I draw much enjoyment and inspiration from the writings and videos of Dr. Kirsten Hacker. Kirsten writes books and makes social media posts about a variety of topics, including physics and justice, which are two of my favorite subjects. It is truly wonderful and promising to meet someone, especially an individual as bright and creative as Kirsten, who thinks and writes along similar lines in physics and cosmology. Her works express hardcore physics in an innovative and descriptive style that I find very insightful. I am energized to look for relationships with my **NPQG** model. This is very helpful as I look to advance and articulate an understanding of nature via **NPQG**.

This post is in response to Kirsten’s article and video Black Hole Sun. Kirsten is an extremely talented individual who happens to be quite knowledgeable about the fields of physics and cosmology, having twenty years of experience and a Ph.D. to her name. Please check out Kirsten’s article and/or video. Also, be sure to check out Kirsten’s books on Amazon.

[00:00] I have to stop here and admire the artistic touch and format Kirsten has chosen for this video. There is a pleasing **red** to **orange** to **yellow** color palette combined with a ** high contrast **image of Kirsten who is speaking to us. Excellent! I’m engaged creatively from the beginning.

[01:22] Thus begins an excellent discussion of the wavelength of a photon in a medium with an index of refraction. In NPQG, spacetime is implemented with an æther of particles and this æther has a permittivity and permeability that is related to the energy of the æther. These determine the speed of light in that medium as well as the wavelength (and frequency) of the light in that medium. Spacetime æther energy increases according to proximity and density of matter-energy. The net gradient of the spacetime æther energy around any particle is the gravitational vector around that particle.

The refractive index

Wikipediaof electromagnetic radiation equals wherenε_{r}is the material’s relative permittivity, andμ_{r}is its relative permeability.

Pause and think about the index of refraction in the context of NPQG spacetime æther. As every photon navigates the universe, it is constantly influenced by the instantaneous permittivity and permeability of the spacetime æther as it passes through. It might be miniscule fluctuations in refractive index in deep space or significant deviations in refractive index near a dense object where the gradient of spacetime æther temperature yields a strong gravitational field. Thus the photon’s speed, wavelength, frequency, and direction are constantly shifting with no energy loss. A photon slowly loses energy as it passes through expanding spacetime æther local to each galaxy (which is in opposition to the expansions of neighbor galaxies). Exactly how does this work? Energy is conserved, so if photons lose energy then does spacetime æther gain energy? It must.

[14:35] Kirsten discusses a number of issues with simulation models and I agree with her concerns. However, if NPQG is correct, then at the most fundamental levels there is no such thing as analytical mathematical equations to fully describe nature at the smallest scales. Spacetime æther permeates everything and consists of incredibly small composite particles made from electrinos and positrinos which are Planck radius particles. If nature is truly discrete and particle based then techniques based on simulation would likely be the most accurate. However, the number of electrino and positrino particles that would need to be simulated would be so large that only very small systems could be simulated with the most massive parallel computers available as of this writing. Therefore it is still likely that higher level analytic models will continue to be used at their scales of applicability. A good example is the laws of thermodynamics that describe gases. Clearly gases are made from discrete particles, yet we can use equations to describe a sufficiently large system with accuracy and precision suitable for many applications.

Throughout the video Kirsten includes authoritative and factually supported criticisms of the way science has been conducted in the field of physics and cosmology since World War II. I largely agree with her assessments and the fresh angles she brings to this subject. There seems to be a growing number of authoritative physicists leveling critiques at the field and I certainly hope that this will lead to reform of the field sooner rather than later. I’m placing my hopes on NPQG as a solution that can potentially be the catalyst for a revolution.

Kirsten makes a great point that the pop-science articles that appear in our news-feeds these days are usually sensationalized with some attention grabbing clickbait title yet upon reading the article you find it is referring to a far less exciting result in a recent technical paper. For this reason I don’t seriously read pop-science articles, and at most skim them quickly for the gist of the underlying technical article and potentially the link to that article. For people interested in physics and cosmology, I recommend watching YouTube videos from my favourites, including Sixty Symbols, Dr. Becky, Dr. Sabine Hossenfelder, Dr. Paul M. Sutter, Dr. Lawrence Krauss, Anton Petrov, PBS SpaceTime, and of course Dr. Kirsten Hacker.

I find Kirsten’s approach, logic, reasoning, and articulation to be both refreshing and sensible. Therefore I highly recommend her video Black Hole Sun.

**J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : April 30, 2020 : v1**