing nutrients and radioactive Cs showed that the TFs of wild mushroom were lower. TF was less than 0.1 after addition of the minerals zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, or illite of 1% weight to the agar medium. These results indicate that the presence of minerals decrease Cs uptake by fungi grown in the agar medium.
Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Suzuki, Eriko; Osaka, Masahiko
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05
Cesium chemisorption models were developed for estimation of amount of cesium chemisorbed onto stainless steel type 304 (SS304) during light water reactor severe accident. However, existing chemisorption models cannot accurately reproduce experimental results. In this study, a modified cesium chemisorption model was constructed based on a penetration theory for gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction and was able to adequately describe effects on concentration of cesium hydroxide in gaseous phase and silicon content in SS304. It was found that the modified model can more accurately reproduce the experimental data than the existing model.
Suzuki, Eriko; Takase, Gaku; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*; Isobe, Shigehito*; Osaka, Masahiko
Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05
In order to acquire the knowledge of the Cs chemisorption behaviour in the lower temperature region, the Cs chemisorbed compounds and the surface reaction rates were investigated by conducting the Cs chemisorption tests onto stainless steel at 873 and 973 K. As a result, The cesium ferrate compounds were revealed to be formed at this temperatures. It was seen that the dependences of surface reaction rate constant on this temperature were different from that at the higher temperature region. This behaviour leads to the conclusion that the Cs chemisorption model in the low temperature region should be newly constructed.
Periez, R.*; Bezhenar, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kim, K. O.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Liptak, L.*; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 198, p.50 - 63, 2019/03
A number of marine radionuclide dispersion models were applied to simulate Cs releases from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 over the northwest Pacific. Simulations extended over two years and both direct releases into the ocean and deposition of atmospheric releases on the ocean surface were considered. Dispersion models included an embedded biological uptake model (BUM). Three types of BUMs were used: equilibrium, dynamic and allometric. Model results were compared with Cs measurements in water, sediment and biota. A reasonable agreement in model/model and model/data comparisons was obtained.
Fedkin, M. V.*; Shin, Y. K.*; Dasgupta, N.*; Yeon, J.*; Zhang, W.*; van Duin, D.*; Van Duin, A. C. T.*; Mori, Kento*; Fujiwara, Atsushi*; Machida, Masahiko; et al.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 123(10), p.2125 - 2141, 2019/03
no abstracts in English
Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Tobita, Shinichiro*; Hiraga, Shogo*; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2018-015, 120 Pages, 2019/02
By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2017 were summarized in this report. In addition, we developed and systemized the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies. The accuracy of aerial radiation monitoring was evaluated by taking into consideration GPS data error.
JAEA-Research 2018-014, 27 Pages, 2019/02
Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on cesium (Cs) retention ability of biotite was examined in order to support of management of wastes generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Suspensions of Cs exchanged biotite were ultrasonically irradiated at three frequencies of 200, 430, and 950 kHz. The concentration of Cs in the aqueous phase increased, when the irradiation frequency of the ultrasonic is 430 kHz, compared with that without irradiation. This result means decrease of Cs retention ability of biotite. In addition, we observed two phenomena, that (i) the stability of suspension decreased after ultrasonic irradiation and (ii) the Cs concentration continued to increase after the irradiation. However, phenomena were hardly reproducible with a limited of experiments.
Kobayashi, Takanori*; Matsuoka, Leo*; Yokoyama, Keiichi
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 1150, p.40 - 48, 2019/02
One of important research targets in the development of cesium isotope separation system is design of recovery process of cesium atom. Relevant to this research target, the reaction cross section and reaction rate constant of a cesium exchange reaction through collision of the cesium iodide molecules with cesium atoms are calculated by a quasi-classical trajectory calculation based on a potential energy surface obtained by quantum chemistry calculations. Consequently, the rate constant is calculated to be 3.6 10 cmmolecules, as large as collision rate in the present condition. In addition, slightly positive temperature dependence is observed in the rate constant. This behavior is explained with the long-range attractive force and effect of subsequent dissociation process.
Hoshako Riyo No Tebiki, p.130 - 138, 2019/02
The educational book on next-generation synchrotron radiation usage is partially written. This book is being planned by several professors at Tohoku University. In this book, the contents which have already reported in our recent paper [Appl. Phys. Lett. 112 (2018) 021603.] are mainly written. The future perspective on photoemission electron microscopy using next generation synchrotron radiation and its possibility to analyze environmental samples and insulating functional materials are also described.
Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki
Chemosphere, 215, p.272 - 279, 2019/01
We conducted a three-year-long observation (April 2015 - March 2018) of the Cs concentration in two rivers affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The result revealed a declining trend for the dissolved and particulate Cs concentration in river water in the medium term after the FDNPP accident. The dissolved and particulate Cs concentrations showed declining trends with time, even though large seasonal variations related to water temperature were also observed in the dissolved Cs concentrations. The environmental half-life for the dissolved Cs concentration was longer than previous reported values in the early phase, suggesting that the declining trend for the dissolved Cs concentration is gradually decreasing with time. The temperature dependency of the dissolved Cs concentration became weaker year by year, and the dissolved Cs concentration will likely remain at the same level for several decades.
Manabe, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Masaki*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(1), p.78 - 86, 2019/01
If an insoluble cesium-bearing particle is incorporated into the human body, the radioactivity will move as a single particle. In this case, it is impossible to estimate the number of disintegrations by considering the average behavior of countless nuclei. Then, a method was developed to simulate the behavior of the particle stochastically; and a biokinetic model was constructed to consider the characteristics of insoluble particles. Combination of the method and the model enables to estimate the number of disintegrations, and consequently the internal doses considering the stochastic behavior of the single cesium particle. We evaluated a probability density function of committed equivalent and effective doses and its 99th percentile value and arithmetic mean by repeating the above described procedure, and compared them to the reference values based on the existing models. As a result, the 99th percentile value of committed effective doses was 70 times the reference value when the number of incorporated particles was one, and consequently the dose level was quite low. When the exposure level is 1 mSv in committed effective dose, the uncertainty originating in the insolubility of cesium particles was negligibly small.
KEK Proceedings 2018-7, p.36 - 40, 2018/11
no abstracts in English
Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroto*; Ishikawa, Jun; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu
Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2018/11