Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Ryufuku, Susumu*
JAEA-Review 2017-010, 93 Pages, 2017/06
There is an ongoing discussion on the application of burnup credit to the criticality safety controls of facilities that treat spent fuels. With regard to such application of burnup credit in Japan, this document summarizes the current technical status of the prediction of the isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuels, as well as safety evaluation concerns and the current status of legal affairs. This report is an English translation of A Guide to Introducing Burnup Credit, Preliminary Version, originally published in Japanese as JAERI-Tech 2001-055 by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Committee.
Nauchi, Yasushi*; Takezawa, Hiroki*; Tonoike, Kotaro
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 58(4), p.247 - 252, 2016/04
no abstracts in English
Yamamoto, Kento*; Akie, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Hosoyamada, Ryuji*
JAEA-Technology 2015-019, 110 Pages, 2015/10
In the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF), criticality safety evaluation is one of the important issues since UNF contains some amount of fissile material. The recent development of higher-enrichment fuel has enhanced the benefit of the application of Burnup Credit. In the present study, the effects of the several parameters on the reactivity of disposal canister model were evaluated for used PWR fuel. The parameters are relevant to the uncertainties of depletion calculation code, irradiation history, and axial and horizontal burnup distribution, which are known to be important effect in the criticality safety evaluation adopting burnup credit. The latest data or methodology was adopted in this evaluation, based on the various latest studies. The appropriate margin of neutron multiplication factor in the criticality safety evaluation for UNF can be determined by adopting the methodology described in the present study.
Nakajima, Ken*; Itahara, Kuniyuki*; Okuno, Hiroshi
Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2015) (DVD-ROM), p.496 - 502, 2015/09
An outline of the standard "Procedures for Applying Burnup Credit to Criticality Safety Control of a Reprocessing Facility: 2014" (AESJ-SC-F025: 2014) published in April 2015 by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) is presented. The AESJ published more than 60 Standards. However, many of them were in the field of nuclear power reactors or radioactive wastes. Ten years ago the AESJ published "Basic Items of Criticality Safety Control: 2004" (AESJ-SC-F004:2004), which prescribed basic ideas, requirements and methods on nuclear criticality safety controls of facilities handling with nuclear fuel materials in general for preventing a nuclear criticality accident. However, it did not include any specific procedures for adopting burnup credit. Therefore, a new standard was envisaged as the first Standard for fuel reprocessing plants, which clarified the specific procedures to apply burnup credit to designers, operators, maintenance persons and administrators.
Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamane, Yuichi; Umeda, Miki; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroki
Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2015) (DVD-ROM), p.20 - 27, 2015/09
From the viewpoint of safety regulation, criticality control of the fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be a risk-informed control to mitigate consequences of criticality events, instead of a deterministic control to prevent such events. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has set up a research and development program to tackle this challenge. The Nuclear Safety Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, commissioned by the authority, has launched activities such as computations of criticality characteristics of the fuel debris, development of criticality risk assessment method, and preparation of criticality experiments to support them.
International Symposium NUCEF 2005 Working Group
JAERI-Conf 2005-007, 359 Pages, 2005/08
Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) held the international symposium NUCEF2005 at Techno Community Square RICOTTI in Tokai-mura on February 9 and 10, 2005. This symposium was co-organized by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Research Committee authorized the program. Two hundred thirty-nine participants from 11 countries presented fifty-nine papers, and discussed recent research activities and its outputs on waste disposal safety, fuel cycle facility safety including criticality safety, and separation process development. The presented papers are compiled in the proceedings.
Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Morita, Yasuji
JAERI-Conf 2005-007, p.199 - 204, 2005/08
Source term data for estimating release behavior of radioactive nuclides is necessary to evaluate synthetic safety of nuclear fuel cycle facility under accident conditions, such as fire and criticality. In JAERI, the data has been obtained by performing some demonstration tests. In this paper, the data for the criticality accident in fuel solution obtained from the TRACY experiment, will be mainly reviewed. At 4.5 h after the transient criticality, the release ratio of the iodine were about 0.2% for re-insertion of transient rod at just after transient criticality and about 0.9% for not re-insertion. Similarly the release coefficient and release ratio for Xe were estimated. It was proved that the release ratio of Xe-141 from the solution was over 90% in case that the inverse period was over about 100 (1/s). Furthermore, outline of the study on the fire accident as future plan will be also mentioned.
Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori
Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 91, p.583 - 584, 2004/11
MOX powder and additives are mixed in the process of MOX fuel fabrication. A non-uniform mixing state of MOX powder and additives occurs during the homogenization mixing process. However, ordinary criticalit safety evaluations for mixtures assume that the mixtures have a uniform distribution of the mixing state. A non-uniform distribution of the mixing state in a sphere, which maximizes the effective neutron multiplication factor, was obtained using a concept of the fuel importance. As a result, the central portion of the sphere is composed of an optimal moderation region, and the surrounding region is composed of pure MOX powder. While keff is 0.545 for the uniform distribution, keff for the optimal non-uniform distribution is 0.590. That is, keff increases by 0.045.
Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Morita, Yasuji
JAERI-Research 2004-014, 19 Pages, 2004/09
no abstracts in English
Okuno, Hiroshi; Takada, Tomoyuki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(4), p.481 - 492, 2004/04
Nuclear characteristic parameters were calculated and subcriticality judgement graphs were drawn for revision purposes of the Data Collection for the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook. The nuclear characteristic parameters were the neutron multiplication factor in infinite media, migration area and diffusion constants for 11 kinds of typical fuels encountered in criticality safety evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. These fuels included ADU-HO, UF6-HF and Pu(NO)-UO(NO) solution, of which data were not cited in the Data Collection. The calculation was made with the Japanese evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 and a sequence of criticality calculation codes, SRAC, POST and SIMCRI. The subcriticality judgement graphs that depict the region satisfying the inequality relation of the neutron multiplication factor less than 0.98 between the two variables (a) uranium enrichment, 239Pu/Pu ratio or plutonium enrichment and (b) H/(Pu+U) ratio were drawn for the same kinds of fuels except UF6-HF in infinite media.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Ryufuku, Susumu*; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori
JAERI-Conf 2003-019, p.116 - 121, 2003/10
This paper outlines the data prepared for the 2nd version of Data Collection of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook. These data are discussed in the order of its preliminary table of contents. The nuclear characteristic parameters (k, M, D) were derived, and subcriticality judgment graphs were drawn for eleven kinds of fuels which were often encountered in criticality safety evaluation of fuel cycle facilities. For calculation of criticality data, benchmark calculations using the combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo criticality code MVP and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library JENDL-3.2 were made. The calculation errors were evaluated for this combination. The implementation of the experimental results obtained by using NUCEF facilities into the 2nd version of the Data Collection is under discussion. Therefore, related data were just mentioned. A database is being prepared to retrieve revised data easily.
Cao, X.; Suzaki, Takenori; Kugo, Teruhiko; Mori, Takamasa
JAERI-Tech 2003-069, 36 Pages, 2003/08
From the viewpoint of nuclear criticality safety of fuel rod storage and transport, a series of critical experiments concerning effects of water hole size, water gap width, water-to-fuel volume ratio and non-uniform arrangement of water moderator have been performed at the Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the present study, the effects of volume fraction and non-uniform arrangement of water moderator on reactivity are evaluated by the water level worth method and analyzed by the SRAC code. Error sources of experiments and calculations are discussed, especially for an energy group model. The calculation results of diffusion model with 17-group model show good agreement with the experiment results within a few dozen cents.
Takada, Tomoyuki; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Katakura, Junichi
JAERI-Tech 2003-036, 80 Pages, 2003/03
In order to perform accuracy evaluation of the critical calculation by the combination of multi-group constant library MGCL and 3-dimensional Monte Carlo code KENO-IV among critical safety evaluation code system JACS, benchmark calculation was carried out from 1980 in 1982. Some cases where the neutron multiplication factor calculated in the heterogeneous system in it was less than 0.95 were seen. In this report, it re-calculated by considering the cause about the heterogeneous system of the U+Pu nitric acid solution systems containing the neutron poison shown in JAERI-M 9859. The present study has shown that the keff value less than 0.95 given in JAERI-M 9859 is caused by the fact that the water reflector below a cylindrical container was not taken into consideration in the KENO-IV calculation model. By taking into the water reflector, the KENO-IV calculation gives a keff value greater than 0.95 and a good agreement with the experiment.
Umeda, Miki; Nakazaki, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Sato, Kenji; Kato, Tadahito; Kihara, Takehiro; Sugikawa, Susumu
JAERI-Tech 2003-024, 23 Pages, 2003/03
MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method is planned for the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution to be used for criticality safety experiments at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). Silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method uses the strong oxidisation ability of Ag(II) ion. This method is thought to be effective for the dissolution of MOX, which is difficult to be dissolved with nitric acid.In this paper, the results of experiments on dissolution with 100 g of MOX are described. It was confirmed by the results that the MOX powder to be used at NUCEF was completely dissolved by silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method and that Pu(VI) ion in the obtained solution was reduced to tetravalent by means of NO purging.
Kuroishi, Takeshi; Hoang, A.; Nomura, Yasushi; Okuno, Hiroshi
JAERI-Tech 2003-021, 60 Pages, 2003/03
The reactivity effect of the asymmetry of axial burnup profile is studied for PWR spent fuel transport cask proposed in OECD/NEA Phase II-C benchmark. The axial burnup profiles are based on in-core flux measurements. Criticality calculations are performed with the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B2 and the nuclear data library JENDL-3.2. Calculations are carried out not only for cases in the benchmark but also for symmetric burnup cases. Both actinide-only approach and actinide plus fission product approach is considered. The end effect is more sensitive to higher burnup asymmetry. The axial fission distribution becomes strongly asymmetric as its peak shifts toward the fuel top end. The peak of fission distribution gets higher with the increase of either the burnup asymmetry or the assembly-averaged burnup. The conservatism of uniform axial burnup assumption for the actinide-only approach is estimated quantitatively in comparison with the keff result calculated with experiment-based strongest asymmetric axial burnup profile for the actinide plus fission product approach.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hideo*; Mochizuki, Hiroki*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 40(1), p.57 - 60, 2003/01
Low-level waste (LLW) drums are required to transport as fissile material if the current IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material are rigorously applied. This problem is a consequence that water contents of concrete in LLW drums contained deuterium (D) in quantities more than 0.1% of fissile material mass, therefore they are not excepted from packages containing fissile material. Consideration of differences in the absorption cross sections of light hydrogen and D shows that the relative increase in the neutron multiplication factor by a presence of D in natural water for hydrogen (H)-moderated systems is not larger than 0.015%. A numerical calculation confirms that the infinite multiplication factor of a mixture of U-metal and water in a U/H mass ratio of 5% increases proportionally to the D/H atomic ratio, and that its relative increase is less than 0.03% for the D/H atomic ratio of 0.015%. The limiting fissile-to-H mass ratio of 5% in the exception rule is concluded to be applicable to H-moderated systems including D in natural water.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tomohiro*
Nuclear Technology, 140(3), p.255 - 265, 2002/12
In order to facilitate discussions based on quantitative analysis about the end effect, which is often talked about in connection to burnup credit in criticality safety evaluation of spent fuel, we introduced in this paper a burnup importance function. This function shows the burnup effect on the reactivity as a function of the fuel position; an explicit expression of this function was derived according to the perturbation theory. The burnup importance function was applied to the Phase IIA benchmark model that was adopted by the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Burnup Credit Criticality Safety. The function clearly displayed that burnup importance of the end regions increases (1) as burnup, (2) as cooling time, (3) in consideration of burnup profile, and (4) in consideration of fission products.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Sakai, Tomohiro*
Proceedings of International Conference on the New Frontiers of Nuclear Technology; Reactor Physics, Safety and High-Performance Computing (PHYSOR 2002) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2002/10
As the burnup proceeds, reactivity of fuel assemblies for light water reactors decreases by depletion of fissile nuclides, especially in the axially central region. In order to describe the importance of the end regions to the reactivity change, a burnup importance function was introduced as a weighting function to a local burnup variation contributed to a reactivity decrease. The function was applied to the OECD/NEA/BUC Phase II-A model and a simplified Phase II-C model. The application to Phase II-A model clearly showed that burnup importance of the end regions increases as burnup and/or cooling time increases. Comparison of the burnup importance function for different initial enrichments was examined. The application result to the simplified Phase II-C model showed that the burnup importance function was helpful to find the most reactive fuel burnup distribution under the conditions that the average fuel burnup was kept constant and the variations in the fuel burnup were within the maximum and minimum measured values.
NUCEF 2001 Symposium Working Group
JAERI-Conf 2002-004, 714 Pages, 2002/03
This volume contains 94 papers presented at the 3rd NUCEF International Symposium NUCEF 2001 held on October 31 - November 2, 2001, in Tokai, Japan, following the 1st symposium NUCEF'95 (Proceedings: JAERI-Conf 96-003) and the 2nd symposium NUCEF'98 (Proceedings: JAERI-Conf 99-004). The theme of this symposium was " Scientific Basis for Criticality Safety, Separation Process and Waste Disposal". The papers were presented in oral and poster sessions on following research fields: (1) Separation Process, (2) TRU Chemistry, (3) Radioactive Waste Disposal, (4) Criticality Safety.
Takahashi, Masashi; Ueta, Shohei; Yasuda, Atsushi*; Yoshimuta, Shigeharu*; Kato, Shigeru*; Sawa, Kazuhiro
JAERI-Tech 2001-091, 29 Pages, 2002/01
no abstracts in English