Sugino, Kazuteru; Numata, Kazuyuki*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Takeda, Toshikazu*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 130, p.118 - 123, 2019/08
In MA sample irradiation test data calculations, the neutron fluence during irradiation period is generally scaled by using dosimetry data in order to improve calculation accuracy. In such a case, appropriate correction is required to burnup sensitivity coefficients obtained by the conventional generalized perturbation theory because some cancellations occur in the burnup sensitivity coefficients. Therefore, a new formula for the burnup sensitivity coefficient has been derived with the consideration of the neutron fluence scaling effect (NFS). In addition, the cross-section-induced uncertainty is evaluated by using the obtained burnup sensitivity coefficients and the covariance data based on the JENDL-4.0.
Watanabe, Kosuke*; Matsuda, Shohei; Cuevas, C. A.*; Saiz-Lopez, A.*; Yabushita, Akihiro*; Nakano, Yukio*
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry (Internet), 3(4), p.669 - 679, 2019/04
The photooxidation of aqueous iodide ions (I) at sea surface results in the emission of gaseous iodine molecules (I) into the atmosphere. It plays a certain role in the transport of iodine from ocean to the atmosphere in the natural cycle of iodine. In this study, we determined the photooxidation parameters, the molar absorption coefficient (()) and the photooxidative quantum yields (()) of I, in the range of 290-500 nm. Through the investigation of the influence of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) on (), the subsequent emission rates of I following the photooxidation of I in deionized water solution (pH 5.6, DO 7.8 mg L) and artificial seawater solution (pH 8.0, DO 7.0 mg L) were estimated. A global chemistry-climate model employed herein to assess the I ocean emission on a global scale indicated that the photooxidation of I by solar light can enhance the atmospheric iodine budget by up to 8% over some oceanic regions.
Katano, Ryota; Endo, Tomohiro*; Yamamoto, Akio*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(10), p.1099 - 1109, 2018/10
In this study, we propose the penalized regression "adaptive smooth-lasso" for the estimation of sensitivity coefficients of the neutronics parameters. The proposed method estimates the sensitivity coefficients of the neutronics parameters using the variation of the microscopic cross sections and the neutronics parameter obtained by random sampling. The proposed method utilizes only the forward calculations. Thus, the proposed method can be applied for the complex reactor analysis for which the application of the adjoint method is difficult. In this study, we proposed a penalty term considering the characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients of the neutronics parameter to the microscopic multi-group cross sections. Through verification calculation, we show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy with less computational cost compared to the method based on random sampling proposed in the previous studies.
Dostl, M.*; Rossiter, G.*; Dethioux, A.*; Zhang, J.*; Amaya, Masaki; Rozzia, D.*; Williamson, R.*; Kozlowski, T.*; Hill, I.*; Martin, J.-F.*
Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/10
Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu
Materials, 10(7), p.753_1 - 753_17, 2017/07
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 175(3), p.378 - 387, 2017/07
The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has been discussing to propose a new system of the operational quantities for external radiations based on protection quantities. The aim of this study is to provide a set of conversion coefficients for use in defining personal dose equivalent for individual monitoring. Fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for photons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, protons, muons, pions and helium ions for various incident angles of radiations. The data sets comprise effective dose conversion coefficients for incident angles of radiations from 0 to 90 in steps of 15 and at 180. Conversion coefficients for rotational, isotropic, superior hemisphere semi-isotropic and inferior hemisphere semi-isotropic irradiations are also included. The conversion coefficients are used to define the operational quantity personal dose equivalent which is being considered by ICRU and utilized for the design and calibration of dosemeters.
Iida, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao; Hemmi, Ko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(10), p.1573 - 1584, 2016/10
The sorption behavior of thorium (Th) onto granitic rock and its major constituent were investigated by batch sorption experiments. Experiments were carried out under variable pH and carbonate concentrations. Distribution coefficients decreased with increased carbonate concentrations and showed the minimal value at pH 9-10. This sorption tendency was likely due to forming the hydroxide-carbonate complexes of Th in the solutions. The order of sorbability for Th was mica feldspar quartz = granite. The sorption behaviors of Th onto these minerals were analyzed by the triple-layer surface complexation model with the Visual Minteq computer program. The model calculations assuming the inner-sphere surface complexation of Th were able to explain the experimental results reasonably well. It was shown that the sorption behavior of Th onto granite can be explained primarily by the complexation with the surface sites of feldspar.
Saito, Kimiaki; Kurihara, Osamu*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahara, Shogo; Sato, Tetsuro*
Radioisotopes, 65(2), p.93 - 112, 2016/02
Late information is introduced on dose evaluation due to external exposures which employ an important role in the exposures due to the Fukushima accident. First, merits and demerits of the currently used two methods, that is the estimation based air dose rates and the measurements using personal dosimeters, are discussed indicating some basic data after a fundamental concept of external dose evaluation is provided. Next, main activities are summarized on external dose measurements and evaluations after the accident. Finally, a new trial on dose evaluation in introduced.
Saito, Kimiaki; Endo, Akira
Radioisotopes, 63(12), p.585 - 602, 2014/12
The article provides the fundamental information necessary for the appropriate evaluation of exposure doses in the environment. The basic characteristics of environmental rays from typical environmental sources are introduced; then, the dose conversion coeffcients for the public at different ages are summarized which were obtained from the simulation considering the basic characteristics of environmental rays. Further, the variations of environmental exposure doses due to a variety of factors, and the relation of exposure doses to measured air dose rates are discussed.
Hato, Shinji*; Homma, Toshimitsu
JAERI-Data/Code 2005-006, 549 Pages, 2005/09
The OSCAAR computer code for use in probabilistic accident consequence assessment (Level3PSA) developed at JAERI has calculated dose to the public with internal dose conversion factors based on dosimetric models and biokinetic data provided in ICRP Publication 30. Since ICRP issued age-dependent biokinetic models for a limited set of radioisotopes as ICRP Publication 56, a new Human Respiratory Tract model, age-dependent biokinetic model for other radioisotopes and urinary and faecal excretion models were issued. ICRP has published age-dependent internal dose coefficients for a large set of radionuclides in its publications, but they provided only committed effective dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion. Since OSCAAR estimated acute and late health effects for public, it needs internal dose coefficients for specific tissues and organs in arbitrary integration times.This report describes a code DSYS developed for calculating dose coefficients based on these new ICRP models. It also provides the internal dose coefficients for 54 radionuclides used in OSCAAR calculations.
Kuznetsov, S. A.*; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo; Gaune-Escard, M.*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 344(1-3), p.169 - 172, 2005/09
The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides and rare-earth metals is important for developing pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. Uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients is calcurated with the voltammetric peak potentials of U (III) and La (III), their concentration in the melt and kinetic parameters for U(III) discharge such as diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer. The diffusion coefficients of U (III) were determined by some electrochemical measurements. The standard rate constants of charge transfer for electroreduction of uranium U(III) +3e =U were calculated by impedance spectroscopy method.
Okumura, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Kenji*; Mori, Takamasa
JAERI-Research 2005-018, 64 Pages, 2005/08
In the KRITZ-2 critical experiments, criticality and pin power distributions were measured at room temperature and high temperature (about 245 degree C) for three different cores loading slightly enriched UO or MOX fuels. For nuclear data testing, benchmark analysis was carried out with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP and its four nuclear data libraries based on JENDL-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JEF-2.2 and ENDF/B-VI.8. As a result, fairly good agreements with the experimental data were obtained with any libraries for the pin power distributions. However, the JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI.8 give under-prediction of criticality and too negative isothermal temperature coefficients for slightly enriched UO cores, while the older nuclear data JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 give rather good agreements with the experimental data. From the detailed study with an infinite unit cell model, it was found that the differences among the libraries are mainly due to the different fission cross section of U-235 in the energy rage below 1.0 eV.
Mukai, Masayuki; Ueda, Masato; Inada, Daisuke; Yukawa, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Iida, Yoshihisa
Proceedings of International Symposium NUCEF 2005, p.219 - 224, 2005/08
For better quantitative understanding of radionuclide migration for safety assessment of geologic disposal, JAERI has been conducting experimental and modeling studies on influences of humic substances, highly alkaline conditions and colloids on sorptive and diffusional behavior of TRU in geologic materials. In the absence of fulvic acid, one of humic substances, diffusion of Am through a tuff sample was not detected. By adding fulvic acid, Am was detected in the downstream cell, which indicates the diffusion through the sample. Highly alkaline conditions arisen from cementitious materials may spread by altering chemical and physical properties of geologic materials. Through-diffusion experiments of alkaline species in granite showed that the effective diffusion coefficient of Ca and OH in a cement-equilibrated aqueous solution were found to be higher by almost two orders of magnitude than Na and OH in a NaOH solution. Radionuclide migration can be enhanced by colloids, and thus a calculation code describing the effect of colloids on radionuclide migration has been required.
Shimizu, Akira; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji; Aita, Hideki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Takada, Shoji; Morisaki, Norihiro; Sakaki, Akihiro*; et al.
JAERI-Tech 2005-031, 174 Pages, 2005/06
Connection of hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been surveyed until now. Mock-up test facility of this steam reforming system with full-scale reaction tube was constructed in FY 2001, and a lot of operational test data on heat exchanges were obtained in these tests.In this report specifications, structures and heat transfer formulae of steam reformer, steam superheater, steam generator, condenser, helium gas cooler, feed gas heater and feed gas superheater were described. Evaluation codes were newly made to evaluate heat transfer characteristics from measured test data. Overall heat-transfer coefficient obtained from the experimental data were compared and evaluated with the prospective value calculated with heat transfer formulae. As a result, heat transfer performance and thermal efficiency of these heat exchangers were confirmed to be appropriate.
Kuznetsov, S. A.*; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo; Gaune-Escard, M.*
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 152(4), p.C203 - C212, 2005/04
The electrochemical behavior of UCl and UCl dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt was studied at 723-823 K. Electroreduction of U(IV) in LiCl-KCl melt occurs via two successive steps involving transfer of one and three electrons. The diffusion coefficients of U(IV) and U(III) ions were determined by linear sweep voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry. The formal standard potential of EU(IV)/U(III), EU(IV)/U, and EU(III)/U were determined and some thermodynamic properties of UCl and UCl dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt were calculated. Influence of oxide ions on electrochemical behavior was also studied.
Jeong, S.-C.*; Katayama, Ichiro*; Kawakami, Hirokane*; Watanabe, Yutaka*; Ishiyama, Hironobu*; Miyatake, Hiroari*; Sataka, Masao; Okayasu, Satoru; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Shinichi; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 230(1-4), p.596 - 600, 2005/04
no abstracts in English
Horiguchi, Hironori; Oyama, Koji; Ishikuro, Yasuhiro; Hirane, Nobuhiko; Ito, Kazuhiro; Kameyama, Iwao
JAERI-Tech 2005-001, 38 Pages, 2005/02
After JRR-4 heat exchanger was renewed in made of stainless steel from carbon steel, it was examined how to manage the heat exchanger. The main subject is the cleaning technology of the heat exchanger. The recovery of old heat exchanger cooling performance has been by only chemical cleaning. Now we use chemical and dry cleaning as a new technique. It helps prevent of corrosions of secondary pipes and reduce of management costs. This report describes the performance management and cleaning technology of the JRR-4 heat exchanger and the management of the JRR-4 coolant.
Tran, V. H.; Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro
JAERI-Tech 2004-079, 37 Pages, 2005/02
no abstracts in English
Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Nakayama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Takahiro
Radiochimica Acta, 92(9-11), p.677 - 682, 2004/12
Adsorption of actinides onto negatively charged mineral surfaces was investigated under conditions that actinides were predominantly present as anionic complex species: Th(CO), Am(CO), Np(CO)(OH), UO(OH), NpO(OH), Sn(OH) and Pb(OH). These solutions were left to stand for 2 days to confirm these elements stable in dissolved state, and then contacted with minerals, -AlO or SiO (AEROSIL, specific surface area: 10 m kg). After desired contact time for 2 days or more, the solutions were ultra-filtered through 10-molecular-weight cutoff Millipore filters and the concentrations of the elements in the filtrates were determined. The sorption experiments were performed at room temperature (25C) under Ar. Distribution coefficients decreased with the increasing pH and with increasing carbonate concentrations. The monotonous decrease in the distribution coefficients in the investigated pH range suggests that the electrostatic repulsion was a dominant interaction between anionic complex species of actinides and negatively charged mineral surfaces.
Nojiri, Naoki; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Goto, Minoru
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.283 - 290, 2004/10
This paper describes the results of core physics test in start-up and power-up of the HTTR. The tests were conducted in order to ensure performance and safety of the high temperature gas cooled reactor, and was carried out to measure the critical approach, the excess reactivity, the shutdown margin, the control rod worth, the reactivity coefficient, the neutron flux distribution and the power distribution. The expected core performance and the required reactor safety characteristics were verified from the results of measurements and calculations.