Annals of the ICRP, 49(2), p.7 - 9, 2020/10
no abstracts in English
Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takai, Shizuka; Takeda, Seiji
JAEA-Research 2020-005, 47 Pages, 2020/06
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil were generated from decontamination activities in the Fukushima prefecture. The removed soil has been stored in the prefecture until its final disposal. To complete the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture, reducing the disposal volume through recycling can prove effective. The Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE) has presented a policy to recycle low-radioactive removed soil as recycled materials under the management of public authority. The recycling is limited to civil engineering structures in public projects. In this study, to contribute to guideline development for removed soil recycling by MOE, dose estimation in recycling of removed soil as embankment materials of seaside protection forest was conducted. First, additional doses to workers and the public in construction and service scenarios were evaluated. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials, where all additional doses meet the radiation criterion of 1 mSv/y, was derived to be 5,000 Bq/kg. Then, construction conditions were reviewed to reduce additional doses to the public in a service scenario. With the derived radioactivity level of 5,000 Bq/kg, the covered soil thickness of 39 cm or more limited the doses to less than 10 Sv/y. Finally, additional doses in a disaster scenario were evaluated. The doses were confirmed to be below 1 mSv/y when the removed soil of 5,000 Bq/kg was used.
Manabe, Kentaro; Koyama, Shuji*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(4), p.489 - 496, 2020/05
It is important for radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine to estimate organ absorbed doses in consideration of person-specific parameters. This study proposes a straightforward method for estimating organ doses which reflect an individual organ masses by scaling the reference doses based on the reference human models using the inverse ratio of the individual masses to the reference organ masses. The method was tested for the administration cases of Tc-labelled colloids and I-labelled sodium iodine to confirm the effectiveness of the method. The discrepancies of the doses estimated by the method were sufficiently small in terms of solid organs.
Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Kowatari, Munehiko
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(2), p.191 - 198, 2020/02
Takai, Shizuka; Shimada, Asako; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(1), p.1 - 7, 2020/01
After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, most of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities outside Fukushima prefecture has been stored at decontamination sites such as schools, parks and residential lands (storage at sites) according to the Decontamination Guidelines. However, additional exposure due to the present storage has not been evaluated. Moreover, entering storage sites, which is not restricted for storage at sites, was not considered in safety assessment conducted in the guidelines. To continue the storage and confirm the effectiveness, understanding of present possible exposures is important. In this study, we evaluated exposure doses for residents and users of storage sites based on the present situation. As a result, annual doses due to residence were 10 to 10 mSv y and doses due to annual entries were of the order of 10 mSv y. Hence, we confirmed that the exposure due to present storage outside Fukushima is significantly less than 1 mSv y.
Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Kowatari, Munehiko; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Nagaguro, Seiji*; Nakamura, Hajime*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(2), p.179 - 188, 2019/08
Shimada, Asako; Nemoto, Hiromi*; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2019/05
no abstracts in English
Bunseki, 2019(3), p.112 - 113, 2019/03
no abstracts in English
Takai, Shizuka; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Health Physics, 115(4), p.439 - 447, 2018/10
After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities have been stored in the Fukushima Prefecture. To reduce the disposal volume, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan has presented a policy to recycle low-radioactive decontamination soil limited to civil engineering structures. However, there has been no practical instance or safety assessment of decontamination soil recycling. In this study, the way of ensuring the safety for decontamination soil recycling for road embankments was discussed. First, based on Japanese construction standards, additional doses to workers and the public in construction and service scenarios were evaluated. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials, where all additional doses meet the radiation criterion of 1 mSv y, was derived to be 6,000 Bq kg. To confine additional doses to the public in a service scenario below 0.01 mSv y, soil slope protection of 40 cm or more was needed. Finally, additional doses in a disaster scenario were confirmed to be below 1 mSv y.
Takai, Shizuka; Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji
Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposia 2018 (WM 2018) (Internet), 14 Pages, 2018/03
After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident, large quantities of radiocesium-contaminated soil generated from decontamination activities have been stored in the Fukushima prefecture. To complete the final disposal of decontamination soil, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan presented policy to reduce the disposal volume by using low-level decontamination soil as recycled materials. The use will be limited to civil engineering structures in public projects, such as coastal levee and road embankment. However, there has been no example or safety assessment of recycling of decontamination soil. To contribute to guideline development for the recycling by the Ministry of the Environment, we conducted the safety assessment for recycling of decontamination soil as coastal levee. First, we evaluated additional doses to workers and the public in the case of construction and service of coastal levee. From the result, the radioactive cesium concentration level of recycled materials was derived to be 6,800 Bq/kg. For general designs of coastal levee in Japan, additional doses to the public in the case of service were below 0.01 mSv/y with derived radioactivity level. Finally, we confirmed additional doses in the case of disaster to be below 1 mSv/y.
Nippon Hoken Butsuri Gakkai Homu Peji (Internet), 2 Pages, 2017/10
The current standard of the international radiation protection is determined through life span study of atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and individual radiation dose estimates for each survivor calculated by Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Dose estimates in DS02 are based on input data such as location and shielding condition of the survivor. Therefore accuracy of dose estimates and accordingly that of radiation risk evaluation are largely affected by the accuracy of the input data. In this review, we present an article DS02R1 discussed improvement of the input data of individual atomic bomb survivors for DS02 and its consequence keeping the core system unchanged.
Hoken Butsuri, 52(1), p.39 - 41, 2017/03
Radiological protection requires the quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionizing radiation. To this end, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a dosimetry system consisting of protection quantities and operational quantities. The existing dosimetry system has been successfully used in radiological protection practice and regulations. Nevertheless, the system has some limitations and needs further improvements to consider changes in the fields of radiological protection. ICRP and ICRU have been discussing the issues to propose an alternative system of radiation dosimetry. This presentation overviews recent discussion on the protection quantities and operational quantities by ICRP and ICRU and the proposed dosimetry system for radiological protection.
Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Tanaka, Tadao
Hoken Butsuri, 50(1), p.36 - 49, 2015/03
It is desirable that the disaster wastes contaminated by radioactive cesium after the severe accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Plant are reused as much as possible in order to minimize the quantity to be disposed of. Ministry of the Environment showed the policy that the wastes containing cesium of higher concentration than the clearance level (100 Bq/kg) were reusable as materials of construction such as subbase course materials of pavements under controlled condition with measures to lower exposure doses. In this study, in order to provide technical information for making a guideline on the use of contaminated concrete materials recycled from disaster wastes as pavement, doses for workers and the public were estimated, and the reusable concentration of radioactive cesium in the wastes was evaluated. It was shown that the external exposure of the public (children) residing near the completed pavement gave the minimum radiocesium concentration in order to comply with the dose criteria. The recycled concrete materials whose average concentration of cesium lower than 2,700 Bq/kg can be used as the subbase course materials of pavements.
Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*
RIST News, (58), p.25 - 32, 2015/01
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are now developing WAZA-ARI for improvement of management of exposure doses due to CT examination under the joint research with the Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences. The trial version of WAZA-ARI has been released on 21 December 2012. In trial version, users can perform dose assessment by using organ dose database based on the average adult Japanese male (JM-103) and female (JF-103) voxel phantoms and a 4 years old female voxel phantom (UFF4). The homepage of WAZA-ARI has been accessed over 1000 times per month and 28421 times by the end of September 2014. We are developing WAZA-ARI version 2 as the extension version of dose calculation functions of WAZA-ARI. WAZA-ARI version 2 will be released by the end of March 2015. In WAZA-ARI version 2. Users can upload dose calculation results to WAZA-ARI version 2 server, and utilize improvement of the dose management of patients and the optimization of CT scan conditions.
Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Michio; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Momose, Takumaro*; Tsujimura, Norio*; Kanai, Katsuta*; Cruz-Suarez, R.*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 125(1-4), p.88 - 92, 2007/07
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the third intercomparison exercise of external radiation dosimetry organized under the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) in the East Asia region of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Twenty five laboratories from 16 member states participated in the exercise. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) arranged the standard irradiation of the participants' dosimeters. The results of the measurements of the irradiated dosimeters for the determination of external doses were satisfactory for all participants, demonstrating good performance in their external dosimetry.
Sato, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Emoto, Yutaka*; Koga, Sukehiko*; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 123(3), p.337 - 344, 2007/02
A Japanese adult male voxel (volume pixel) phantom (hereinafter referred to as the JM phantom) was constructed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male volunteer. Body characteristics of the JM phantom were compared with those of a voxelized MIRD5 type phantom and a Japanese adult male voxel phantom which was previously developed. The voxel size of the JM phantom is 0.980.981 mm. The shapes of organs of the JM phantom, even for small or complicated organs, such as thyroid and stomach, are more realistically reproduced as compared with the previous Japanese voxel phantom (voxel size: 0.980.9810 mm). Photon self-absorbed fractions for brain, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, thyroid and urinary bladder wall of JM were evaluated and were compared with those of the other phantoms. In consequence, it was suggested that the mass, shape and thickness of organs are important factors for the determination of self-absorbed fractions.
Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sihver, L.*
Radiation Measurements, 41(9-10), p.1142 - 1146, 2006/10
The applicability of PHITS to the shielding design of spacecrafts was examined by comparing calculated neutron spectra and doses for astronauts in the Space Shuttle with the corresponding experimental data. The agreements between the data were quite satisfactory, especially for the neutron spectra, which have been barely reproduced by other studies. We therefore concluded that PHITS has a great possibility of playing an important role in the design study of spacecrafts.
Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 4(4), p.248 - 258, 2005/12
no abstracts in English
Hoshasen, 31(4), p.313 - 318, 2005/10
Evaluation of high-energy neutron dose is one of the key issues in the shielding design of accelerator facilities and in the planning of long-term space missions. High-energy neutron transport simulation codes play an important role in the evaluation, since there is a large difficulty in the precise measurement of high-energy neutron doses. This paper reviews the Monte-Carlo simulation codes applicable to the purpose, and summarizes the requirements for the future development of the codes.
Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Matsumura, Akira*; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu*
Hoshasen, 31(4), p.287 - 297, 2005/10
no abstracts in English