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Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross-sections of copper and iron for proton with kinetic energies in the range 0.4 - 3 GeV

Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ishida, Taku*; Makimura, Shunsuke*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(10), p.1141 - 1151, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:76.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To estimate the structural damages of materials in accelerator facilities, displacement per atom (dpa) is widely employed as a damage index, calculated based on the displacement cross-section obtained using a calculation model. Although dpa is applied as standard, the experimental data of the displacement cross-section for a proton in the energy region above 20 MeV are scarce. Among the calculation models, difference of about factor 8 exist, so that the experimental data of the cross-section are crucial to validate the model. To obtain the displacement cross-section, we conducted experiments at J-PARC. The displacement cross-section of copper and iron was successfully obtained for a proton projectile with the kinetic energies, 0.4 - 3 GeV. The results were compared with those obtained using the widely utilized Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model and the athermal-recombination-corrected (arc) model based on molecular dynamics. It was found that the NRT model overestimates the present displacement cross-section by 3.5 times. The calculation results obtained using with the arc model based on the Nordlund parameter show remarkable agreement with the experimental data. It can be concluded that the arc model must be employed for the dpa calculation for the damage estimation of copper and iron.

Journal Articles

Measurement of prompt neutron decay constant with spallation neutrons at Kyoto University Critical Assembly using linear combination method

Katano, Ryota; Yamanaka, Masao*; Pyeon, C. H.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169 - 176, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We proposed the linear combination method as a subcriticality measurement method which estimates the prompt neutron decay constant ($$alpha$$) correlated with the subcriticality using measurement results obtained at multiple detector positions. In the previous study, we confirmed applicability of the linear combination method through the pulsed neutron experiment with DT neutron source at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). In this study, we conduct the pulsed neutron source experiment with spallation neutrons at KUCA and confirm the robustness of the linear combination to neutron sources.

Journal Articles

Application of linear combination method to pulsed neutron source measurement at Kyoto University Critical Assembly

Katano, Ryota; Yamanaka, Masao*; Pyeon, C. H.*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 193(12), p.1394 - 1402, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:57.07(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The author proposed the linear combination method as a subcriticality measurement method which estimates the prompt neutron decay constant (alpha) correlated with the subcriticality using measurement results obtained at multiple detector positions. In this study, we conduct the pulsed neutron experiment at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) and measure alpha by the linear combination method using measured neutron counts. Through experiment, we experimentally show that the linear combination method can reduce the higher-mode effect compared to the conventional method. In addition, experimentally show that the linear combination has capability of the different mode extraction.

Journal Articles

The Analytical study of inventories and physicochemical configuration of spallation products produced in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic of Accelerator Driven System

Miyahara, Shinya*; Ohdaira, Naoya*; Arita, Yuji*; Maekawa, Fujio; Matsuda, Hiroki; Sasa, Toshinobu; Meigo, Shinichiro

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 352, p.110192_1 - 110192_8, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:23.13(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) is used as a spallation neutron target and coolant materials of Accelerator Driven System (ADS), and many kinds of elements are produced as spallation products. It is important to evaluate the release and transport behavior of the spallation products in the LBE. The inventories and the physicochemical composition of the spallation products produced in LBE have been investigated for an LBE loop in the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in J-PARC. The inventories of the spallation products in the LBE were estimated using the PHITS code. The physicochemical composition of the spallation products in the LBE was calculated using the Thermo-Calc code under the conditions of the operation temperatures of LBE from 350$$^{circ}$$C to 500$$^{circ}$$C and the oxygen concentrations in LBE from 10 ppb to 1 ppm. The calculation showed that the 5 elements of Rb, Tl, Tc, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg were soluble in LBE under the all given conditions and any kinds of compound were not formed in LBE. It was suggested that the oxides of Ce, Sr, Zr and Y were stable as CeO$$_{2}$$, SrO, ZrO$$_{2}$$ and Y$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ in the LBE.

Journal Articles

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the LBE spallation target head in JAEA

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Nuclear Technology, 205(1-2), p.188 - 199, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Evaluation of heat removal during the failure of the core cooling for new critical assembly

Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294$$^{circ}$$C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327$$^{circ}$$C that the design criterion of temperature.

Journal Articles

Research and development activities for accelerator-driven system in JAEA

Sugawara, Takanori; Takei, Hayanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 106, p.27 - 33, 2018/07

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:81.13(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has investigated an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides which will be partitioned from the high level waste. There are various inherent issues for the research and development on the ADS. The recent two activities to realize a feasible and reliable ADS concept are introduced in this paper. For the feasibility, the design of a beam window which is a boundary of the accelerator and the subcritical core, is one of the most important issues. To mitigate the design condition of the beam window, namely to reduce the proton beam current, the subcritical core concept with subcriticality adjustment rods were investigated. For the reliability, the beam-trip is the inherent and serious issue for the ADS design because it induces rapid temperature change to coolant and structures in the subcritical core. To improve the beam-trip frequencies, a double-accelerator concept was proposed and its beam-trip frequency was estimated.

Journal Articles

J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Program

Maekawa, Fujio; Transmutation Expeimental Facility Design Team

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 13(Sp.1), p.2505045_1 - 2505045_4, 2018/05

The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is promoting development of the P-T technology by using an accelerator driven system (ADS). To facilitate the development, we have a plan to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) as one of experimental facilities of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). TEF consists of two facilities: the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) and the Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). Recent progress in design and R&D efforts toward construction of J-PARC TEF will be presented.

Journal Articles

Oxidation characteristics of lead-alloy coolants in air ingress accident

Kondo, Masatoshi*; Okubo, Nariaki; Irisawa, Eriko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Norito; Tanaka, Teruya*

Energy Procedia, 131, p.386 - 394, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:95.35

The chemical behaviors of lead (Pb) based coolants in the air ingress accident of fast reactors were investigated by means of the thermodynamic considerations and the static oxidation experiments for Pb alloys at various chemical compositions. The results of the static oxidation tests for lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) alloys indicated that Pb was depleted from the alloy due to the preferential formation of PbO in air at 773K. Pb-Bi oxide and Bi$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ were formed after the enrichment of Bi in the alloys due to the Pb depletion. The oxidation rates of the alloys were much larger than that of the steels, and became larger with higher Pb concentration in the alloys. The compatibility of Pb-Bi alloys with stainless steel was worse when the Pb concentration in the alloys became low, since the dissolution type corrosion was promoted by the Bi composition in the alloy. The Pb-Li alloys were oxidized as they formed Li$$_{2}$$PbO$$_{3}$$ and Li$$_{2}$$CO$$_{3}$$. Then, Li was depleted from the alloy.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical impedance analysis on solid electrolyte oxygen sensor with gas and liquid reference electrodes for liquid LBE

Adhi, P. M.*; Okubo, Nariaki; Komatsu, Atsushi; Kondo, Masatoshi*; Takahashi, Minoru*

Energy Procedia, 131, p.420 - 427, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03

The ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte may insufficient, and the sensor output signal will deviate from the theoretical one in low temperature. The performance of oxygen sensor with Ag/air reference electrode (RE) and liquid Bi/Bi$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ RE was tested in low-temperature LBE at 300$$sim$$450$$^{circ}$$C and the charge transfer reactions impedance at the electrode-electrolyte interface was analyzed by electrochemical impedance analysis (EIS). After steady state condition, both of the sensors performed well and can be used at 300$$sim$$450$$^{circ}$$C. Bi/Bi/Bi$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ RE has lower impedance than Ag/air RE. Therefore, the response time of the oxygen sensor with Bi/Bi/Bi$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ RE is faster than the oxygen sensor with Ag/air RE in the low-temperature region.

Journal Articles

Design of 250kW LBE spallation target for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

Sasa, Toshinobu; Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Sugawara, Takanori; Wan, T.; Yamaguchi, Kazushi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu

NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.111 - 116, 2017/06

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes to reduce the environmental impact caused from high-level radioactive waste by using Accelerator-driven system (ADS). To realize ADS, JAEA plans to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) within the framework of J-PARC project. For the JAEA-proposed ADS, lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is adopted as a coolant for subcritical core and spallation target. By using TEF in J-PARC, we are planning to solve technical difficulties for LBE utilization by completion of the data for the design of ADS. The 250kW LBE spallation target will be located in TEF facility to prepare material irradiation database. Various R&Ds for important technologies required to build the facilities are investigated such as oxygen content control, instruments development, remote handling techniques for target maintenance, and spallation target design. The large scale LBE loops for 250kW target mock up and material corrosion studies are also manufactured and ready for various experiments. The latest status of 250kW LBE spallation target optimization will be described in the presentation.

Journal Articles

On-line subcriticality measurement using a pulsed spallation neutron source

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Yagi, Takahiro*; Pyeon, C.-H.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(4), p.432 - 443, 2017/04

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:90.26(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Collaboration between SCK$$cdot$$CEN and JAEA for Partitioning and Transmutation through Accelerator-Driven System

Working Group for Collaboration between SCK$$cdot$$CEN and JAEA for P&T through ADS

JAEA-Review 2017-003, 44 Pages, 2017/03


This technical report reviews Research and Development (R&D) programs for the Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) technology through Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) at Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'$'e$nergie Nucl$'e$aire (SCK$$cdot$$CEN) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The results obtained in the present Collaboration Arrangement between the two organizations for the ADS are also summarized, and possible further collaborations and mutual realizations in the future are sketched.

Journal Articles

Impact of PHITS spallation models on the neutronics design of an accelerator-driven system

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Harada, Masahide; Maekawa, Fujio

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(10), p.1585 - 1594, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:81.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Thermal design study of lead-bismuth cooled accelerator driven system, 1; Study on thermal hydraulic behavior under normal operation condition

Akimoto, Hajime; Sugawara, Takanori

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-008, 87 Pages, 2016/09


Thermal hydraulic behavior in a lead-bismuth cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) is analyzed under normal operation condition. Input data for the ADS version of J-TRAC code have been constructed to integrate the conceptual design. The core part of the ADS is modeled in detail to evaluate the core radial power profile effect on the core cooling. As the result of the analyses, the followings are found; (1) Both maximum clad temperature and fuel temperature are below the design limits. (2) The radial power profile has little effect on the coolant flow distribution among fuel assemblies. (3) The radial power profile has little effect on the heat transfer coefficients along fuel rods. (4) The thermal hydraulic behaviors along four steam generators are identical. The thermal hydraulic behaviors along two pumps are also identical. A fast running input data is developed by the simplification of the detailed input data based on the findings mentioned above.

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of the first topical meeting on Asian network for accelerator-driven systems and nuclear transmutation technology

Sasa, Toshinobu

JAEA-Review 2015-042, 213 Pages, 2016/03


The first topical meeting on Asian Network for Accelerator-driven System (ADS) and Nuclear Transmutation Technology (NTT) was held on 26-27 October 2015 at the J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan. The meeting was an optional one in-between the regular meeting, which will be held in every second year. Instead of the regular meeting, which covers all research fields for ADS and NTT, such as accelerator, spallation target, subcritical reactor, fuel, and material, this topical meeting is focused on the specific topic to make technical discussions more deeply. In this meeting, the technology for lead-bismuth eutectic alloy was selected as one of the hot issues in the world and had deep discussions with specialists in Asian countries. Through the discussion, the importance of cooperation in Again region is recognized to solve the issues for application of LBE. This report summarizes all presentation materials discussed in the meeting.

Journal Articles

J-PARC transmutation experimental facility programme

Sasa, Toshinobu; Takei, Hayanori; Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Nishihara, Kenji; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Kazushi; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

NEA/CSNI/R(2015)2 (Internet), p.85 - 91, 2015/06

Nuclear transmutation got much interested as an effective option of nuclear waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) by accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth alloy (Pb-Bi). To obtain the data for ADS design, JAEA plans to build a Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) in the J-PARC project. TEF consists of two buildings, an ADS target test facility (TEF-T) with 400MeV-250kW Pb-Bi target, and a Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel. In TEF-T, irradiation test for materials, and engineering tests for Pb-Bi target operation will be performed. Various research plans such as nuclear data measurements have been proposed and layout of the experimental hall are underway. In the presentation, roadmap to establish the ADS transmutor and latest design activities for TEF construction will be summarized.

JAEA Reports

Development of thermal-hydraulic design code for transmutation system with lead-bismuth cooled accelerator driven reactor

Akimoto, Hajime

JAEA-Data/Code 2014-031, 75 Pages, 2015/03


A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for transmutation system with lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) has been developed using the Japanese-version of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (J-TRAC) as the framework to apply the design studies of ADS. To identify the required capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic analysis code for ADS, previous thermal-hydraulic analyses of light water reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactor and ADS have been surveyed. To make up for insufficient capabilities of the J-TRAC code as a thermal-hydraulic analysis code of ADS, physical properties of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), argon gas and nitride nuclear fuel were implemented to the J-TRAC code. It was confirmed that the implemented capabilities worked as expected through verification calculations on (1) single-phase LBE flow, (2) heat transfer in a fuel assembly, and (3) heat transfer in a steam generator.

Journal Articles

A Study on accelerator-driven transmutation system in JAEA

Sasa, Toshinobu

AAPPS Bulletin, 24(5), p.13 - 17, 2014/10

To reduce the burden of radiological nuclides contained in spent nuclear fuel, Partitioning-Transmutation (P-T) technology is noted as an option for nuclear waste management in the new national strategic energy policy. As for the system for waste transmutation, an accelerator-driven system is desirable as a dedicated transmutor. To perform basic studies for an accelerator-driven system, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has promoted the design of the Transmutation Experimental Facility within the framework of the J-PARC project. A lead-bismuth spallation target, which is bombarded with 400 MeV - 250 kW protons, and a low-power subcritical reactor will be installed in the facility. Construction will start within a few years after the national review of P-T technology.

Journal Articles

Shielding analysis at the upper section of the accelerator-driven system

Sasa, Toshinobu; Yang, J. A.*; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 116(1-4), p.256 - 258, 2005/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

The proton beam duct of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) acts a streaming path for spallation neutrons and photons and causes the activation of the magnets and other devices above the subcritical core. We have performed a streaming analysis at the upper section of the lead-bismuth target/cooled ADS (800MWth). MCNPX was used to calculate the radiation dose from streamed neutrons and photons through the beam duct. For the secondary photon production calculation, cross sections for several actinides were substituted for plutonium because of the lack of gamma production cross section. From the results of this analysis, the neutron dose from the beam duct is about 20 orders higher than that of the bulk shield. The magnets and shield plug were heavily irradiated by streaming neutrons according to the DCHAIN-SP analysis.

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