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Journal Articles

Impact of uncertainty reduction on lead-bismuth coolant in accelerator-driven system using sample reactivity experiments

Katano, Ryota; Oizumi, Akito; Fukushima, Masahiro; Pyeon, C. H.*; Yamamoto, Akio*; Endo, Tomohiro*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 20 Pages, 2023/00

In this study, we have demonstrated that data assimilation using lead and bismuth sample reactivities measured in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly A-core can successfully reduce the uncertainty of the coolant void reactivity in accelerator-driven systems derived from inelastic-scattering cross-sections of lead and bismuth. We re-evaluated and highlighted the experimental uncertainties and correlations of the sample reactivities for the data assimilation formula. We used the MCNP6.2 code to evaluate the sample reactivities and their uncertainties, and performed data assimilation using the reactor analysis code system MARBLE. The high-sensitivity coefficients of the sample reactivities to lead and bismuth allowed us to reduce the cross-section-induced uncertainty of the void reactivity of the accelerator-driven system from 6.3% to 4.8%, achieving a provisional target accuracy of 5% in this study. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the uncertainties arising from other dominant factors, such as minor actinides and steel, can be effectively reduced by using integral experimental data sets for the unified cross-section dataset ADJ2017.

Journal Articles

A Plan of Proton Irradiation Facility at J-PARC and possibilities of application to nuclear data research

Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.7 - 13, 2022/11

The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is developing the P-T technology combined with accelerator driven systems (ADS). One of critical issues affecting the feasibility of ADS is the proton beam window (PBW) which functions as a boundary between the accelerator and the sub-critical reactor core. The PBW is damaged by a high-intensity proton beam and spallation neutrons produced in the target, and also by flowing high-temperature liquid lead bismuth eutectic alloy which is corrosive to steel materials. To study the materials damage under the ADS environment, J-PARC is proposing a plan of proton irradiation facility which equips with a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target bombarded by a 400 MeV - 250 kW proton beam. The facility is also open for versatile purposes such as soft error testing of semi-conductor devises, RI production, materials irradiation for fission and fusion reactors, and so on. Application to nuclear data research with using the proton beam and spallation neutrons is also one of such versatile purposes, and we welcome unique ideas from the nuclear data community.

Journal Articles

Measurement of 107-MeV proton-induced double-differential neutron yields for iron for research and development of accelerator-driven systems

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.129 - 133, 2022/11

For accurate prediction of neutronic characteristics for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and a source term of spallation neutrons for reactor physics experiments for the ADS at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), we have launched an experimental program to measure nuclear data on ADS using the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University. As part of this program, the proton-induced double-differential thick-target neutron-yields (TTNYs) and cross-sections (DDXs) for iron have been measured with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. For each measurement, the target was installed in a vacuum chamber on the beamline and bombarded with 107-MeV proton beams accelerated from the FFAG accelerator. Neutrons produced from the targets were detected with stacked, small-sized neutron detectors composed of the NE213 liquid organic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes, which were connected to a multi-channel digitizer mounted with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), for several angles from the incident beam direction. The TOF spectra were obtained from the detected signals and the FFAG kicker magnet's logic signals, where gamma-ray events were eliminated by pulse shape discrimination applying the gate integration method to the FPGA. Finally, the TTNYs and DDXs were obtained from the TOF spectra by relativistic kinematics.

Journal Articles

Sensitivity coefficient evaluation of an accelerator-driven system using ROM-Lasso method

Katano, Ryota; Yamamoto, Akio*; Endo, Tomohiro*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 196(10), p.1194 - 1208, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:40.11(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In this study, we propose the ROM-Lasso method that enables efficient evaluation of sensitivity coefficients of neutronics parameters to cross-sections. In the proposed method, a vector of sensitivity coefficients is expanded by subspace bases, so-called Active Subspace (AS) based on the idea of Reduced Order Modeling (ROM). Then, the expansion coefficients are evaluated by the Lasso linear regression between cross-sections and neutronics parameters obtained by the random sampling. The proposed method can be applied in the case where the adjoint method is difficult to be applied since the proposed method uses only forward calculations. In addition, AS is an effective subspace that can expand the vector of sensitivity coefficients with the lower number of dimension. Thus, the number of unknows is reduced from the original number of input parameters and the calculation cost is dramatically improved compared to the Lasso regression without AS. In this paper, we conducted ADS burnup calculations as a verification. We have shown how AS bases are obtained and the applicability of the proposed method.

Journal Articles

Development of a miniature electromagnet probe for the measurement of local velocity in heavy liquid metals

Ariyoshi, Gen; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1071 - 1088, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:40.11(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Electromagnetic induction method is one of the effective techniques for local velocity measurement in heavy liquid metals. Ricou and Vives' probe and Von Weissenfluh's probe are famous instrumentations using a permanent magnet. However, sensitivity and measurement volume of the probes show unexpected variation since demagnetization of the magnet is occurred by temperature increase up to the Curie temperature. In this study, electromagnetic probe incorporating a miniature electromagnet was newly developed to overcome such unexpected variation. The diameter and the length of the sensor was 6 mm and 155 mm, respectively. The sensitivity and the measurement volume of the probe were assessed by measurement of local velocity of flowing mercury in a square channel. To clarify the validity for the measured velocity profiles, numerical velocity profiles were calculated and compared with experiment. And the validity for the measured velocity profiles were confirmed by calculated result.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 1; Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS)

Maekawa, Fujio

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.201 - 205, 2022/05

The nuclear transmutation technology is a powerful solution to the "nuclear waste" problem that accompanies nuclear power generation. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which combines a high-intensity accelerator and a subcritical core, is a promising tool for nuclear transmutation. In this paper, we will explain the significance and principle of nuclear transmutation by ADS, design examples of ADS, partitioning and transmutation technology and its effects, required performance of high-intensity accelerators, overseas trends, etc.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 2; Transmutation Experimental Facility at J-PARC

Maekawa, Fujio; Takei, Hayanori

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.206 - 210, 2022/05

In developing an accelerator-driven nuclear transmutation system (ADS), it is necessary to solve technical issues related to proton beams, such as the development of materials that can withstand high-intensity proton beams and the characterization of subcritical cores driven by proton beams. Therefore, at the high-intensity proton accelerator facility J-PARC, a transmutation experimental facility that actually conducts various tests using a high-intensity proton beam is being planned. This paper introduces the outline and future direction of the transmutation experimental facility.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 3; Lead-bismuth target technology

Sasa, Toshinobu

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.211 - 215, 2022/05

Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy is promising as a spallation target for next-generation reactor coolants and accelerator drive systems (ADS) due to its nuclear and chemical properties. LBE is a heavy metal, and it has good properties both as a spallation target and as a coolant for nuclear transmutation systems of long-lived radioactive nuclei. On the other hand, to improve compatibility with structural materials is one of the major issues in its utilization. The latest research results such as high-temperature operation of LBE and oxygen concentration control to ensure corrosion resistance with the aim of early commercialization of nuclear conversion technology by ADS is introduced.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 4; Proton beam technology and neutronics

Meigo, Shinichiro; Nakano, Keita; Iwamoto, Hiroki

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.216 - 221, 2022/05

For the realization of accelerator-driven transmutation systems (ADS) and the construction of the ADS target test facility (TEF-T) at J-PARC, it is necessary to study the proton beam handling technology and neutronics for protons in the GeV energy region. Accordingly, the Nuclear Transmutation Division of J-PARC has studied these issues with using J-PARC's accelerator facilities, and so on. This paper introduces these topics.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 5; Research and developments of a superconducting linac for ADS

Kondo, Yasuhiro; Takei, Hayanori; Yee-Rendon, B.; Tamura, Jun

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.222 - 226, 2022/05

A superconducting accelerating cavity is indispensable to realize a driver linac that meets the requirements of ADS. The low-energy section of the accelerators, which is normal conducting one, was redesigned to reflect the recent progress in the development of superconducting accelerator cavities. In addition, we are developing a prototype cavity for the spoke-type cavity that has not been developed well. This section reports on the latest research and development of ADS linacs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

JAEA Reports

Development of mock-up test loop (IMMORTAL) for LBE spallation target

Obayashi, Hironari; Yamaki, Kenichi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; Kita, Satoshi*; Wan, T.*; Sasa, Toshinobu

JAEA-Technology 2021-035, 66 Pages, 2022/03


Construction of Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is under planning in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) program to promote R&Ds on realization of transmutation technology by an accelerator driven system (ADS). As a facility of TEF, ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) will provide a spallation target to study target technology and perform post irradiation examination (PIE) of candidate materials of ADS. In ADS, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy is used as a spallation target material and a core coolant. As is well known, LBE has corrosive to structural materials hence each component of the target system should provide compatibility with LBE. In addition, instrumentations for LBE are restricted by the target operation condition such as high temperature and irradiation environment. The devices for LBE have been developed individually to achieve the LBE target system. "Integrated Multi-functional MOckup for TEF-T Real-scale TArget Loop, IMMORTAL" was fabricated as a mock-up test loop of the target for the purpose of the integration testing of individually developed devices. This report describes an overview of IMMORTAL and the design of the installed devices.

JAEA Reports

Neutronic analysis of beam window and LBE of an Accelerator-Driven System

Nakano, Keita; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Meigo, Shinichiro; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Research 2021-018, 41 Pages, 2022/03


Neutronic analysis of beam window of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) proposed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducted using PHITS and DCHAIN-PHITS codes. We investigate gas production of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the beam window, displacement per atom of beam window material, and heat generation in the beam window. In addition, distributions of produced nuclides, heat density, and activity are derived. It was found that at the maximum 12500 appm H production, 1800 appm He production, and damage of 62.1 DPA occurred in the beam window by the ADS operation. On the other hand, the maximum heat generation in the beam window was 374 W/cm$$^3$$. In the analysis of LBE, $$^{206}$$Bi and $$^{210}$$Po were found to be the dominant nuclides in decay heat and radioactivity. Furthermore, the heat generation in the LBE by the proton beam was maximum around 5 cm downstream of the beam window, which was 945 W/cm$$^3$$.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of nuclide production cross-sections in high-energy proton-induced spallation reactions at J-PARC

Nakano, Keita; Matsuda, Hiroki*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Research 2021-014, 25 Pages, 2022/03


For the development of accelerator-driven transmutation system (ADS), measurement of nuclide production cross-sections in proton-induced reactions on $$^9$$Be, C, $$^{27}$$Al, $$^{45}$$Sc, and V have been performed. The measured data are compared with the calculations by the latest nuclear reaction models and with the nuclear data library to investigate the reproducibilities.

Journal Articles

Subcriticality determination methodology during fuel loading of accelerator-driven system

Katano, Ryota

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.368 - 381, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We propose a subcriticality determination methodology to be applied during fuel loading of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). In this methodology, subcriticality is determined via the area ratio method (via the proton accelerator) in the first step and by the neutron source multiplication method (through the spontaneous fission neutrons of minor actinides) in subsequent steps; then, the number of fuel assemblies to be loaded in the next step is predicted. We performed a numerical simulation of the proposed methodology, and the estimated subcriticalities agreed well with those obtained by eigenvalue calculations. We also conducted an uncertainty assessment of the proposed methodology and deduced a value of 1000 pcm for the $$k_{eff}$$ uncertainty. The proposed methodology can be a candidate for practical subcriticality monitoring for ADS.

Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross-sections of copper and iron for proton with kinetic energies in the range 0.4 - 3 GeV

Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(10), p.1141 - 1151, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:78.91(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To estimate the structural damages of materials in accelerator facilities, displacement per atom (dpa) is widely employed as a damage index, calculated based on the displacement cross-section obtained using a calculation model. Although dpa is applied as standard, the experimental data of the displacement cross-section for a proton in the energy region above 20 MeV are scarce. Among the calculation models, difference of about factor 8 exist, so that the experimental data of the cross-section are crucial to validate the model. To obtain the displacement cross-section, we conducted experiments at J-PARC. The displacement cross-section of copper and iron was successfully obtained for a proton projectile with the kinetic energies, 0.4 - 3 GeV. The results were compared with those obtained using the widely utilized Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model and the athermal-recombination-corrected (arc) model based on molecular dynamics. It was found that the NRT model overestimates the present displacement cross-section by 3.5 times. The calculation results obtained using with the arc model based on the Nordlund parameter show remarkable agreement with the experimental data. It can be concluded that the arc model must be employed for the dpa calculation for the damage estimation of copper and iron.

Journal Articles

Measurement of prompt neutron decay constant with spallation neutrons at Kyoto University Critical Assembly using linear combination method

Katano, Ryota; Yamanaka, Masao*; Pyeon, C. H.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169 - 176, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:43.56(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We proposed the linear combination method as a subcriticality measurement method which estimates the prompt neutron decay constant ($$alpha$$) correlated with the subcriticality using measurement results obtained at multiple detector positions. In the previous study, we confirmed applicability of the linear combination method through the pulsed neutron experiment with DT neutron source at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). In this study, we conduct the pulsed neutron source experiment with spallation neutrons at KUCA and confirm the robustness of the linear combination to neutron sources.

Journal Articles

Application of linear combination method to pulsed neutron source measurement at Kyoto University Critical Assembly

Katano, Ryota; Yamanaka, Masao*; Pyeon, C. H.*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 193(12), p.1394 - 1402, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:51.56(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The author proposed the linear combination method as a subcriticality measurement method which estimates the prompt neutron decay constant (alpha) correlated with the subcriticality using measurement results obtained at multiple detector positions. In this study, we conduct the pulsed neutron experiment at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) and measure alpha by the linear combination method using measured neutron counts. Through experiment, we experimentally show that the linear combination method can reduce the higher-mode effect compared to the conventional method. In addition, experimentally show that the linear combination has capability of the different mode extraction.

Journal Articles

The Analytical study of inventories and physicochemical configuration of spallation products produced in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic of Accelerator Driven System

Miyahara, Shinya*; Ohdaira, Naoya*; Arita, Yuji*; Maekawa, Fujio; Matsuda, Hiroki; Sasa, Toshinobu; Meigo, Shinichiro

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 352, p.110192_1 - 110192_8, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.56(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) is used as a spallation neutron target and coolant materials of Accelerator Driven System (ADS), and many kinds of elements are produced as spallation products. It is important to evaluate the release and transport behavior of the spallation products in the LBE. The inventories and the physicochemical composition of the spallation products produced in LBE have been investigated for an LBE loop in the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in J-PARC. The inventories of the spallation products in the LBE were estimated using the PHITS code. The physicochemical composition of the spallation products in the LBE was calculated using the Thermo-Calc code under the conditions of the operation temperatures of LBE from 350$$^{circ}$$C to 500$$^{circ}$$C and the oxygen concentrations in LBE from 10 ppb to 1 ppm. The calculation showed that the 5 elements of Rb, Tl, Tc, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg were soluble in LBE under the all given conditions and any kinds of compound were not formed in LBE. It was suggested that the oxides of Ce, Sr, Zr and Y were stable as CeO$$_{2}$$, SrO, ZrO$$_{2}$$ and Y$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ in the LBE.

Journal Articles

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the LBE spallation target head in JAEA

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Nuclear Technology, 205(1-2), p.188 - 199, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Evaluation of heat removal during the failure of the core cooling for new critical assembly

Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294$$^{circ}$$C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327$$^{circ}$$C that the design criterion of temperature.

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