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Journal Articles

Performance of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry in the assessment of radioactive cesium deposition around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Ji, Y.-Y.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Hong, S. B.*; Nakama, Shigeo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Mikami, Satoshi

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 179, p.109205_1 - 109205_11, 2021/02

In situ gamma-ray spectrometry using diverse survey platforms has been conducted in contaminated areas with several dose rate levels around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Six survey sites, including two evacuation zones around the FDNPP, were selected for ground-based gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe (high purity Ge) and LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce) detectors to assess the radioactive cesium deposition in the ground. The diverse levels of radioactivity of $$^{137}$$Cs were then distributed to six survey sites from 30 to 3000 kBq m$$^{-2}$$ in the measurement period of October 2018. A method to directly calculate the depth profile using in situ measurement was introduced so as to have representation over a wide area, and the results were successfully compared with those of sample analysis at one point in the site.

JAEA Reports

Structural investigation of simulated waste glass samples by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region (Joint research)

Nagai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Hirona*; Ota, Toshiaki*; Kojima, Kazuo*; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2020-009, 48 Pages, 2020/09


The local structure of glass-forming elements and waste elements in waste glass varies with its chemical composition. In this study, borosilicate glass frit and simulated waste glass samples were prepared and the local structure and chemical state regarding boron (B), oxygen (O), and waste elements of cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs) were estimated by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of prepared glass frit and simulated waste glass samples: (1) The existence ratio of four coordinate sp$$^{3}$$ structure (BO$$_{4}$$) tends to increase with increasing Na$$_{2}$$O content in glass samples. (2) The height of a pre-edge which appears by K-edge XANES spectrum of O is so high that the Fe content in glass samples. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of simulated waste glass samples after immersion test to investigate long chemical stability. (1) The existence ratio of four coordinate sp$$^{3}$$ structure (BO$$_{4}$$) increases by immersion test. (2) Ce which exists in the surface layer is oxidized by immersion test, and much of Cs in surface layer is lost after leach testing. Even if the glass frit form (fiber cartridge or beads) and manufacturing method were changed and a glass sample of the similar chemical composition was prepared, these observed Raman spectra of samples were different.

Journal Articles

Low temperature heat capacity of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$

Suzuki, Eriko; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko; Oishi, Yuji*; Muta, Hiroaki*; Kurosaki, Ken*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.852 - 857, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The low temperature heat capacity of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$, which is one of the cesium chemisorbed compounds onto stainless steel during severe accident of the light water nuclear reactor, was experimentally determined for the first time in the temperature range of 1.9 - 302 K. The experimentally determined heat capacity, $$C_{p}$$$$^{o}$$ (298.15K), and the standard entropy, $$S^{o}$$ (298.15K), were 249.4 $$pm$$ 1.1 J K$$^{-1}$$ mol$$^{-1}$$ and 322.1 $$pm$$ 1.3 J K$$^{-1}$$ mol$$^{-1}$$, respectively. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of Cs$$_{2}$$Si$$_{4}$$O$$_{9}$$ at high temperatures, $$Delta$$$$_{f}$$$$G^{o}$$($$T$$), were reevaluated by using the presently obtained $$S^{o}$$ (298.15K) and the previously reported experimental results of the standard enthalpy of formation, $$Delta$$$$_{f}$$$$H^{o}$$ (298.15K), and the standard enthalpy increments at high temperatures, $$H^{o}$$($$T$$)-$$H^{o}$$ (298.15K).

Journal Articles

Room-temperature adsorption behavior of cesium onto calcium silicate insulation

Rizaal, M.; Saito, Takumi*; Okamoto, Koji*; Erkan, N.*; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00563_1 - 19-00563_10, 2020/06

The adsorption of cesium (Cs) on calcium silicate insulation of primary piping system is postulated to contribute in high dose rate of surrounding pedestal area in Fukushima Daiichi NPP unit 2. In this study, room-temperature experiment of Cs adsorption on calcium silicate has been studied as an initial approach of Cs adsorption behavior toward higher temperature condition. As the result of analyzing of Cs adsorption kinetics, it was expected that the underlying adsorption mechanism is chemisorption. Furthermore, analysis of adsorption isotherm suggested unrestricted monolayer formation followed by multilayer formation.

Journal Articles

Mineral composition characteristics of radiocesium sorbed and transported sediments within the Tomioka river basin in Fukushima Prefecture

Hagiwara, Hiroki; Konishi, Hiromi*; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki; Kitamura, Akihiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 211, p.106042_1 - 106042_10, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2018 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Komiya, Tomokazu; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Hiraga, Shogo*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2019-016, 116 Pages, 2019/11


By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the FDNPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter has been conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2018 were summarized in this report. Discrimination method of gamma rays from Rn-progenies was also utilized to evaluate their effect on aerial radiation monitoring. In addition, analysis taken topographical effects into consideration was applied to previous results of airborne monitoring to improve the precision of conventional method.

Journal Articles

Radiocesium concentration in flying insects collected from a radioactive contaminated area after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Tanaka, Sota; Kakinuma, Hotaru*; Adachi, Taro*; Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Takahashi, Sentaro*

KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.179 - 182, 2019/11

The concentration of $$^{137}$$Cs in flying insects was investigated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The insects were collected at about 11 km north west of the FDNPP at two different sites in the forest and riverside. The median concentration of $$^{137}$$Cs in flying insects in the forest was significantly higher than riverside. However, high concentration of $$^{137}$$Cs in detritus fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was observed at both sites. The concentration of fly at the forest and riverside were 16$$times$$10$$^{2}$$ Bq/kg fw and 18$$times$$10$$^{2}$$ Bq/kg fw, respectively. The result shows that the concentration of radiocesium in detritus fly were still high 8 years after the accident. This suggests that detritus food chain is a dominant transfer pathway of radiocesium to higher trophic level species such as spiders.

Journal Articles

Temporal change in concentration of radiocesium in Fukushima river water

Nakanishi, Takahiro

Isotope News, (765), p.22 - 25, 2019/10

Temporal change in concentration of radiocesium in Fukushima river water are outlined. Radiocesium concentration in river water keeps decreasing after several years, however, the declining trend for the dissolved radiocesium concentration is gradually decreasing with time.

Journal Articles

Recent status and future issues of molecular modeling studies for clay and fungi adsorbing cesium

Suno, Hiroya; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko

Jiban Kogakkai-Shi, 67(10), p.34 - 35, 2019/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Temporal changes in radiocesium deposition on the Fukushima floodplain

Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sato, Seiji; Matsumoto, Takumi*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.311 - 314, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:31.52(Environmental Sciences)

There has been significant concern about an increase of exposure dose in living sphere due to the accumulation of radiocesium discharged from contaminated mountainous forest in Fukushima. In this study, we investigated the history of radiocesium deposition on some floodplains in Fukushima. Radiocesium concentrations of river suspended particles and air dose rates at floodplains were also observed continuously. In many situations, annual sediment accumulation at floodplains was only several kg m$$^{-2}$$ and its radiocesium concentration was gradually decreasing in line with that of suspended particle. Simultaneously, air dose rates on floodplains were decreasing with time. In 2015 with heavy flood discharge, several hundred kg m$$^{-2}$$ of sediment accumulation and sharply decrease of air dose rate was observed at rivers without reservoir. Conversely, radiocesium accumulation at floodplain was significant reduced due to deposition on upstream reservoir.

Journal Articles

Quantum chemical calculations for the norbadione A complexes with Cs$$^+$$, K$$^+$$, and Na$$^+$$ in gas and aqueous phases

Suno, Hiroya; Machida, Masahiko

Chemical Physics Letters, 730, p.26 - 31, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Physical)

We perform quantum chemical calculations for the Cs$$^+$$, K$$^+$$, and Na$$^+$$ complexes of norbadione A (NBA), a pigment molecule in mushrooms known to accumulate Cs$$^+$$. A numerical two-step approach, by Ota $textit{et al.}$, is employed to examine its alkali-metal-cation complexation selectivity in aqueous solutions. Applying it to the neutral, di- and tetra-deprotonated NBAs, we confirm that the complexation selectivity on Cs$$^+$$ emerges only in high pHs, in which the di-protonated NBA dominates, in agreement with experimental results. This is the first demonstration of the approach for a biological molecule whose selectivity is known to be anomalous.

Journal Articles

A Review of revaporisation behaviour of radioactive Cs deposits and its impact on the source term in severe nuclear accidents from Ph$'e$bus FP results and single effect testing

Knebel, K.*; Jokiniemi, J.*; Bottomley, D.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.772 - 789, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:39.44(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Revaporisation of the fission products deposited in the primary circuit of a reactor was identified as a possible late source of fission product release during a severe accident: eg. loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Subsequent testing has shown that revaporisation is very likely to occur given a breach of the reactor and is an important contributor for the source term release to the containment and biosphere. The first part reviews the revaporisation mechanisms of Cs and other volatile or semi-volatile fission products transported in the primary circuit that were derived from the Phebus FP and associated programmes. The second part examines the separate effects testing to determine the high temperature chemistry ofvolatile and semi-volatile fission products (I, Mo, Ru) and structural materials (Ag, B) as well as atmospheric effects which substantially affect the source term. Finally, it examines Cs data from reactor accident sites that is providing additional knowledge of longer-term fission product chemistry. The results have been summarised in the form of a table and schematic diagram. This accumulated knowledge and experience has important applications to minimising contamination during decommissioning and site remediation techniques, as well as improving SA simulation codes and raising nuclear safety.

Journal Articles

Student and Young researcher's view of research on health physics and environment science

Miwa, Kazuji; Terasaka, Yuta; Ochi, Kotaro; Futemma, Akira; Sasaki, Miyuki; Hirouchi, Jun

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 61(9), p.687 - 691, 2019/09

This report summarizes the contents of the session of the Health Physics and Environment Science Division, which was held in Atomic Energy Society of Japan 2019 Spring Meeting. In this session, six students and young researchers who engaged in the field of nuclear energy and radiation gave a lecture about health physics and environmental science research through their expertise. After the all presentations end, we took discussion time about the issues and future development in this field with all attendees. In this report, we summarized each lecture outline and discussion contents.

Journal Articles

Role of filamentous fungi in migration of radioactive cesium in the Fukushima forest soil environment

Onuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Namba, Kenji*; Neda, Hitoshi*; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi; Watanabe, Naoko*; Kozaki, Tamotsu*

Environmental Science; Processes & Impacts, 21(7), p.1164 - 1173, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:74.04(Chemistry, Analytical)

The fate of radioactive Cs deposited after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its associated radiological impacts are largely dependent on its mobility from surface soils to forest ecosystems. We measured the accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit bodies of wild fungi in the forest at Iidate, Fukushima, Japan. The transfer factors (TFs) of radioactive Cs from soil to the fruit bodies of wild fungi were between 10 $$^{-2}$$to 10$$^{2}$$, a range similar to those reported for the fruit bodies collected in Europe after the Chernobyl accident and in parts of Japan contaminated by nuclear bomb test fallout. Comparison of the TFs of the wild mushroom and that of the fungal hyphae of 704 stock strains grown on agar medium containing nutrients and radioactive Cs showed that the TFs of wild mushroom were lower. TF was less than 0.1 after addition of the minerals zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, or illite of 1% weight to the agar medium. These results indicate that the presence of minerals decrease Cs uptake by fungi grown in the agar medium.

Journal Articles

Study on chemisorption model of cesium hydroxide onto stainless steel type 304

Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Suzuki, Eriko; Osaka, Masahiko

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05

Cesium chemisorption models were developed for estimation of amount of cesium chemisorbed onto stainless steel type 304 (SS304) during light water reactor severe accident. However, existing chemisorption models cannot accurately reproduce experimental results. In this study, a modified cesium chemisorption model was constructed based on a penetration theory for gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction and was able to adequately describe effects on concentration of cesium hydroxide in gaseous phase and silicon content in SS304. It was found that the modified model can more accurately reproduce the experimental data than the existing model.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on Cs chemisorption behaviour onto stainless steel at around 873 K

Suzuki, Eriko; Takase, Gaku; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*; Isobe, Shigehito*; Osaka, Masahiko

Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05

In order to acquire the knowledge of the Cs chemisorption behaviour in the lower temperature region, the Cs chemisorbed compounds and the surface reaction rates were investigated by conducting the Cs chemisorption tests onto stainless steel at 873 and 973 K. As a result, The cesium ferrate compounds were revealed to be formed at this temperatures. It was seen that the dependences of surface reaction rate constant on this temperature were different from that at the higher temperature region. This behaviour leads to the conclusion that the Cs chemisorption model in the low temperature region should be newly constructed.

Journal Articles

Fukushima $$^{137}$$Cs releases dispersion modelling over the Pacific Ocean; Comparisons of models with water, sediment and biota data

Peri$'a$$~n$ez, R.*; Bezhenar, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kim, K. O.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Liptak, L.*; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 198, p.50 - 63, 2019/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:42.3(Environmental Sciences)

A number of marine radionuclide dispersion models were applied to simulate $$^{137}$$Cs releases from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 over the northwest Pacific. Simulations extended over two years and both direct releases into the ocean and deposition of atmospheric releases on the ocean surface were considered. Dispersion models included an embedded biological uptake model (BUM). Three types of BUMs were used: equilibrium, dynamic and allometric. Model results were compared with $$^{137}$$Cs measurements in water, sediment and biota. A reasonable agreement in model/model and model/data comparisons was obtained.

Journal Articles

Development of the ReaxFF methodology for electrolyte-water systems

Fedkin, M. V.*; Shin, Y. K.*; Dasgupta, N.*; Yeon, J.*; Zhang, W.*; van Duin, D.*; Van Duin, A. C. T.*; Mori, Kento*; Fujiwara, Atsushi*; Machida, Masahiko; et al.

Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 123(10), p.2125 - 2141, 2019/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:14.82(Chemistry, Physical)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2017 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Tobita, Shinichiro*; Hiraga, Shogo*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2018-015, 120 Pages, 2019/02


By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2017 were summarized in this report. In addition, we developed and systemized the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies. The accuracy of aerial radiation monitoring was evaluated by taking into consideration GPS data error.

JAEA Reports

Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on cesium retention ability of biotite

Arisaka, Makoto

JAEA-Research 2018-014, 27 Pages, 2019/02


Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on cesium (Cs) retention ability of biotite was examined in order to support of management of wastes generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Suspensions of Cs exchanged biotite were ultrasonically irradiated at three frequencies of 200, 430, and 950 kHz. The concentration of Cs in the aqueous phase increased, when the irradiation frequency of the ultrasonic is 430 kHz, compared with that without irradiation. This result means decrease of Cs retention ability of biotite. In addition, we observed two phenomena, that (i) the stability of suspension decreased after ultrasonic irradiation and (ii) the Cs concentration continued to increase after the irradiation. However, phenomena were hardly reproducible with a limited of experiments.

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