Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya; Uno, Masayoshi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.513 - 520, 2019/06
This study revealed melting points and thermal conductivities of four samples generated by sodium-concrete reaction (SCR). We prepared the samples using two methods such as firing mixtures of sodium and grinded concrete powder, and sampling depositions after the SCR experiments. In the former, the mixing ratios were determined from the past experiment. The latter simulated the more realistic conditions such as the temperature history and the distribution of Na and concrete. The thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA) measurement showed the melting points were 865-942C, but those of the samples containing metallic Na couldn't be clarified. In the two more realistic samples, the compression moldings in a furnace were observed. The observation revealed the softening temperature was 800-840C and the melting point was 840-850C, which was 10-20C lower than the TG-DTA results. The thermodynamics calculation of FactSage 7.2 revealed the temperature of the onset of melting was caused by melting of the some components such as NaSiO and/or NaSiO. Moreover, the thermal conductivity was =1-3W/m-K, which was comparable to xNaO-1-xSiO (x=0.5, 0.33, 0.25), and those at 700C were explained by the equation of .
Yamano, Hidemasa; Vasile, A.*; Kang, S.-H.*; Summer, T.*; Tsige-Tamirat, H.*; Wang, J.*; Ashurko, I.*
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2019/05
The Generation IV (GEN-IV) international forum is a framework for international co-operation in research and development for the next generation of nuclear energy systems. Within the GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system arrangement, the SFR Safety and Operation (SO) project addresses the areas of safety technology and reactor operation technology developments. The aims of the SO project include (1) analyses and experiments that support establishing safety approaches and validating performance of specific safety features, (2) development and verification of computational tools and validation of models employed in safety assessment and facility licensing, and (3) acquisition of reactor operation technology, as determined largely from experience and testing in operating SFR plants. The tasks in the SO topics are categorized into the following three work packages (WP): WP-SO-1 "Methods, Models and Codes", WP-SO-2 "Experimental Programs and Operational Experience", and WP-SO-3 "Studies of Innovative Design and Safety Systems". This paper reports recent activities within the SO project.
Genshiryoku No Ima To Ashita, p.265 - 268, 2019/03
no abstracts in English
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 5(1), p.011001_1 - 011001_13, 2019/01
Local subassembly faults (LFs) have been considered to be of greater importance in safety evaluation in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) because fuel elements were generally densely arranged in the subassemblies (SAs) in this type of reactors, and because power densities were higher compared with those in light water reactors. A hypothetical total instantaneous flow blockage at the coolant inlet of an SA (HTIB) gives most severe consequences among a variety of LFs. Although an evaluation on the consequences of HTIB using SAS4A code was performed in the past study, SAS4A code was further developed by implementing analytical model of power control system in this study. An evaluation on the consequences of HTIB in an SFR by this developed SAS4A code clarified that the conclusion in the past study was almost same as that in this study. Furthermore SAS4A code was newly validated using four in-pile experiments which simulated HTIB events. The validity of SAS4A application to safety evaluation on the consequence of HTIB was further enhanced in this study. Thus the methodology of HTIB evaluation was established in this study together with the past study and is applicable to HTIB evaluations in other SFRs.
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 60(12), p.764 - 769, 2018/12
JAEA has developed the second safety design guidelines report, "Safety Design Guidelines on Structures, Systems and Components" for Generation-IV SFR system, following the previously published SFR Safety Design Criteria and the first SFR Safety Design Guidelines report and with the reviews by a technical committee under Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This article explains about 14 key points on reactor core system, coolant system, and containment system and also current consistency of international SFR designs to the safety design guidelines.
Yamano, Hidemasa; Tobita, Yoshiharu
Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 3 Pages, 2018/11
Based on the event tree analysis, the present numerical analyses investigated the capability of fuel discharge through the one-dimensional single fuel assembly geometry and the two-dimensional geometry of a CRGT channel with neighboring fuel assemblies. The single fuel assembly analyses showed that the fuel blockage formed in the lower shielding region because fuel solidified by contacting with cold sodium in case of no fission gas release. On the assumption that fission gas was released, the molten fuel successfully relocated below the core. The next analyses using the CRGT channel indicated a significant fuel discharge through the CRGT channel. This is because the fuel temperature was still high just after the CRGT wall failure and sodium in the CRGT channel was quickly voided just after the ingress of a small amount of molten fuel.
Ohgama, Kazuya; Oki, Shigeo; Kitada, Takanori*; Takeda, Toshikazu*
Proceedings of 21st Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference (PBNC 2018) (USB Flash Drive), p.942 - 947, 2018/09
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ono, Ayako; Hamase, Erina; Ezure, Toshiki; Miyake, Yasuhiro*
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Kanto Shibu Ibaraki Koenkai 2018 Koen Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2018/08
Decay heat removal system (DHRS) by using the natural circulation without depending on the pump as the mechanical equipment is recognized as one of the most effective methodologies for the sodium-cooled fast reactor from the viewpoint of the safety enhancement. The numerical estimation method which can predict thermal hydraulic phenomena in the natural circulation under the plant cooling process by operating the various DHRSs including the severe accident is necessarily required. In this paper, the numerical results of the preliminary analysis for the sodium experiment condition with the apparatus of PLANDTL-2, in which the core and the upper plenum with a dipped-type direct heat exchanger (DHX) were modeled, were discussed, in order to establish an appropriate numerical models for the direct heat exchanger (DHX).
Ito, Daisuke*; Ito, Kei*; Saito, Yasushi*; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 334, p.90 - 95, 2018/08
Two-phase flow through porous media must be well understood to develop a severe accident analysis code not only for light water reactor but also sodium-cooled fast reactor. When a core disruptive accident occurs in sodium-cooled fast reactor, the fuel inside the core become melted and interacts with the coolant. As a result, gas-liquid two-phase flow will be formed in the debris bed, which may have porous nature depending on the cooling process. In such condition, the local porosity and its distribution are very important to characterize two-phase flow field in the porous media. In this study, X-ray radiography was applied to measure the local porosity in the packed bed of spheres. The radial profiles were estimated from the chordal profiles measured by the X-ray method and compared with the previous porosity model. In addition, the void fraction radial profiles were also obtained in air-water two-phase flow.
Hirakawa, Moe*; Kikuchi, Yuichiro*; Sakai, Takaaki*; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07
Gas entrainment (GE) from cover gas is one of key issue for Sodium-cooled fast reactors to prevent unexpected effects to core reactivity. By using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, analyses have been conducted to estimate the drifting vortexes on water experiments which were generated as wake vortexes behind a plate obstacle in the circulating water channel. In this paper, the results of comparison between experiments and analyses were discussed and the gas core lengths from the surface vortexes were evaluated by using the evaluation tool named StreamViewer developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of 2018 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2018) (CD-ROM), p.1014 - 1019, 2018/04
In this study, densities, surface tensions, normal spectral emissivities, heat capacities and thermal conductivities of molten SUS316L and SUS316L containing 5mass%-BC were measured by the electromagnetic levitation technique in a static magnetic field.
Kurihara, Akikazu; Umeda, Ryota; Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Kikuchi, Shin
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 84(859), p.17-00382_1 - 17-00382_11, 2018/03
Wastage on adjacent tubes (target-wastage) arise from water/steam leak in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors (sodium-water reaction). Target-wastage is likely to be caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion (LDI) and Na-Fe composite oxidation type corrosion with flow (COCF) in an environment marked by high temperature and high-alkali (reaction jet) due to sodium-water reaction. In the previous study, the authors quantitatively evaluated the effect of material temperature and fluid velocity on COCF rate, and revealed that COCF was sodium-iron composite oxidation type corrosion from metallographic observation and element assay. In this study, the applicability of new wastage correlations was confirmed for each tube in sodium-water reaction test with straight vertical tube bundle under practical steam generator operation condition. The authors established that the new wastage correlations were applicable to each tube of tube bundle in the above test, and the time progress of wastage was qualitatively investigated for the two penetrated tubes in the period including the water and/or steam blowdown.
Uchibori, Akihiro; Watanabe, Akira*; Takata, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 84(859), p.17-00394_1 - 17-00394_6, 2018/03
For assessment of the wastage environment under tube failure accident in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, a mechanistic computer code called SERAPHIM calculating compressible multicomponent multiphase flow with sodium-water chemical reaction has been developed. The original SERAPHIM code is based on the finite difference method. In this study, unstructured mesh-based numerical method was developed and introduced into the SERAPHIM code to advance a numerical accuracy for the complex-shaped domain including multiple heat transfer tubes. Validity of the unstructured mesh-based SERAPHIM code was investigated through the analysis of an underexpanded jet experiment. The calculated pressure profile showed good agreement with the experimental data. Numerical analysis of water vapor discharging into liquid sodium was also performed. It was demonstrated that the proposed numerical method could be applicable to evaluation of the sodium-water reaction phenomenon.
Sheikh, Md. A. R.*; Son, E.*; Kamiyama, Motoki*; Morioka, Toru*; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Morita, Koji*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Toru*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.623 - 633, 2018/01
During core-disruptive accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors, the sedimentation behavior of fragmented debris is crucial for in-vessel retention. The height of the beds formed may influence both the cooling of the bed and the neutronic characteristics. To develop an experimental database of bed formation behavior, a series of experiments using simulant materials, namely, AlO, ZrO, and stainless steel, were performed under gravity-driven discharge of solid particles from a nozzle into a quiescent cylindrical water pool. The bed height was measured for particles of different size, density, and sphericity, and an injection nozzle with varying diameter, injection velocity, and injection height. From these experiments, an empirical correlation was established to predict the bed height for both homogeneous and mixed particles for the different properties. This correlation reproduces reasonably well the experimental trend in bed height.
Clark, A. J.*; Denman, M. R.*; Takata, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
SAND2017-12409, 39 Pages, 2017/11
Two sodium spray fire experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) were used for a code-to-code comparison between CONTAIN-LMR and SPHINCS. Both computer codes are used for modeling sodium accidents in sodium fast reactors. The comparison between the two codes provides insights into the ability of both codes to model sodium spray fires. The SNL T3 and T4 experiments are 20 kg sodium spray fires with sodium spray temperatures of 200C and 500C, respectively. The vessel in the SNL T4 experiment experienced a rapid pressurization that caused of the instrumentation ports to fail during the sodium spray. Despite these unforeseen difficulties, both codes were shown in good agreement with the experiments. SPHINCS showed better long-term agreement with the SNL T3 experiment than CONTAIN-LMR. The unexpected port failure during the SNL T4 experiment presented modelling challenges.
Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Toyooka, Junichi; Zuev, V. A.*; Kolodeshnikov, A. A.*
Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2017/09
To clarify jet fragmentation and accompanying cooling behaviors of molten core materials discharged into sodium, results of the out-of-pile experiments with a simulant material (AlO) were analyzed. The results clarified that while AlO jets were entirely fragmented into smaller particles during their penetration to several tenths of a meter in depth of sodium, an additional significant distance was needed to cool down the particles to the degree that thermal loading on the steel structures could be neglected. Based on the results, it is concluded that in terms of the reduction of thermal load on the lower structures in the reactor vessels, the cooling distance after fragmentation should be treated.
Uchibori, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Hideki*; Takata, Takashi; Kurihara, Akikazu; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
JAEA-Research 2017-007, 61 Pages, 2017/07
For safety assessment of a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, it is necessary to evaluate the possibility of occurring tube failure propagation and of water leak rate under sodium-water reaction accident. In the previous studies, a computer code called LEAP-II calculating a wastage-type failure propagation and the water leak rate during long-time event progress was developed. In this study, a numerical method to evaluate the possibility of occurring overheating rupture was introduced into the LEAP-II code to expand application range of this code. The completed code is called LEAP-III. The test analysis on a tube bundle configuration demonstrated that the overheating rupture model could provide conservative prediction.
Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2017/07
An evaluation on the consequences of a hypothetical total instantaneous flow blockage at the coolant inlet of an SA (HTIB) using SAS4A code was also performed in the past study. SAS4A code was further developed by implementing analytical model of power control system in this study. An evaluation on the consequences of HTIB in Monju by this developed SAS4A code was performed. It was clarified by the analyses considering power control system that the reactor would be safely shut down by the plant protection system triggered by either of 116 percent over power or delayed neutron detector trip signals. Therefore the conclusion in the past study that the consequences of HTIB event would be much less severe than that of unprotected loss-of-flow event was strongly supported by this study. Furthermore SAS4A code was newly validated using an in-pile experiment which simulated HTIB events. The validity of SAS4A application to safety evaluation on the consequence of HTIB was further enhanced in this study.
Hamase, Erina; Doda, Norihiro; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ono, Ayako; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 83(848), p.16-00431_1 - 16-00431_11, 2017/04
A plant dynamics analysis code Super-COPD is being developed in JAEA for the design and safety assessments of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In this study, the friction loss coefficients in the whole core thermal-hydraulic model was modified to improve the prediction accuracy of the sodium temperature distribution in a fuel subassembly under the natural circulation conditions. The modified whole core model was applied to analyses of experiments that were performed by using JAEA's test facility PLANDTL as a part of the code validation study. The obtained numerical results of sodium temperature distributions in the core showed good agreement with the measured data. It implies that the modified whole core model can properly reproduce dominant thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the core region under natural circulation conditions, i.e., flow redistribution among fuel subassemblies as well as in a fuel subassembly and inter-subassembly heat transfer.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2017/04
Loss-of-heat-removal-system (LOHRS) events are identified as some of most dominant severe accident sequences in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Safety margins against significant core damage in LOHRS events were therefore studied in this paper assuming large fuel-cladding gap and fuel cladding failure. It was clarified through analyses by the developed code that neither fuel melting nor further mechanical pin failure occurs owing to large fuel-cladding gap and fuel cladding failure. It was therefore concluded that large safety margins against significant core damage are provided during LOHRS events. These results will be effectively used in formulating the safety criteria for severe accidents or beyond-design-basis-accidents as one of the supporting evidences to be seriously considered.