Murakami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Nishiyama, Nariaki*
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.22 - 33, 2020/06
Geological disposal of radioactive waste requires the large amounts of fundamental technical knowledge throughout the project. Monitoring is carried out to collect site-relevant information for the creation of an environmental database, to assist in the decision-making process, etc. We summarized the current technical level and problems of the groundwater monitoring in the world. Through the research and technology development so far, the technologies have been developed for drilling borehole in the geological environment survey prior to monitoring and the selection of the monitoring site. However, the following technical developments are remaining issues: long-term operation method of monitoring equipment, retrieving method of monitoring equipment after long-term operation, transport method of backfill material for borehole sealing, technical basis for the sealing performance when the borehole-protective casing and strainer tube are left.
Abe, Toru*; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.3 - 11, 2020/06
Degradation of TRU waste in a geological disposal facility may cause the formation of a nitrate plume. A Nitrate Evolution model due to mineral reactions, microbial activity, and metal corrosiON (NEON) has therefore been developed to evaluate the safety case for geological disposal of TRU waste. Small scale laboratory experiments can be reproduced satisfactorily, however, it is necessary to demonstrate the applicability of the NEON model on scales relevant to the geological disposal of TRU waste. In the current study, an industrial analogue of a nitrate plume from the pollution of groundwater from nitrate fertilizers used on Ikuchi Island, Japan was selected to test the applicability of the NEON model. Concentration profiles of nitrate ions in the groundwater were successfully reproduced over the hundreds of meters scale demonstrating the applicability of the NEON model in evaluating the chemical behavior of a nitrate plume derived from the geological disposal of TRU waste.
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Mezawa, Tetsuya*; Mochizuki, Akihito; Sasamoto, Hiroshi
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-001, 41 Pages, 2020/03
Development of technologies to investigate properties of deep geological environment and model development of geological environment have been pursued in "Geoscientific Research" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) project. A geochemical model which is a part of geological environment model requires the data of groundwater chemistry around the Horonobe URL for the development. This report summarizes the data obtained for 3 years from the fiscal year 2017 to 2019, especially for the results for measurement of physico-chemical parameters and analysis of groundwater chemistry, in the Horonobe URL project.
Kumagai, Yuta; Jonsson, M.*
Dalton Transactions (Internet), 49(6), p.1907 - 1914, 2020/02
This study aims to reveal possible involvements of organic acids in the oxidative dissolution of UO. Using phthalic acid as a model compound, we have measured adsorption on UO and investigated effects on the reaction between HO and UO and on oxidative dissolution induced by -irradiation. Significant adsorption of phthalic acid was observed even at neutral pH. However, the reaction between HO and UO in phthalic acid solution induced oxidative dissolution of U(VI) similarly to aqueous bicarbonate solution. These results indicate that even though phthalic acid adsorbs on the UO surface, it is not involved in the interfacial reaction by HO. In contrast, the dissolution of U by irradiation was inhibited in aqueous phthalic acid solution, whereas HO generated by radiolysis was consumed by UO. The inhibition suggests that radical species derived from phthalic acid was involved in the redox reaction process of UO.
Geological Disposal Research and Development Department
JAEA-Evaluation 2019-010, 69 Pages, 2020/01
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted the advisory committee, "Evaluation Committee on Research and Development (R&D) Activities for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste", for an interim review of R&D activities on high-level radioactive waste disposal in accordance with "General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R&D) Activities" by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, "Guideline for Evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology" and JAEA's "Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R&D Activities". In response to JAEA's request, the Committee reviewed mainly the progress of the R&D project on geological disposal, the relevance of the project outcome during the period of FY2015-2018. This report summarizes the results of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached.
Nogami, Toshinobu; Hoshino, Masato; Tokunaga, Hiroaki*; Horikoshi, Hidehiko*
JAEA-Review 2019-004, 116 Pages, 2019/08
Horonobe Underground Research Center managed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is the Japan's best environment to understand the project of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because there is an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the center besides an exhibition facility which explains the content of research conducted in the URL. In the area of the center, there is also an exhibition facility for the full-scale model of engineered barrier system of geological disposal. JAEA takes advantage of this opportunity to conduct public hearing including questionnaire research regarding the questions, anxieties and comments by the visitors for geological disposal project. This report summarizes the result of statistical analysis of 3,842 visitors from April 2017 to January 2018.
Onoe, Hironori; Kosaka, Hiroshi*; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Yasue, Kenichi
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 26(1), p.3 - 14, 2019/06
In this study, it is focused on topographic changes due to uplift and denudation, also climate perturbations, a method which is able to assess the long-term variability of groundwater flow conditions using the coefficient variation based on some steady-state groundwater flow simulation results was developed. Spatial distribution of long residence time area which is not much influenced due to long-term topographic change and recharge rate change during the past one million years was able to estimate through the case study of the Tono area, Central Japan. By applying this evaluation method, it is possible to identify the local area that has low variability of groundwater flow conditions due to topographic changes and climate perturbations from the regional area quantitatively and spatially.
Osawa, Hideaki; Nogami, Toshinobu; Hoshino, Masato; Tokunaga, Hiroaki*; Horikoshi, Hidehiko*
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 26(1), p.45 - 55, 2019/06
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has performed risk communication at Horonobe Underground Research Center, using the Public Information House and Underground Research Laboratory (URL), to promote understanding R&D of geological disposal technology and waste disposal against public. In this paper, we conducted the analysis of questionnaire investigation performing after visiting those facilities from FY2013 to FY2017. The results show that long-term safety would gain prominent attention as agita factor by growing understanding. The results also shows that visiting to those facility would become valuable experience to understand geological disposal because, for example, respondents with visiting to URL positively evaluated necessity, appropriates and safety of geological disposal, compared with those without visiting URL.
Nakayama, Masashi; Ono, Hirokazu; Nakayama, Mariko*; Kobayashi, Masato*
JAEA-Data/Code 2019-003, 57 Pages, 2019/03
The Horonobe URL Project has being pursued by JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formation at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL Project consists of two major research areas, Geoscientific Research and Research and Development on Geological Disposal Technologies, and proceeds in 3 overlapping phases, Phase I: Surface-based investigations, Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation and Phase III: Investigations in the URL, over a period of around 20 years. Phase III investigation was started in 2010 FY. The in-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system had been prepared from 2013 to 2014 FY at GL-350 m gallery, and heating by electric heater in simulated overpack had started in January, 2015. One of objectives of the experiment is acquiring data concerned with THMC coupled behavior. These data will be used in order to confirm the performance of engineered barrier system. This report summarizes the measurement data acquired from the experiment from December, 2014 to March, 2018. The summarized data of the EBS experiment will be published periodically.
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 25(2), p.131 - 134, 2018/12
Impact of reduction of source term on design and safety assessment of disposal concept for high level radioactive waste is considered. Reduction of source term in partitioning and transmutation technology is shown with impact on disposal concept. Moreover, cost and technological readiness is outlined.
Mitsui, Seiichiro; Murakami, Ryu*; Ueda, Norio*; Hirabayashi, Akira*; Hirota, Kazuho*
Bunkazai Kagaku, (77), p.1 - 14, 2018/10
Well-preserved bronze artifacts comprising five bells and eight halberds from the Yayoi Period were excavated at the Yanagisawa archaeological site in Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture in 2007. Comprehensive analysis of soil and groundwater samples at the site was carried out and geochemical calculations were made to better understand the local conditions that led to the artifacts being so well preserved. Analysis of the soil surface adjacent to the bronze artifacts identified cuprite (CuO) as the main corrosion product. Migration behavior of the bronze metal components, copper, tin, and lead, both inside and outside of the burial pit, was also investigated. Copper and lead had migrated 2 m from the burial pit, whereas tin was confined to the immediate vicinity of the bronze artifacts. The difference in migration behavior of these elements can be explained in terms of the chemical stability of the solid phases. The main factor contributing to the well-preserved state of the bronze artifacts was the tin content, which is thought to have formed a protective layer of cassiterite (SnO) on the outer surface of the bronze artifacts.
Haruna, Takumi*; Miyataki, Yuki*; Hirohata, Yohei*; Shibata, Toshio*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.375 - 380, 2018/09
This research aimed to confirm the formation of FeO film on Fe immersed in aqueous 45 mass% NaOH solution containing some oxidants at the boiling temperature, to recognize the optimum immersion time for the formation of thick and protective film, and to reveal the absorption behavior of DO in the FeO film at room temperature. The results were obtained as follows. It was confirmed that FeO film was formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for a time more than 0.6 ks, and the film thickness increased parabolically with an increase in the immersion time. DO absorption test was carried out to the films formed in the NaOH solution for immersion times of 1.2 and 3.6 ks. An amount of DO absorbed into the film increased with an increase in an absorption time up to 1000 ks, and an absorption time more than 1000 ks made an amount of DO constant. The constant amount of DO was larger for the film formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for 3.6 ks than that for 1.2 ks. The transient of the amount of DO absorbed into the film was analyzed on the basis of Fick's law for diffusion, and diffusion coefficients of DO were obtained to be 5.110 cm s and 9.910 cm s for the films formed for 1.2 and 3.6 ks, respectively. Therefore it was estimated that the diffusion coefficient of the FeO film was in the region from 5.110 cm s to 9.910 cm s.
JAEA-Review 2018-011, 20 Pages, 2018/08
As part of the research and development program on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan of JAEA, according to the Horonobe URL Project, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are the top priority issues, and schedule for finishing the project and backfill plan will be decides by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of about 20 years. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2018 fiscal year (2018/2019).
McKinley, I. G.*; Masuda, Sumio*; Hardie, S. M. L.*; Umeki, Hiroyuki*; Naito, Morimasa; Takase, Hiroyasu*
Journal of Energy, 2018, p.7546158_1 - 7546158_8, 2018/07
The Japanese geological disposal programme for radioactive waste is based on a volunteering approach to siting, which places particular emphasis on the need for public acceptance. This emphasises the development of a repository project as a partnership with local communities and involves stakeholders in important decisions associated with key milestones in the selection of repository sites and subsequent construction, operation and closure. To date, however, repository concept development has proceeded in a more traditional manner, focusing particularly on ease of developing a post-closure safety case. In the current project, we have attempted to go further by assessing what requirements stakeholders would place on a repository and assessing how these could be used to re-think repository designs so that they meet the desires of the public without compromising critical operational or long-term safety.
Keisan Kogaku, 23(2), p.3751 - 3752, 2018/04
In this paper, outline and current status of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, which is constructed by Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in the Mizunami city, Gifu is introduced.
Nogami, Toshinobu; Hoshino, Masato; Tokunaga, Hiroaki*; Horikoshi, Hidehiko*; Kawabata, Kazuki*
JAEA-Review 2018-003, 151 Pages, 2018/03
Horonobe Underground Research Center managed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is the Japan's best environment to understand the project of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because there is an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the center besides an exhibition facility which explains the content of research conducted in the URL. In the area of the center, there is also an exhibition facility for the full-scale model of engineered barrier system of geological disposal. JAEA takes advantage of this opportunity to conduct public hearing including questionnaire research regarding the questions, anxieties and comments by the visitors for geological disposal project. This report summarizes the result of statistical analysis of 2,795 visitors from April to November in 2016.
Hamamoto, Takafumi*; Matsubara, Ryuta*; Shibutani, Sanae*; Suyama, Tadahiro*; Tachi, Yukio
JAEA-Data/Code 2017-014, 31 Pages, 2018/03
NUMO and JAEA have developed the methodology of post-closure safety assessment for the geological disposal. For this purpose, NUMO and JAEA have conducted a collaborative research project for developing the safety assessment methodology based on international state of the art knowledge. The present report focuses on investigation of sorption and diffusion data reported and their QA evaluation for updating sorption and diffusion database (SDB and DDB) as the collaborative research project between NUMO and JAEA. This report includes sorption and diffusion data for mainly sedimentary rocks and cement materials. As a result, 1,746 sorption data from 19 references and 593 diffusion data from 25 references were extracted and prepared in the datasheet of SDB and DDB.
Maizo Bunkazai Nyusu, (171), p.10 - 17, 2018/03
As part of research and development of geological disposal, "natural analogues" have been applied to validate concept of models and evaluation methodologies for performance assessment. By introducing domestic and overseas research results on natural analogues, this paper presents how we have utilized knowledge of excavated archaeological artifacts for geological disposal studies.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuzaki, Yoshiteru
Shigen, Sozai Koenshu (Internet), 5(1), 7 Pages, 2018/03
no abstracts in English
Tachi, Yukio; Suyama, Tadahiro*; Shibutani, Sanae*
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 24(2), p.109 - 133, 2017/12
For performance assessment (PA), the distribution coefficient (K) need to be determined taking into account the specific PA conditions, including geochemical variability or uncertainty. The K setting approach for rocks was developed by integrating three methods; (i) direct use of measured K data extracted from the sorption database, (ii) semi-quantitative estimation by scaling differences between experimental and PA conditions, and (iii) thermodynamic sorption models. This approach was tested for granitic rock by comparing K values and their uncertainties of Cs and Am. The results indicated that K can be quantitatively evaluated by all approaches when adequate data and models are available. The K dataset for safety-relevant 25 radionuclides was developed based on the direct use of measured data, and compared with the recent K dataset in European PA projects. This K setting approaches allowed to estimate the K values and their uncertainties under the expected site conditions.