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Journal Articles

Ten years since the Fukushima Daiichi NPP disaster; What's important when protecting the population from a multifaceted technological disaster

Callen-Kovtunova, J.*; Homma, Toshimitsu

International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (Internet), 70, p.102746_1 - 102746_10, 2022/02

This paper presents key lessons on protecting the public during an emergency at a nuclear power plant (NPP) that have been identified from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The paper describes what emergency arrangements were in place prior to the accident, what occurred during the emergency and then the ascertained lesson. The paper highlights the failings of dose project models, emphasizes several lessons identified from past emergencies, such as the importance of predetermined criteria and emergency zones for determining protective actions. It also presents an essential lesson previously overlooked: the need for arrangements to ensure the safe evacuation of patients from hospitals and care homes.

Journal Articles

Identification of carbon in glassy cesium-bearing microparticles using electron microscopy and formation mechanisms of the microparticles

Hidaka, Akihide

Nuclear Technology, 208(2), p.318 - 334, 2022/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The author previously proposed that the Cs bearing microparticle (Type A) may have been formed by melting and atomization of glass fibers (GF) of the HEPA filter in the SGTS due to flame and blast during the hydrogen explosion in Unit 3. If this hypothesis is correct, the Type A could contain or accompany carbon (C), that ignites spontaneously above 623 K, because of the limited time to be heated up, inclusion of C in the binder applied on the GF surface and closely located charcoal filter. As the previous studies did not focus on C, the present analyses were performed with EPMA whether the Type A contains C. The results showed that the Type A contained C originating from the binder, and non-spherical particles accompanied by the Type A and the film surrounding the Type A contained more C, which is thought to originate from the charcoal filter. These results cannot be explained by the other mechanisms proposed so far, and can be explained consistently by the author proposed hypothesis.

JAEA Reports

Investigations on distribution of radioactive substances owing to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident in the fiscal year 2020 (Contract research)

Group for Fukushima Mapping Project

JAEA-Technology 2021-025, 159 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Technology-2021-025.pdf:46.66MB

This report presents results of the investigations on the distribution-mapping project of radioactive substances owing to TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) conducted in FY2020. Car-borne surveys, a flat ground measurement using survey meters, a walk survey and an unmanned helicopter survey were carried out to obtain air dose rate data. Air dose rate distribution maps were created and temporal changes of the air dose rates were analyzed. Regarding radiocesium deposition into the ground, surveys on depth profile of radiocesium and in-situ measurements were performed. Based on these measurement results, effective half-lives of the temporal changes in the air dose rates and the deposition were evaluated. In the examination of scoring for classifying the importance of measurement points, a score map was created for Fukushima Prefecture and the 80 km zone from the FDNPS, and the factors causing changes in the score when monitoring data from multiple years were used were discussed. Using the Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we obtained maps that integrated the air dose rate distribution data obtained from aircraft monitoring, car-borne surveys, and walk surveys with respect to the region within 80 km from the FDNPS and Fukushima Prefecture. The measurement results for FY2020 were published on the "Expansion Site of Distribution Map of Radiation Dose", and measurement data were stored as CSV format. Radiation monitoring and analysis of environmental samples owing to the comprehensive radiation monitoring plan were carried out.

JAEA Reports

Establishing a new evaluation system to characterize radiation carcinogenesis by stem cell dynamics (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology*

JAEA-Review 2021-052, 52 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-052.pdf:2.63MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Establishing a new evaluation system to characterize radiation carcinogenesis by stem cell dynamics" conducted in FY2020. In this study, the long-term clonal expansion of mammary stem cells after high- to low-dose radiation exposure was investigated using stem-cell lineage tracing technology that can permanently label stem cells and their progenies. The purpose of this study is to characterize radiation-induced breast cancer based on the dynamics of radiation-exposed stem cells by capturing proliferation and analyzing it using a mathematical model. We used a mouse model that can trace the cell lineage of basal cells of mammary gland. In this mouse, expansion of clones expressing fluorescent protein was observed over

JAEA Reports

The Study of oxidative stress status in the organs exposed to low dose/low dose-rate radiation (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2021-050, 82 Pages, 2022/01

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "The study of oxidative stress status in the organs exposed to low dose/low dose-rate radiation" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of low dose/low dose-rate radiation exposure, which is of great social interest, on the oxidative stress status of individual organs and will contribute to the collection of scientific data in a dose range to be required. An interdisciplinary collaborative study discussed the correlation between radiation dose and the biological effect by analyzing the samples of wild Japanese macaques exposed to radiation due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and of animal experiments.

JAEA Reports

Development of high-resolution imaging camera for alpha dust (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2021-044, 58 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-044.pdf:3.53MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of high-resolution imaging camera for alpha dust" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to develop a novel alpha-ray camera consisting of imaging and an energy spectrometer to find the alpha dust to reduce the risk of health damage in Decommissioning. We have developed the camera in FY2020, and the measurement test for the energy spectra. Moreover, the imaging test has been operated. In addition, we have also developed a high-dose-rate monitor system using novel scintillators with red/infra-red emission.

JAEA Reports

Technology development of diamond-base neutron sensors and radiation-resistive integrated-circuits for shielding-free criticality approach monitoring system (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization*

JAEA-Review 2021-038, 65 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-038.pdf:4.42MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Technology development of diamond-base neutron sensors and radiation-resistive integrated-circuits for shielding-free criticality approach monitoring system" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to develop key components of neutron detection system without a radiation shield for a criticality approach monitoring system. It is required high neutron detection efficiency for a few cps/nv under high gamma ray radiation environment (i.e. 1 kGy/h maximum) and compact-light-weight to fit constraints of the penetration size and the payload. In order to develop the monitoring system, the project aims to design and evaluate neutron detection devices based on diamond sensors and a high radiation resistive signal-processi

JAEA Reports

Improvement of critical safety technology in fuel debris retrieval (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2021-037, 61 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-037.pdf:4.24MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Improvement of critical safety technology in fuel debris retrieval" conducted in FY2019 and FY2020. Since the final year of this proposal was FY2020, the results for two fiscal years were summarized. The purpose of research was to improve the criticality safety analysis methods in the case of fuel debris removal with the collaboration with Russian university, which has a lot of experiences in the criticality analysis. This research has been performed as two fiscal years project in FY 2019 and FY 2020 by Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tokyo City University (TCU) as the Japanese side, and National Research Nuclear University MEPhI as the Russian side. In FY2019, Tokyo Tech introduced a GPU server

JAEA Reports

Summaries of research and development activities by using supercomputer system of JAEA in FY2020 (April 1, 2020 - March 31, 2021)

HPC Technology Promotion Office

JAEA-Review 2021-022, 187 Pages, 2022/01

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) conducts research and development (R&D) in various fields related to nuclear power as a comprehensive institution of nuclear energy R&Ds, and utilizes computational science and technology in many activities. As shown in the fact that about 20 percent of papers published by JAEA are concerned with R&D using computational science, the supercomputer system of JAEA has become an important infrastructure to support computational science and technology. In FY2020, the system was used for R&D aiming to restore Fukushima (environmental recovery and nuclear installation decommissioning) as a priority issue, as well as for JAEA's major projects such as research and development of fast reactor cycle technology, research for safety improvement in the field of nuclear energy, and basic nuclear science and engineering research. This report presents a great number of R&D results accomplished by using the system in FY2020, as well as user support, operational records and overviews of the system, and so on.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of risk reduction effect of supposed steam condenser implementation as accident measure for accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of reprocessed high level liquid waste

Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hiyama, Mina*

JAEA-Research 2021-013, 20 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Research-2021-013.pdf:2.35MB

An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, volatile radioactive materials, such as ruthenium (Ru) are released from the tanks with water and nitric-acid mixed vapor into atmosphere. An idea has been proposed to implement a steam condenser as an accident countermeasure. This measure is expected to prevent nitric acid steam diffusing in facility building and to increase gaseous Ru trapping ratio into condensed water. A simulation study has been carried out with a hypothetical typical facility building to analyze the efficiency of steam condenser. In this study, SCHERN computer code simulates chemical behaviors of Ru in nitrogen oxide, nitric acid and water mixed vapor based on the conditions obtained from simulation with thermal-hydraulic computer code MELCOR. The effectiveness of steam condenser has been analyzed quantitively in preventing mixed vapor diffusion and gaseous Ru trapping effect. Some issues to be solved in analytical model has been also clarified in this study.

Journal Articles

Decrease of radionuclide sorption in hydrated cement systems by organic ligands; Comparative evaluation using experimental data and thermodynamic calculations for ISA/EDTA-actinide-cement systems

Ochs, M.*; Dolder, F.*; Tachi, Yukio

Applied Geochemistry, 136, p.105161_1 - 105161_11, 2022/01

Various types of radioactive wastes and environments contain organic substances that can stabilize the aqueous complexes with radionuclides and therefore lead to a decrease of sorption. The present study focuses on testing a methodology to quantify sorption reduction factors (SRFs) in the presence of organic ligands for cement systems. Three approaches for the estimation of SRFs; (1) analogy with solubility enhancement factors, (2) radionuclide speciation based on the thermodynamic calculations, and (3) experimental sorption data in ternary systems, were coupled and tested for the representative organic ligands (ISA and EDTA) and selected key radionuclides (actinides). Our approach allows to critically evaluate the dependence of SRFs for various systems on the chosen method of quantification, in accordance with the data availability for a given systems. The reliable SRFs can only be derived from the sorption measurements in ternary systems. SRF often need to be derived in the absence of such direct evidence, and estimations need to be made based on analogies and speciation information. However, such estimates may be subject to substantial uncertainties.

Journal Articles

Seismic classification of high temperature engineering test reactor

Ono, Masato; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Tokuhara, Kazumi*; Nomoto, Yasunobu*; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Masayuki

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 386, p.111585_1 - 111585_9, 2022/01

In the late 1980s during the design stage, the seismic classification of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) was formulated. Owing to the lack of operation experiences of the HTTR to sufficiently understand the safety characteristics of high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) at that time, the seismic classification of commercial light water reactors (LWR) was applied to HTTR. However, the subsequent operation experiences and test results using HTTR made it clear that the seismic classification of commercial LWR was somewhat too conservative for the HTGR. As a result, Class S facilities were downgraded compared to the commercial LWR. Moreover, the validity of the new seismic classification is confirmed. In June 2020, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority approved that the result of the seismic classification conformed to the standard rules of the reactor installation change.

JAEA Reports

Development of methodology combining chemical analysis technology with informatics technology to understand perspectives property of debris and tie-up style human resource development (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Fukushima University*

JAEA-Review 2021-035, 89 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-035.pdf:6.37MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of methodology combining chemical analysis technology with informatics technology to understand perspectives property of debris and tie-up style human resource development" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to Goal of this study is to implement a research plan relate to a development of combinational technology of new chemical analysis with informatics, and the aim is to develop new system for whole image estimation system using small quantities of information. Conducting the collaboration study with JAEA researchers (tie-up style) make connect to the development of human resource from master's course student to post-doctoral researchers who are progress in the local-based and/or many academics

JAEA Reports

Measurement methods for the radioactive source distribution inside reactor buildings using a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Nagoya University*

JAEA-Review 2021-033, 55 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-033.pdf:2.9MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Measurement methods for the radioactive source distribution inside reactor buildings using a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor" conducted in FY2020. We are developing a one-dimensional optical fiber radiation sensor that can estimate the radioactive source distribution "along lines" instead of "at points". To improve the conventional time-of-flight optical fiber radiation sensor for the application under high dose rate environment, basic evaluation tests were conducted using various optical fibers with different diameters and materials. We found the usefulness of quartz optical fiber as a one-dimensional radiation sensor with high position resolution. We also conducted the study of a newly-developed

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Science Research Institute, JFY2015 & 2016

Nuclear Science Research Institute

JAEA-Review 2021-006, 248 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-006.pdf:7.17MB

Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) is composed of Planning and Coordination Office and six departments, namely Department of Operational Safety Administration, Department of Radiation Protection, Engineering Services Department, Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, Department of Fukushima Technology Development and Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management, and each department manages facilities and develops related technologies to achieve the "Middle and long-term Plan" successfully and effectively. In order to contribute the future research and development and to promote management business, this annual report summarizes information on the activities of NSRI of JFY 2015 and 2016 as well as the activity on research and development carried out by Nuclear Safety Research Center, Advanced Science Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Material Science Research Center, and development activities of Nuclear Human Resources Development Center, using facilities of NSRI.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of the radioactivity concentrations in radioactive waste generated from JPDR Facility

Tobita, Minoru*; Haraga, Tomoko; Endo, Tsubasa*; Omori, Hiroyuki*; Mitsukai, Akina; Aono, Ryuji; Ueno, Takashi; Ishimori, Kenichiro; Kameo, Yutaka

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-013, 30 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-013.pdf:1.47MB

Radioactive wastes generated from nuclear research facilities in Japan Atomic Energy Agency are planning to be buried in the near surface disposal field. Therefore, it is required to establish the method to evaluate the radioactivity concentrations of radioactive wastes until the beginning of disposal. In order to contribute to this work, we collected and analyzed concrete samples generated from JPDR facility. In this report, we summarized the radioactivity concentrations of 21 radionuclides ($$^{3}$$H, $$^{14}$$C, $$^{36}$$Cl, $$^{41}$$Ca, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, $$^{90}$$Sr, $$^{94}$$Nb, $$^{rm 108m}$$Ag, $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{152}$$Eu, $$^{154}$$Eu, $$^{rm 166m}$$Ho, $$^{234}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{238}$$Pu, $$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{240}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{243}$$Am, $$^{244}$$Cm) which were obtained from radiochemical analysis of the samples in fiscal year 2018-2019.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis for FP speciation in VERDON-2 experiment; Chemical re-vaporization of iodine in air ingress condition

Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroto*; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 163, p.108587_1 - 108587_9, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

From recent RPT review articles; Medical application of particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS

Furuta, Takuya

Igaku Butsuri, 41(4), P. 194, 2021/12

Number of medical uses of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) has been increased due to the recent high demands of medical use of radiations. The summary of such research works was described in the review article on medical application of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS published in Radiological Physics and Technology in 2021. There was a request from the editorial board of Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) for writing an introductory article of this article in their internal journal. The research works on medical applications described in the review article, useful functions for medical application in PHITS, and newly opened user forum of PHITS have been introduced.

Journal Articles

Structural characterization by X-ray analytical techniques of calcium aluminate cement modified with sodium polyphosphate containing cesium chloride

Takahatake, Yoko; Watanabe, So; Irisawa, Keita; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Watanabe, Masayuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 556, p.153170_1 - 153170_7, 2021/12

Journal Articles

Toward mechanistic evaluation of critical heat flux in nuclear reactors, 2; Recent studies and future challenges toward mechanistic and reliable CHF evaluation

Okawa, Tomio*; Mori, Shoji*; Liu, W.*; Ose, Yasuo*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ono, Ayako

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(12), p.820 - 824, 2021/12

The evaluation method of the critical heat flux based on the mechanism is needed for the efficient design and development of fuel in reactors and the appropriate safety evaluation. In this paper, the current researches relating to the mechanism of the critical heat flux are reviewed, and the issue to be considered in the future are discussed.

5879 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)