Geological Disposal Research and Development Department
JAEA-Evaluation 2019-010, 69 Pages, 2020/01
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted the advisory committee, "Evaluation Committee on Research and Development (R&D) Activities for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste", for an interim review of R&D activities on high-level radioactive waste disposal in accordance with "General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R&D) Activities" by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, "Guideline for Evaluation of R&D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology" and JAEA's "Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R&D Activities". In response to JAEA's request, the Committee reviewed mainly the progress of the R&D project on geological disposal, the relevance of the project outcome during the period of FY2015-2018. This report summarizes the results of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached.
Osawa, Hideaki; Nogami, Toshinobu; Hoshino, Masato; Tokunaga, Hiroaki*; Horikoshi, Hidehiko*
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 26(1), p.45 - 55, 2019/06
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has performed risk communication at Horonobe Underground Research Center, using the Public Information House and Underground Research Laboratory (URL), to promote understanding R&D of geological disposal technology and waste disposal against public. In this paper, we conducted the analysis of questionnaire investigation performing after visiting those facilities from FY2013 to FY2017. The results show that long-term safety would gain prominent attention as agita factor by growing understanding. The results also shows that visiting to those facility would become valuable experience to understand geological disposal because, for example, respondents with visiting to URL positively evaluated necessity, appropriates and safety of geological disposal, compared with those without visiting URL.
Osawa, Hideaki; Otomo, Shoji*; Hirose, Yukio*; Onuma, Susumu*
Ningen Kankyogaku Kenkyu, 17(1), p.59 - 64, 2019/06
This study examined the determinants of public acceptance of siting a repository for High-level radioactive waste (HLW), focusing on procedural fairness and trust. To examine the presumption, the study implemented a hypothetical scenario experiment that manipulated two factors: an opportunity of voice as an antecedent of procedural fairness and similarity value to the authority as a component of trust. Results indicated that affective reaction, procedural fairness, and trust determined public acceptance. A process analysis indicated that the effect of procedural fairness was strengthened when the trust on similarity was negative.
Osawa, Hideaki; Hirose, Yukio*; Onuma, Susumu*; Otomo, Shoji*
Shakai Anzengaku Kenkyu, 9, p.145 - 160, 2019/03
We compared decision-making process on selection of management policy for high-level radioactive waste between Switzerland and UK by document review. The decision-making was performed extraction of options, establishment of comparative criteria, assessment and selection of options in turn. As comparative criteria, safety and intergenerational fairness etc. were considered to be important. The position of 'Deal with it now by waste disposal' emphasizing the responsibility of the present generation had a trade-off relation with that of 'Leave it until later by long-term storage' emphasizing the rights of future generations. The sense of values, recusing HLW repository as so-called troublesome facility against future and present generation, appeared to be mitigated through the consideration of trade-off relation described above. As a result, both countries have chosen waste disposal considering reversibility of decisions and retrievability of radioactive waste.
Osawa, Hideaki; Hirose, Yukio*; Onuma, Susumu*; Otomo, Shoji*
Shakai Anzengaku Kenkyu, 9, p.161 - 176, 2019/03
We compared site selection process by a voluntarism and partnership approach in UK, and that by screening based primarily on technical criteria with the main emphasis on safety in Switzerland, by document review. The voluntarism and partnership approach in UK is based on the ethical consideration that fairness in siting facilities could only be achieved by the enhancement of well-being and public acceptability based on a willingness to participate and a right to withdraw from a siting process. On the other hand, it could be interpreted that the screening approach with the main emphasis on safety in Switzerland would be based on the concept of the ignorance of veil, hypothesized that people would accept the decision if they consent the decision way beforehand under condition everyone could be involved in as a potential interest party.
Onuma, Susumu*; Hirose, Yukio*; Osawa, Hideaki; Otomo, Shoji*; Yokoyama, Miki*
Nippon Risuku Kenkyu Gakkai Dai-31-Kai Nenji Taikai Koen Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/11
One reason of not being decided a candidate site for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste is that strong opposition occurs once a name of the place where residents live even if they can understand the necessity of the facility. Therefore, we hypothesized that people would accept the decision if they consent the decision way beforehand under the condition everyone can be involved in as a potential interest party (the ignorance of veil). A hypothetical scenario survey was conducted in Japan. The results revealed that the decision way and the decision under the ignorance of veil were likely to be accepted more than the current decision way even if they became candidate site. Moreover, the decision way under the ignorance of veil was evaluated higher procedural fairness, while the current way was low procedural fairness.
Haruna, Takumi*; Miyataki, Yuki*; Hirohata, Yohei*; Shibata, Toshio*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu*
Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(9), p.375 - 380, 2018/09
This research aimed to confirm the formation of FeO film on Fe immersed in aqueous 45 mass% NaOH solution containing some oxidants at the boiling temperature, to recognize the optimum immersion time for the formation of thick and protective film, and to reveal the absorption behavior of DO in the FeO film at room temperature. The results were obtained as follows. It was confirmed that FeO film was formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for a time more than 0.6 ks, and the film thickness increased parabolically with an increase in the immersion time. DO absorption test was carried out to the films formed in the NaOH solution for immersion times of 1.2 and 3.6 ks. An amount of DO absorbed into the film increased with an increase in an absorption time up to 1000 ks, and an absorption time more than 1000 ks made an amount of DO constant. The constant amount of DO was larger for the film formed on Fe immersed in the NaOH solution for 3.6 ks than that for 1.2 ks. The transient of the amount of DO absorbed into the film was analyzed on the basis of Fick's law for diffusion, and diffusion coefficients of DO were obtained to be 5.110 cm s and 9.910 cm s for the films formed for 1.2 and 3.6 ks, respectively. Therefore it was estimated that the diffusion coefficient of the FeO film was in the region from 5.110 cm s to 9.910 cm s.
JAEA-Review 2018-011, 20 Pages, 2018/08
As part of the research and development program on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan of JAEA, according to the Horonobe URL Project, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are the top priority issues, and schedule for finishing the project and backfill plan will be decides by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of about 20 years. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2018 fiscal year (2018/2019).
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuzaki, Yoshiteru
Shigen, Sozai Koenshu (Internet), 5(1), 7 Pages, 2018/03
no abstracts in English
Journal of the Society of Inorganic Materials, Japan, 24(391), p.393 - 401, 2017/11
Glass is a non-crystalline solid, as such, it is relatively easy to change its composition to control its characteristics. The borosilicate glass, which is produced by the addition of boron oxide into sodium-lime glass, possesses excellent heat-resistant properties and mechanical strength. It has a wide variety of uses. The borosilicate glass is applied as the vitrified medium for radioactive wastes to immobilize and stabilize them for long term. The glass form which is loaded with high-level radioactive waste is called the vitrified waste. This paper classified the radioactive waste and describes treatment and production methods of vitrified waste, its characteristics, disposal method and also introduces alternative vitrified medium.
JAEA-Review 2017-013, 22 Pages, 2017/06
As part of the research and development program on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan of JAEA, according to the Horonobe URL Project, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are the top priority issues, and schedule for finishing the project and backfill plan will be decides by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of about 20 years. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2017 fiscal year (2017/2018).
Zairyo To Kankyo, 65(9), p.363 - 364, 2016/09
no abstracts in English
JAEA-Review 2016-010, 22 Pages, 2016/07
As part of the research and development program on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan of JAEA, according to the Horonobe URL Project, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are the top priority issues, and schedule for finishing the project and backfill plan will be decides by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of about 20 years. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2016 fiscal year (2016/2017).
Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Osawa, Hideaki
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 23(1), p.9 - 24, 2016/06
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has promoted the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (Mizunami URL) as one of generic URL to perform basic research of waste disposal technology for about twenty years. JAEA had carried out consultation activities with local people and community from 1995 when the plan of Mizunami URL opened at the time, because an early approach of JAEA caused a sense of social distrust and concern, which the study area of Mizunami URL would be candidate site of real repository. In this paper, we conducted normative analysis intended for the consultation activities from a viewpoint of procedural justice and distributed justice, used as the social psychological framework in terms of public NIMBY facility. The results show that it is important to develop local partnership, composed of representative local people and organization at early start and to support deliberation by local partnership in the aspect of information and financial administration.
Osawa, Hideaki; Otomo, Shoji*; Onuma, Susumu*; Hirose, Yukio*
Shakai Gijutsu Kenkyu Rombunshu, 13, p.86 - 95, 2016/05
This study examined determinants of public acceptance regarding siting a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in France, where a candidate site has been selected following on a variety of public involvement activities. Data from 886 French residents were collected in 2014 by an internet survey that was performed near a district that is a candidate for a HLW repository and in an outlying region away from the candidate site. Results indicate that procedural fairness, intergenerational subjective norm, public benefit and personal benefit were significant factors for public acceptance in dealing with the NIMBY issue in addition to factors such as trust, risk perception and stigma, dealt with in previous research on risk analysis. Furthermore, personal benefit and affect had stronger impact on the acceptance than public benefit, procedural fairness and intergenerational subjective norm.
Geological Disposal Research and Development Department
JAEA-Evaluation 2015-014, 33 Pages, 2016/02
The Committee reviewed mainly the progress of the R&D project on geological disposal, the relevance of the project outcome during the period of the second midterm plan (FY2010-2014) and the prospect of the next term in light of requirements and effectiveness for R&D activities. As a result, the Committee concluded that the progress of the R&D project was satisfactorily made from the viewpoint of improvements of reliability and practicality for implementation. In addition, the Committee provided a couple of advises to be addressed in the project in next term in light of transfer of techniques and the knowledge taking account of the long-term implementation of the repository program.
Shibata, Masahiro; Sawada, Atsushi; Tachi, Yukio; Makino, Hitoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Oda, Chie; Ishidera, Takamitsu; et al.
JAEA-Research 2014-030, 457 Pages, 2015/03
JAEA and NUMO have conducted a collaborative research work which is designed to enhance the methodology of repository design and post-closure performance assessment in preliminary investigation stage. With regard to (1) study on rock suitability in terms of hydrology, based on some examples of developing method of hydro-geological structure model, acquired knowledge are arranged using the tree diagram, and model uncertainty and its influence on the evaluation items were discussed. With regard to (2) study on scenario development, the developed approach for "defining conditions" has been reevaluated and improved from practical viewpoints. In addition, the uncertainty evaluation for the effect of use of cementitious material, as well as glass dissolution model, was conducted with analytical evaluation. With regard to (3) study on setting radionuclide migration parameters, based on survey of precedent procedures, multiple-approach for distribution coefficient of rocks was established, and the adequacy of the approach was confirmed though its application to sedimentary rock and granitic rock. Besides, an approach for solubility setting was developed including the procedure of selection of solubility limiting solid phase. The adequacy of the approach was confirmed though its application to key radionuclides.
Koeki Zaidan Hojin Tottoriken Kyoiku Bunka Zaidanhen 2014 "Yoshida Nakamichi Iseki" Tottoriken Kyoiku Iinkai, p.221 - 230, 2015/03
An ancient socketed iron axe was excavated from Yoshida Nakamichi site in Tottori City, Tottori Prefecture. To understand reasons of corrosion state of the axe, we studied relationship between burial environment and corrosion. As environmental conditions, we investigated groundwater chemistry and corrosion rate with iron probe monitor, etc. As for corrosion state, we analysed corrosion depths with a X-ray CT and corrosion products with a portable XRD/XRF. As results, we found that the redox potential and dissolved oxygen level as environmental conditions were very low, and that the maximum corrosion rate (210 mm/y) evaluated from measured corrosion depths was smaller than the probe corrosion rate (510 mm/y) by two orders of magnitude and identified siderite (FeCO) as a corrosion product. The results suggested that the siderite precipitated on the surface of the iron sword inhibited corrosion reaction.
Koide, Kaoru; Osawa, Hideaki; Ito, Hiroaki; Tanai, Kenji; Semba, Takeshi; Naito, Morimasa; Sugihara, Kozo; Miyamoto, Yoichi
Annual Waste Management Symposium (WM 2015), Vol.5, p.3631 - 3645, 2015/00
JAEA has promoted R&D on HLW geological disposal technology. JAEA launched the Mizunami and the Horonobe URL Projects to cover the diversity of geological environments in Japan. The Mizunami URL Project is a geoscientific research project in the crystalline rock environment. The Horonobe URL Project consists of geoscientific studies and R&D on geological disposal technology in the sedimentary rock environment. Both URL projects have been planned to proceed in three overlapping phases, Surface-based investigation Phase, Construction Phase and Operation Phase. Currently, the construction of research galleries in both of the Mizunami and the Horonobe URLs has been completed to 500 m and 350 m depths, respectively. JAEA will promote R&D activities in Phase III including study of the long-term evolution of the geological environment, and contribute to international cooperation, development of human resources and communication amongst stakeholders through both URL projects.
Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Kenji; Minato, Kazuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Arai, Yasuo; Morita, Yasuji; Nakayama, Shinichi; Katakura, Junichi
JAERI-Review 2005-043, 193 Pages, 2005/09
JAERI has been conducting research and development on partitioning and transmutation (P&T) technology for long-lived nuclides to develop the double-strata fuel cycle concept, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Commission's "Research and Development of Technologies for Partitioning and Transmutation of Long-lived Nuclides - Status and Evaluation Report" issued in 2000. The double-strata fuel cycle concept consists of four major processes: partitioning, fuel fabrication, transmutation, and fuel processing. The five-year achievement and future perspectives for the technology on these processes are presented in this report. It also provides an analytical study on impacts of introducing P&T technology on waste management, and on deployment of P&T for the future nuclear energy system.