Soler, J. M.*; Neretnieks, I.*; Moreno, L.*; Liu, L.*; Meng, S.*; Svensson, U.*; Trinchero, P.*; Iraola, A.*; Ebrahimi, H.*; Molinero, J.*; et al.
SKB R-17-10, 153 Pages, 2019/01
The SKB Task Force is an international forum on modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. The WPDE experiments are matrix diffusion experiments in gneiss performed at the ONKALO underground facility in Finland. Synthetic groundwater containing several conservative and sorbing tracers was injected along a borehole interval. The objective of Task 9A was the predictive modeling of the tracer breakthrough curves from the WPDE experiments. Several teams, using different modelling approaches, participated in this exercise. An important conclusion from this exercise is that the modeling results were very sensitive to the magnitude of dispersion in the borehole opening, which is related to the flow of water. Focusing on the tails of the breakthrough curves, which are more directly related to matrix diffusion and sorption, the results from the different teams were more comparable. The modeling results have also been finally compared to the measured breakthroughs.
Tachi, Yukio; Ito, Tsuyoshi*; Akagi, Yosuke*; Sato, Hisao*; Martin, A. J.*
Water Resources Research, 54(11), p.9287 - 9305, 2018/11
Effects of fine-scale surface alterations on radionuclide migration in fractured crystalline rocks were investigated by a comprehensive approach coupling a series of laboratory tests, microscopic observations and modelling, using a single fractured granodiorite sample from the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. Laboratory tests including through-diffusion, batch sorption and flow-through tests using five tracers indicated that tracer retention was consistently in the sequence of HDO, Se, Cs, Ni, Eu, and as well as showing the existence of a diffusion-resistance layer near the fracture surface, cation excess and anion exclusion effects for diffusion. Microscale heterogeneities in structural properties around the fracture were clarified quantitatively by coupling X-ray CT and EPMA. A three layer model including weathered vermiculite, foliated mica and undisturbed matrix layers, and their properties such as porosity, sorption and diffusion parameters, could provide a reasonable interpretation for breakthrough curves and concentration distributions near fracture surface of all tracers, measured in flow-through tests.
Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.1 - 4, 2017/04
Oxidation and reduction behaviors of prototypic MgO-based inert matrix fuels (IMFs) containing PuO were experimentally investigated by means of thermogravimetry. The oxidation and reduction kinetics of the MgO-PuO specimen were determined. The oxidation and reduction rates of the MgO-PuO were found to be low compared with those of PuO. It is note that the changes in O/Pu ratios of MgO-PuO from stoichiometry were smaller than those of PuO at high oxygen partial pressure. From these results, it can be said that MgO matrix lower the oxygen supply and release of PuO, which is preferable as the minor actinides incineration devices, since the high oxygen potentials of minor actinide oxides can cause certain problems in terms of thermochemical aspects such as enlarged cladding inner-surface corrosion.
Fukui, Toshiki*; Maki, Takashi*; Miura, Nobuyuki; Tsukada, Takeshi*
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 23(2), p.169 - 173, 2016/12
The basic research programs for the next generation vitrification technology, which are commissioned project from Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, have been implemented from 2014 until 2018 for developing the advanced vitrification technology of low level wastes and high level liquid wastes.
Kunieda, Satoshi; Shibata, Keiichi; Fukahori, Tokio; Kawano, Toshihiko*; Paris, M.*; Hale, G.*
JAEA-Conf 2015-003, p.33 - 38, 2016/03
We present recent progress of nuclear data evaluation method in the resolved resonance range. Our multi-channel R-matrix code now includes photon-channel and computational capability of charged-particle elastic scattering. We also present the physical constraint from the theory in the analysis of experimental data. Example analysis results are shown for Be and O compound system. Finally, perspectives are discussed toward the advancement of nuclear data in the resonance region including those for medium-heavy nuclei.
Soler, J. M.*; Landa, J.*; Havlova, V.*; Tachi, Yukio; Ebina, Takanori*; Sardini, P.*; Siitari-Kauppi, M.*; Eikenberg, J.*; Martin, A. J.*
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 179, p.89 - 101, 2015/08
Matrix diffusion is a key process for radionuclide retention in crystalline rocks. An in-situ diffusion experiment in granite matrix was performed at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Several tracers (HTO, Na, Cs) were circulated through a borehole and the decrease in tracer concentrations was monitored for 2.5 years. Then, the borehole section was overcored and the tracer profiles in the rock were analyzed. Transport distances in the rock were 20 cm for HTO, 10 cm for Na and 1 cm for Cs. The dataset was analyzed with diffusion-sorption models by different teams using different codes, with the goal of obtaining effective diffusivities (De) and rock capacity factors. There was a rather good agreement between the values from different teams, implied that De and capacity factors in the borehole damaged zone are larger than those in the bulk rock. However, HTO seems to display large discrepancies between measured and modeled results.
Sasaki, Ichiro; Hanaoka, Hirofumi*; Yamada, Keiichi*; Watanabe, Shigeki; Sugo, Yumi; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Noriko
Peptide Science 2014, p.257 - 260, 2015/03
Takeuchi, Takao*; Tagawa, Kohei*; Noda, Tetsuji*; Banno, Nobuya*; Iijima, Yasuo*; Kikuchi, Akihiro*; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi*; Kosuge, Michio*; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi*; Koizumi, Norikiyo; et al.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 16(2), p.1257 - 1260, 2006/06
Next generation nuclear fusion magnets would require a high-current conductor in fields more than 16 T. A CIC conductor of the rapid RHQT processed NbAl may be a promising candidate. Good deformability of intermediately-formed bcc supersaturated-solid solution indeed allowed fabricating such a CIC conductor, which would be subsequently transformation annealed. Ag has been internally included as a basic constituent of a round strand so far, because Ag is almost non-reactive with Nb matrix during the RHQ. However, both of Ag and Nb are not suitable nuclei from the viewpoint of radioactivity when irradiated with neutrons. Recently, we have succeeded in replacing the Nb matrix with Ta that has the advantage of shorter half-life of radioactivity. In the present study, an attempt has been made to replace the Ag internal stabilizer with Cu, in the aim of further reducing radioactivity, based on anticipation that Ta would be less reactive with Cu than Nb did.
Amemiya, Hiroshi*; Uehara, Kazuya
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, 45(1A), p.247 - 249, 2006/01
A method for detecting the separatrix surface in the edge plasma in Tokamak is presented. Two sets of double probes whose front surfaces are shifted by a small distance are mounted and the difference of the currents is measured using a differential amplifier. When the separatrix surface reaches the probes, a current increment appears in the differential amplifier, giving a signal of the arrival of the separatrix. Procedures of obtaining plasma parameters including the ion temperature are described.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(11), p.984 - 993, 2005/11
no abstracts in English
Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikane; Yoshida, Kazuo; Muramatsu, Ken
Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/10
A PSA procedure for MOX fuel fabrication facilities is being developed at the JAERI. This procedure consists of four steps, which are hazard analysis, accident scenario analysis, frequency evaluation and consequence evaluation. The proposed procedure is characterized by the hazard analysis step. The Hazard analysis step consists of two sub-steps. In the first sub-step, a variety of functions of equipment composing the facility are analyzed to identify potential abnormal events exhaustively. In the second sub-step, these potential events are screened to select abnormal events by using a risk matrix based on the rough estimation of likelihood and maximum unmitigated release of radioactive material. One of the unique technical issues in this research is the estimation of likelihood of criticality event. A method is also proposed as a part of PSA procedure taking into consideration of failure of a computerized control system for MOX powder handling process. The applicability of the PSA procedure was demonstrated through the trial application of it to a model plant of MOX fuel fabrication facility.
Department of Hot Laboratories
JAERI-Review 2005-047, 95 Pages, 2005/09
This is an annual report in 2004 fiscal year that describes activities of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF), and the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in the Department of Hot laboratories. In RFEF, BWR fuel rods were withdrawn from a fuel assembly irradiated for 5 cycles in the Fukushima-2 Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 and PIEs including nondestructive examination of those rods were carried out. In WASTEF, Slow Strain Rate Tests for detecting the susceptibility to IASCC, the corrosion test of reprocessing plant materials, tests for evaluating barrier performance in terms of waste disposal were performed. A secondary system pipe from the Mihama Nuclear Power Station Unit-3 was accepted to inspect the ageing fracture of it. In RHL, 15 lead cells are dismantled under the decommissioning plan at JAERI Tokai. And an arrangement of the RHL facility was started to use the storage of unirradiated nuclear materials.
Nakajima, Kunihisa; Iwai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yasuo
JAERI-Research 2005-027, 42 Pages, 2005/09
Nitride fuel pins containing inert matrix such as ZrN and TiN were fabricated for the irradiation test at JMTR, aiming at understanding irradiation behavior of nitride fuel for transmutation of minor actinides. Minor actinides are surrogated by plutonium in the present fuel pin. This report describes the preparation and characterization of fuel pellets, and fabrication of fuel pins. The irradiation for 11 cycles from May 2002 to November 2004 at JMTR was completed without any failure of fuel pins.
Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Ishikawa, Jun; Fuketa, Toyoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(5), p.451 - 461, 2005/05
The radionuclide release from MOX under severe accident conditions was investigated in VEGA program to contribute to the technical bases for safety evaluation including PSA for LWR using MOX. The MOX specimens irradiated at ATR Fugen were heated up to 3123K in helium at 0.1 and 1.0MPa. The release of volatile FP was slightly enhanced below 2200K compared with that of UO. The volatile FP release at elevated pressure was decreased as in the case with UO. The total fractional release of Cs reached almost 100% while almost no release of low-volatile FP even after the fuel melting. The release rate of plutonium above 2800K increased rapidly although the amount was small. Since the existing models cannot predict this increase, an empirical model was prepared based on the data. There is no large difference in FP inventories between UO and MOX, and the fractional releases from MOX can be mostly predicted by the model for UO. This suggests that the consequences of LWR using MOX are mostly equal to those using UO from a view point of risks.
Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Fuketa, Toyoshi
Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 91, p.499 - 500, 2004/12
The radionuclides release from MOX under severe accident conditions was investigated in the VEGA program to prepare the technical bases for safety evaluation including PSA for LWR using MOX. The MOX specimen irradiated at ATR Fugen was heated up to 3123K in He at 0.1MPa. The Cs release started at about 1000K and was enhanced below 2200K compared with that of UO. The possible reason is due to the formation of cracks connected to the high burn-up Pu spots. The total fractional releases were evaluated by alpha-ray, gamma-ray and ICP-AES and compared with the ORNL-Booth model. Although the model was prepared based on the tests with UO, the predictions are in reasonable agreement with the measurements. The VEGA test showed that the total releases from MOX are almost the same as those from UO under extremely severe accident conditions. This indicates that the consequences of LWR using MOX are mostly equal to those using UO. The effect of difference between MOX and UO on the consequences will be systematically investigated using the JAERI's source term code, THALES-2.
Aiba, Nobuyuki*; Tokuda, Shinji; Ishizawa, Tomoko*; Okamoto, Masao*
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 46(11), p.1699 - 1721, 2004/11
The theory of the Newcomb equation has been applied to low-n external modes in a tokamak and a method has been developed to compute the stability matrix that gives the change of plasma potential energy due to external modes in terms of the surface values of the perturbations. By using this method, the spectral properties of the ideal external modes has been elucidated, such as coupling between external modes and internal modes, and the difference of the stability properties between a normal shear tokamak and a reversed shear tokamak. These results will be also useful in the stability analysis of resistive wall modes.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 528(1-2), p.335 - 339, 2004/08
Dilution of electron beam emittance through a return arc is one of critical problems in the design of an energy-recovery linac for high-power FEL and a synchrotron light source. We present that the emittance dilution can be compensated by establishing the matching between the phase ellipse orientation and the CSR kick direction, and the effect of coherent synchrotron radiation on the beam emittance dilution can be estimated from simple calculation of transfer matrices.
Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Nobuko*; Sai, Kazunori*; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro*
Keisan Kogaku Koenkai Rombunshu, 9(2), p.613 - 616, 2004/05
no abstracts in English
Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tayama, Ryuichi*; Hayashi, Katsumi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(Suppl.4), p.30 - 33, 2004/03
The construction of Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned under the framework of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project. A liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) spallation target with beam power of 600MeV-200kW will be installed into the TEF. Analyses were performed to determine the effective thickness of biological shield for Pb-Bi target by using both MCNPX and ATRAS code system. Thickness of around 6m should be required to decrease the radiation level. The streaming analyses through the proton injection beam duct and the primary cooling circuit piping were also performed. The result of the beam duct streaming shows good agreement between the results of MCNPX and DUCT-III. The additional shield must be installed to suppress the activation of accelerator components. In the case of streaming through the primary cooling circuit piping, it is proved that the radiation level at the exit of the shield is allowable. The radiation level can be much more reduced by optimizing the bending position and length of the piping.
Iguchi, Yukihiro*; Kanehira, Yoshiki*; Tachibana, Mitsuo*; Johnsen, T.*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(3), p.367 - 375, 2004/03
The Fugen Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was shut down permanently in March 2003, and preparatory activities are underway to decommission the Fugen NPS. An engineering system to support the decommissioning is being developed to create a dismantling plan using state-of-the-art software such as 3-dimentional computer aided design (3D-CAD) and virtual reality (VR). In particular, an exposure dose evaluation system using VR has been developed and tested. The total system can be used to quantify radioactive waste, to visualize radioactive inventory, to simulate the dismantling plan, to evaluate workload in radiation environments and to optimize the decommissioning plan. The system will also be useful for educating and training workers and for gaining public acceptance.