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Journal Articles

Vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer; Ray tracing

Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo*

Dai-5-Han Jikken Kagaku Koza 10; Busshitsu No Kozo 2, Bunko (Ge), 10, p.106 - 153, 2005/08

The chapter provides the basic knowledge of "vacuum ultraviolet spectrometers" and "ray racing" for young scientists without reading the numerous references and is intend to be the handbook for the specialist in various related sciences when they initiate spectroscopic experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet region. The content includes the basis of diffraction gratings, Optical properties of diffraction gratings, aberration theories, diffraction efficiency theories, basis of spectrometers, vacuum ultraviolet plane grating spectrometers, vacuum ultraviolet concave grating spectrometers, soft X-ray plane grating spectrometers, soft X-ray concave grating spectrometers, basis of ray tracing, applications of ray tracing, analytic design method, hybrid design method, etc.

Journal Articles

Design of a conical diffraction type plane holographic grating monochromator for use in the energy region of 1-4 keV

Koike, Masato; Namioka, Takeshi*

AIP Conference Proceedings 705, p.865 - 868, 2004/00

The high brightness soft X-ray sources have been playing an important role in frontier sciences and high technologies. Then it is often required to perform high-resolution spectroscopic measurements in the energy region of 1-10 keV by using a single instrument. Unfortunately, both the grating and the crystal spectrometer cannot meet the requirement satisfactorily, because of various problems they have in the efficiency, spectral resolution, and wavelength scanning range. To overcome these problems we have developed a conical diffraction type grating spectrometer for use in the 1-4 keV region. The spectrometer employs a toroidal mirror and a plane holographic grating to separate the imaging and dispersing functions. This spectrometer works both as monochromator and as spectrograph. In this paper, we describe details of the design and give the expected performance of the spectrometer for cases of practical interest in the use of soft X-ray synchrotron radiation and laboratory sources.

Journal Articles

Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft X-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region

Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo*; Gullikson, E. M.*; Harada, Yoshihisa*; Kumata, Hideki*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 74(2), p.1156 - 1158, 2003/02

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:29.39(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Laminar-type holographic grating having a groove density of 2400 lines/mm was designed and fabricated for use with a soft X-ray flat field spectrograph covering the 0.7-6 nm region. The varied-line-spaced grating pattern was generated by use of an aspheric wave-front recording system and the laminar-type grooves were formed by a reactive ion-etching method. The performance of the grating was evaluated by using a molybdenum K X-ray generator and a spectrograph with a CCD imaging detector. Also the absolute diffraction efficiencies of 0th, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd spectral orders were measured by use of the reflectometers installed at synchrotron radiation beamlines. The experimental results showed that the holographic grating indicated comparable spectral resolution and maximum first-order diffraction efficiency ($$>$$2%) at $$sim$$2 nm with a replica grating made from a mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating, and it also showed higher efficiency in $$<$$1.0nm region and lower level higher order light over the whole wavelength range than the replica grating.

Journal Articles

New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7- to 25-nm range

Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo*; Harada, Yoshihisa*; Yoda, Osamu; Ishino, Masahiko; Tamura, Keisuke*; Yamashita, Kojun*; Moriya, Naoji*; Sasai, Hiroyuki*; Jinno, Masafumi*; et al.

X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II (Proceedings of SPIE Vol.4782), p.300 - 307, 2002/07

For the purpose of realizing an evaluation beamline for characterizing soft X-ray optical elements in a wide wavelength range of 0.7-25 nm, we have designed and constructed a new type of monochromator that combined two types of Monk-Gillieson monochromators. One is a conventional type equipped with three varied-line-spacing plane gratings, allowing a choice of two included angles. The other is a new type that employs a scanning mechanism based on Surface Normal Rotation (SNR). The SNR scheme provides high throughput at short wavelengths and simple scanning mechanism by means of a grating rotation about its normal. The monochromator is operated in the SNR and conventional modes over the ranges of 0.7-2.0 nm and 2.0-25 nm, respectively. In this paper we describe the optical and mechanical designs of the monochromator, wavelength calibrations in the SNR mode, and preliminary experimental data, such as the transmittance of an Al filter at $$sim$$0.8 nm and the total yield photoelectron measurement on a MgO powder in a wavelength rage of 0.7-2 nm.

Journal Articles

Grazing-incidence Monk-Gillieson monochromator based on surface normal rotation of a varied-line-spacing grating

Koike, Masato; Namioka, Takeshi*

Applied Optics, 41(1), p.245 - 257, 2002/01

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:43.88(Optics)

A plane grating monochromator having a simple wavelength scanning method requiring only a rotation of a grating about its normal was analyzed on the basis of the light path function. This scanning method has been known as surface normal rotation (SNR). A varied line spacing (VLS) plane grating was assumed to be illuminated by a convergent beam generated by a spherical mirror. We gave the analytical expressions for the grating equation, focal conditions, direction of dispersion, slant angle and length of astigmatic image, and a method to optimize the groove parameters of the VLS grating. The results of this analysis and the expected resolving power were evaluated by means of ray tracing for two model systems.

Journal Articles

High energy single ion hit system combined with heavy ion microbeam apparatus

Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu*; Tanaka, Ryuichi

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 118(1-4), p.423 - 425, 1996/09

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:18.21(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Low-energy ion source characteristics for producing an ultra-fine microbeam

Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Isoya, Akira*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 113(1-4), p.75 - 77, 1996/06

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:22.32(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

2MeV sub-micron microbeam focusing

Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu*; Tanaka, Ryuichi

JAERI TIARA Annual Report 1994, p.229 - 231, 1995/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of submicron microbeam apparatus

Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu*; Tanaka, Ryuichi

Dai-7-Kai Tandemu Kasokuki Oyobi Sono Shuhen Gijutsu No Kenkyukai Hokokushu, 0, p.55 - 58, 1994/00

no abstracts in English

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