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Journal Articles

Criticality configuration design methodology applied to the design of fuel debris experiment in the new STACY

Gunji, Satoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Clavel, J.-B.*; Duhamel, I.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.51 - 61, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The new critical assembly STACY will be able to contribute to the validation of criticality calculations related to the fuel debris. The experimental core designs are in progress in the frame of JAEA/IRSN collaboration. This paper presents the method applied to optimize the design of the new STACY core to measure the criticality characteristics of pseudo fuel debris that simulated Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) of the fuel debris. To ensure that a core configuration is relevant for code validation, it is important to evaluate the reactivity worth of the main isotopes of interest and their k$$_{rm eff}$$ sensitivity to their cross sections. In the case of the fuel debris described in this study, especially for the concrete composition, silicon is the nucleus with the highest k$$_{rm eff}$$ sensitivity to the cross section. For this purpose, some parameters of the core configuration, as for example the lattice pitches or the core dimensions, were adjusted using optimization algorithm to find efficiently the optimal core configurations to obtain high sensitivity of silicon capture cross section. Based on these results, realistic series of experiments for fuel debris in the new STACY could be defined to obtain an interesting feedback for the MCCI. This methodology is useful to design other experimental conditions of the new STACY.

Journal Articles

Systematic measurements and analyses for lead void reactivity worth in a plutonium core and two uranium cores with different enrichments

Fukushima, Masahiro; Goda, J.*; Oizumi, Akito; Bounds, J.*; Cutler, T.*; Grove, T.*; Hayes, D.*; Hutchinson, J.*; McKenzie, G.*; McSpaden, A.*; et al.

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 194(2), p.138 - 153, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To validate lead (Pb) nuclear cross sections, a series of integral experiments to measure lead void reactivity worth was conducted systematically in three fast spectra with different fuel compositions on the Comet critical assembly of the National Criticality Experiments Research Center. Previous experiments in a high-enriched uranium (HEU)/Pb and a low-enriched uranium (LEU)/Pb systems had been performed in 2016 and 2017, respectively. A follow-on experiment in a plutonium (Pu)/Pb system has been completed. The Pu/Pb system was constructed using lead plates and weapons grade plutonium plates that had been used in the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) of Argonne National Laboratory until the 1990s. Furthermore, the HEU/Pb system was re-examined on the Comet critical assembly installed newly with a device that can guarantee the gap reproducibility with a higher accuracy and precision, and then the experimental data was re evaluated. Using the lead void reactivity worth measured in these three cores with different fuel compositions, the latest nuclear data libraries, JENDL 4.0 and ENDF/B VIII.0, were tested with the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP version 6.1. As a result, the calculations by ENDF/B-VIII.0 were confirmed to agree with lead void reactivity worth measured in all the cores. It was furthermore found that the calculations by JENDL 4.0 overestimate by more than 20% for the Pu/Pb core while being in good agreements for the HEU/Pb and LEU/Pb cores.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of heat removal during the failure of the core cooling for new critical assembly

Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294$$^{circ}$$C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327$$^{circ}$$C that the design criterion of temperature.

JAEA Reports

Safety design report on J-PARC Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P)

Partitioning and Transmutation Technology Division, Nuclear Science and Engineering Center

JAEA-Technology 2017-033, 383 Pages, 2018/02


JAEA is pursuing research and development (R&D) on volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. Construction of Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is under planning as one of the second phase facilities in the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) program to promote R&D on the transmutation technology with using accelerator driven systems (ADS). The TEF consists of two facilities: ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) and Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). Development of spallation target technology and study on target materials are to be conducted in TEF-T with impinging a high intensity proton beam on a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target. Whereas in TEF-P, by introducing a proton beam to minor actinide loaded cores, reactor physical properties of the cores are to be studied, and operation experiences of ADS are to be acquired. This report summarizes results of safety design for establishment permit of one of two TEF facilities, TEF-P.

Journal Articles

Lead void reactivity worth in two critical assembly cores with differing uranium enrichments

Fukushima, Masahiro; Goda, J.*; Bounds, J.*; Cutler, T.*; Grove, T.*; Hutchinson, J.*; James, M.*; McKenzie, G.*; Sanchez, R.*; Oizumi, Akito; et al.

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 189, p.93 - 99, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:56.63(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To validate lead (Pb) nuclear cross sections, a series of integral experiments to measure lead void reactivity worths was conducted in a high-enriched uranium (HEU)/Pb system and a low enriched uranium (LEU)/Pb system using the Comet Critical Assembly at NCERC. The critical experiments were designed to provide complementary data sets having different sensitivities to scattering cross sections of lead. The larger amount of the $$^{238}$$U present in the LEU/Pb core increases the neutron importance above 1 MeV compared with the HEU/Pb core. Since removal of lead from the core shifts the neutron spectrum to the higher energy region, positive lead void reactivity worths were observed in the LEU/Pb core while negative values were observed in the HEU/Pb core. Experimental analyses for the lead void reactivity worths were performed with the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP6.1 together with nuclear data libraries, JENDL 4.0 and ENDF/B VII.1. The calculation values were found to overestimate the experimental ones for the HEU/Pb core while being consistent for the LEU/Pb core.

Journal Articles

A Simple and practical correction technique for reactivity worth of short-sized samples measured by critical-water-level method

Kitamura, Yasunori*; Fukushima, Masahiro

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 186(2), p.168 - 179, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:15.39(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An inconsistency between the reactivity worth of short-size samples measured by the critical-water-level (CWL) method and that conventionally analysed for validating the nuclear data and the nuclear calculation methods has been known. The present study investigated this inconsistency in terms of a simple theoretical framework and proposed a simple and practical technique for correcting the measured sample reactivity worth without making supplementary experiments. A series of Monte Carlo calculations that simulated typical sample reactivity worth measurement by the CWL method showed that this inconsistency is effectively reduced by the present correction technique.

Journal Articles

Void reactivity evaluation by modified conversion ratio measurements in LWR critical experiments

Yoshioka, Kenichi*; Kikuchi, Tsukasa*; Gunji, Satoshi*; Kumanomido, Hironori*; Mitsuhashi, Ishi*; Umano, Takuya*; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki*; Okajima, Shigeaki; Fukushima, Masahiro; Nagaya, Yasunobu; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(2), p.282 - 293, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have developed a void reactivity evaluation method by using modified conversion ratio measurements in a light water reactor (LWR) critical lattice. Assembly-wise void reactivity is evaluated from the "finite neutron multiplication factor", $$k^ast$$, deduced from the modified conversion ratio of each fuel rod. The distributions of modified conversion ratio and $$k^ast$$ on a reduced-moderation LWR lattice, for which the improvement of negative void reactivity is a serious issue, were measured. Measured values were analyzed with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The measurements and analyses agreed within the measurement uncertainty. The developed method is useful for validating the nuclear design methodology concerning void reactivity.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Concept of transmutation experimental facility

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Toshinobu; Kikuchi, Kenji; Nishihara, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Umeno, Makoto*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Motoharu; et al.

Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on the Utilisation and Reliability of High Power Proton Accelerators, p.507 - 517, 2005/11

Under the framework of J-PARC, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plans to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF). The TEF consists of two facilities: the Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) and the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T). The TEF-P is a critical facility which can accept a 600 MeV - 10 W proton beam. The TEF-T is a material irradiation facility using a 600 MeV - 200 kW proton beam, where a Pb-Bi target is installed, but neutron multiplication by nuclear fuel will not be attempted. This report describes the purposes of the facility, the present status of the conceptual design, and the expected experiments to be performed.

JAEA Reports

Benchmark analysis of KRITZ-2 critical experiments

Okumura, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Kenji*; Mori, Takamasa

JAERI-Research 2005-018, 64 Pages, 2005/08


In the KRITZ-2 critical experiments, criticality and pin power distributions were measured at room temperature and high temperature (about 245 degree C) for three different cores loading slightly enriched UO$$_{2}$$ or MOX fuels. For nuclear data testing, benchmark analysis was carried out with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP and its four nuclear data libraries based on JENDL-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JEF-2.2 and ENDF/B-VI.8. As a result, fairly good agreements with the experimental data were obtained with any libraries for the pin power distributions. However, the JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI.8 give under-prediction of criticality and too negative isothermal temperature coefficients for slightly enriched UO$$_{2}$$ cores, while the older nuclear data JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 give rather good agreements with the experimental data. From the detailed study with an infinite unit cell model, it was found that the differences among the libraries are mainly due to the different fission cross section of U-235 in the energy rage below 1.0 eV.

Journal Articles

Preliminary evaluation of reduction of prediction error in breeding light water reactor core performance

Kugo, Teruhiko; Kojima, Kensuke; Ando, Masaki; Okajima, Shigeaki; Mori, Takamasa; Takeda, Toshikazu*; Kitada, Takanori*; Matsuoka, Shogo*

Proceedings of 2005 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP '05) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2005/05

We have preliminarily evaluated the reduction of prediction errors of the core characteristics of the breeding light water reactor core based on the bias factor method by utilizing the FCA critical experiments carried out for MOX fueled tight lattice light water reactor cores. The prediction uncertainty of k$$_{eff}$$ is reduced from 0.62% to 0.39% by utilizing the FCA-XV-2 (65V) result. As for the reaction rate ratio of $$^{238}$$U capture and $$^{239}$$Pu fission, it is found that the FCA XXII-1 (95V) and XV (95V) results are suitable for the upper core and the upper blanket of the real core and the FCA XXII-1 (65V) and XV-2 (65V) results are suitable for the lower core and the internal blanket.

Journal Articles

R&D activities on accelerator-driven transmutation system in JAERI

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Saito, Shigeru; Nishihara, Kenji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Takano, Hideki*; et al.

EUR-21227 (CD-ROM), p.483 - 493, 2005/00

JAERI is conducting the study on the dedicated transmutation system using the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADS). A subcritical reactor with the thermal power of 800 MW has been proposed. Many research and development activities including the conceptual design study are under way and planned at JAERI to examine the feasibility of the ADS. In the field of the proton accelerator, a superconducting LINAC is being developed. In the field of the spallation target using lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), material corrosion, thermal-hydraulics, polonium behavior, and irradiation effect on materials are being studied. Moreover, in the framework of the J-PARC project, JAERI plans to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) to study the feasibility of the ADS using a high-energy proton beam and nuclear fuel and to establish the technology for the LBE spallation target and relevant materials.

Journal Articles

Research activities for accelerator-driven transmutation system at JAERI

Sasa, Toshinobu

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 47(1-4), p.314 - 326, 2005/00

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:65.49(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAERI performs R&D of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) for transmutation of long-lived nuclides under national OMEGA program since 1988. To study the basic characteristics of ADS, Transmutation Experimental Facility is proposed under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint J-PARC project. A comprehensive R&D program for future ADS plant is also performed since 2002. R&D items are categorized into three fields, (1) accelerator (superconducting LINAC design), (2) lead-bismuth target/coolant (material compatibility, thermal-hydraulics around beam window and polonium behavior) and (3) subcritical core (system design, nuclear data, subcriticality measurement, and safety issues of ADS). First phase of the program will be done within three years. Assemble test of the cryomodule, heat transfer experiment using Pb-Bi thermal-hydraulics loop, cold test of polonium vaporization, design study of the 800MW ADS subcritical core are now underway. Part of this job was funded by the MEXT as one of the public offered R&D program for innovative nuclear systems.

Journal Articles

Research and development on accelerator-driven transmutation system at JAERI

Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Umeno, Makoto*; Ouchi, Nobuo; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 230(1-3), p.209 - 222, 2004/05

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:88.72(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAERI carries out research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The system is composed of high intensity proton accelerator, lead-bismuth spallation target and lead-bismuth cooled subcritical core with nitride fuel. About 2,500 kg of minor actinide is loaded into the subcritical core. Annual transmutation amount using this system is 250 kg with 800MW of thermal output. A superconducting linear accelerator with the beam power of 30MW is connected to drive the subcritical core. Many research and development activities are under way and planned in the fields of subcritical core design, spallation target technology, lead-bismuth handling technology, accelerator development, and minor actinide fuel development. Especially, to study and evaluate the feasibility of the ADS from physics and engineering aspects, the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is proposed under a framework of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of the TRIGA MARK-II benchmark IEU-COMP-THERM-003 with Monte Carlo code MVP

Mahmood, M. S.; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Mori, Takamasa

JAERI-Tech 2004-027, 30 Pages, 2004/03


The benchmark experiments of the TRIGA Mark-II reactor in the ICSBEP handbook have been analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MVP using the cross section libraries based on JENDL-3.3, JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI.8. MCNP calculations have been also performed with the ENDF/B-VI.6 library for comparison between the MVP and MCNP results. For both cores labeled 132 and 133, which have different core configurations, the ratio of the calculated to the experimental results (C/E) for keff obtained by the MVP code is 0.999 for JENDL-3.3, 1.003 for JENDL-3.2, and 0.998 for ENDF/B-VI.8. For the MCNP code, the C/E values are 0.998 for both the Core 132 and 133. All the calculated results agree with the reference values within the experimental uncertainties. The results obtained by MVP with ENDF/B-VI.8 and MCNP with ENDF/B-VI.6 differ only by 0.02% for Core 132, and by 0.01% for Core 133.

JAEA Reports

Experimental study on accelerator driven subcritical reactor, JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H12-031 (Contract research)

Shiroya, Seiji*; Misawa, Tsuyoshi*; Unesaki, Hironobu*; Ichihara, Chihiro*; Kobayashi, Keiji*; Nakamura, Hiroshi*; Shin, Kazuo*; Imanishi, Nobutsugu*; Kanazawa, Satoshi*; Mori, Takamasa

JAERI-Tech 2004-025, 93 Pages, 2004/03


In view of the future plan of Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, the present study consisted of (1) the transmission experiments of high energy neutrons through materials, (2) experimental simulation of ADSR using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly(KUCA), and (3) conceptual neutronics design study on KUR type ADSR using the MCNP-X code. Through the present study, valuable knowledge on the basic nuclear characteristics of ADSR, which is indispensable to promote the study on ADSR, was obtained both theoretically and experimentally. For the realization of ADSR, it is considered to be necessary to accumulate results of research steadily. For this purpose, it is inevitable (1) to compile the more precise nuclear data for the wide energy range, (2) to establish experimental techniques for reactor physics study on ADSR including subcriticality measurement and absolute neutron flux measurement, and (3) to develop neutronics calculation tools which take into account the neutron generation process by the spallation reaction and the delayed neutron behavior.

JAEA Reports

Study on the analyses of the reactor physics benchmark problem for the LWR next generation fuels

Research Committee on Reactor Physics

JAERI-Research 2004-004, 409 Pages, 2004/03


This report summarizes the second phase (FY2001-2002) activity of "the Working Party (WP) on Reactor Physics for LWR Next Generation Fuels". The next generation fuels mean the ones aiming at further extended burn-up such as 70GWd/t over the current design. In the WP, the benchmark activity has been conducted to investigate and improve the calculation accuracy of the nuclear characteristics of the next generation fuels. In the second phase activity, all benchmark results were compiled and compared. Based on the comparison, the present status of calculation accuracy for the next generation fuels has been confirmed, and the factors causing the calculation differences were analyzed in detail. Moreover, analyses of the post irradiation and critical experiments with the codes used in the benchmark were reviewed, and future experiments and research subjects necessary to reduce the calculation differences were discussed and proposed.

JAEA Reports

Present status of chemical analysis of uranyl nitrate solution used for the criticality experiments in NUCEF

Haga, Takahisa*; Gunji, Kazuhiko; Fukaya, Hiroyuki; Sonoda, Takashi; Sakazume, Yoshinori; Sakai, Yutaka; Niitsuma, Yasushi; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Miyauchi, Masakatsu; Sato, Takeshi; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2004-005, 54 Pages, 2004/02


Criticality experiments using uranyl nitrate solution fuel are being conducted at STACY (the Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (the Transient Experiment Critical Facility) in NUCEF (the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility). Chemical analyses of the solution have been carried out to take necessary data for criticality experiments, for treatment and control of the fuel, and for safeguards purpose at the analytical laboratory placed in NUCEF. About 300 samples are analyzed annually that provide various kinds of data, such as uranium concentration, isolation acid concentration, uranium isotopic composition, concentration of fission product (FP) nuclides, tri-butyl phosphoric acid (TBP) concentration, impurities in the solution fuel and so on. This report summarizes the analytical methods and quality management of the analysis for uranyl nitrate solution relating to the criticality experiments.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of neutronic characteristics of TRACY water-reflected core system

Sono, Hiroki; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi*; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

JAERI-Tech 2003-096, 84 Pages, 2004/01


Prior to the supercritical experiments using a water-reflected core of the TRACY Facility, neutronic characteristics regarding criticality and reactivity of the core system were evaluated. In the analyses, a continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MVP, and a two-dimensional transport code, TWOTRAN, were used together with a nuclear data library, JENDL-3.3. By comparison to the characteristics in the former-used bare core system of TRACY, the water reflector was estimated not to change the kinetic parameter and to reduce the critical solution level by $$sim$$20 %, the temperature coefficient of reactivity by 6$$sim$$10 %, and the void coefficient of reactivity by $$sim$$18 %, respectively. According to the Nordheim-Fuchs model, the first peak power during a power excursion was evaluated to be $$sim$$15 % smaller than that in the bare system under the same conditions of fuel and reactivity insertion. The influence of the void feedback effect of reactivity, which is left out of consideration in the model, on the power characteristics will be evaluated from the results of the experiments.

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