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Journal Articles

Development methodology on determination of instant release fractions for generic safety assessment for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel

Kitamura, Akira; Akahori, Kuniaki; Nagata, Masanobu*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(2), p.83 - 93, 2020/12

Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in deep underground repositories (hereafter "direct disposal") is a concept that disposal canisters stored fuel assemblies dispose without reprocessing. Behavior of radionuclide release from SNF must be different from that from vitrified glass. The present study established a methodology on determination of instant release fraction (IRF) of radionuclides from SNF, which is the one of the parameters on radionuclide release based on the latest safety assessment reports in other countries, especially for IRF values proportional to a fission gas release ratio (FGR). Recommended and maximum values of FGR have been estimated using the fuel performance code FEMAXI-7 after collecting FGR values on Japanese SNFs. Furthermore, recommended and maximum values of IRF for Japanese SNFs used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) have been estimated using the presently obtained FGR values and experimentally obtained IRF values on foreign SNFs. The recommended and maximum IRF values obtained in the present study have been compared with those of the latest safety assessment reports in other countries.

Journal Articles

Pressure resistance thickness of disposal containers for spent fuel direct disposal

Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Naoki; Makino, Hitoshi; Kanamaru, Shinichiro*; Okumura, Taisei*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 19(3), p.121 - 135, 2020/09

A series of structural analysis of disposal containers for direct disposal of spent fuel was carried out to provide preliminary estimates of the required pressure resistance thickness of the disposal container. Disposal containers were designed to contain either 2, 3 or 4 spent fuel assemblies in linear, triangular or square arrangements, respectively. The required pressure resistance thickness was evaluated using separation distance of the housing space for each spent fuel assembly as a key model parameter to obtain the required thickness of the body and then the lid of the disposal container. This work also provides additional analytical technical knowledge, such as the validity of the setting of the stress evaluation line and the effect of the model length on the analysis. These can then be referred to and used again in the future as a basis for conducting similar evaluations under different conditions or proceeding with more detailed evaluations.

Journal Articles

Assessment of the potential for criticality in the far field of a used nuclear fuel repository

Atz, M.*; Salazar, A.*; Hirano, Fumio; Fratoni, M.*; Ahn, J.*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 124, p.28 - 38, 2019/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The likelihood for criticality in the far field of a repository was evaluated for direct disposal of commercial light water reactor used nuclear fuel. Two models were used in combination for this evaluation: (1) a neutronics model to estimate the minimum critical masses of spherical, water-saturated depositions of fuel material; (2) a transport model to simulate the dissolution of fuel material from multiple canisters and the subsequent transport of the solutes through host rock to a single accumulation location. The results suggest that accumulation of a critical mass is possible under conservative conditions but that these conditions are unlikely to occur, especially in the vicinity of a carefully-arranged repository.

Journal Articles

Effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on a direct disposal system for spent nuclear fuel, 1 Review of research into the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on the spent nuclear fuel, canisters and outside canisters

Kitamura, Akira; Takase, Hiroyasu*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(1), p.1 - 18, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:14.58(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Not only geological disposal of vitrified waste generated by spent fuel (SF) reprocessing, but also the possibility of disposing of SF itself in deep geological strata (hereinafter "direct disposal of SF") may be considered in the Japanese geological disposal program. In the case of direct disposal of SF, the radioactivity of the waste is higher and the potential effects of the radiation are greater. Specific examples of the possible effects of radiation include: increased amounts of canister corrosion; generation of oxidizing chemical species in conjunction with radiation degradation of groundwater and accompanying oxidation of reducing groundwater; and increase in the dissolution rate and the solubility of SF. Focusing especially on the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation in safety assessment, this study has reviewed research into the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on the spent nuclear fuel, canisters and outside canisters.

Journal Articles

Effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on a direct disposal system for spent nuclear fuel, 2; Review of research into safety assessments of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Europe and North America

Kitamura, Akira; Takase, Hiroyasu*; Metcalfe, R.*; Penfold, J.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(1), p.19 - 33, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:8.33(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Not only geological disposal of vitrified waste generated by spent fuel (SF) reprocessing, but also the possibility of disposing of SF itself in deep geological strata (hereinafter "direct disposal of SF") may be considered in the Japanese geological disposal program. In the case of direct disposal of SF, the radioactivity of the waste is higher and the potential effects of the radiation are greater. Specific examples of the possible effects of radiation include: increased amounts of canister corrosion; generation of oxidizing chemical species in conjunction with radiation degradation of groundwater and accompanying oxidation of reducing groundwater; and increase in the dissolution rate and the solubility of SF. Therefore, the influences of radiation, which are not expected to be significant in the case of geological disposal of vitrified waste, must be considered in safety assessments for direct disposal of SF. Focusing especially on the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation in safety assessment, this study has reviewed safety assessments in countries other than Japan that are planning direct disposal of SF. The review has identified issues relevant to safety assessment for the direct disposal of SF in Japan.

JAEA Reports

Criticality safety evaluation for the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel; preparation of data for burnup credit evaluation (Contract research)

Yamamoto, Kento*; Akie, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Hosoyamada, Ryuji*

JAEA-Technology 2015-019, 110 Pages, 2015/10

JAEA-Technology-2015-019.pdf:3.67MB

In the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF), criticality safety evaluation is one of the important issues since UNF contains some amount of fissile material. The recent development of higher-enrichment fuel has enhanced the benefit of the application of Burnup Credit. In the present study, the effects of the several parameters on the reactivity of disposal canister model were evaluated for used PWR fuel. The parameters are relevant to the uncertainties of depletion calculation code, irradiation history, and axial and horizontal burnup distribution, which are known to be important effect in the criticality safety evaluation adopting burnup credit. The latest data or methodology was adopted in this evaluation, based on the various latest studies. The appropriate margin of neutron multiplication factor in the criticality safety evaluation for UNF can be determined by adopting the methodology described in the present study.

Oral presentation

Outline of research and development of spent fuel direct disposal in Japan

Hatanaka, Koichiro

no journal, , 

JAEA has initiated research and development of spent fuel direct disposal in FY 2013. In the research and development so far, we were able to construct approaches for design and safety assessment and to present the disposal concept based on multi barrier system as well as the technical level of the direct disposal, through carrying out the preliminary design and safety assessment, by taking characteristics of geological environment in Japan and the spent fuels into consideration. In addition, challenges/issues related to the design and safety assessment to be addressed towards the research and development in the next stage, were identified, classified and organized. In the future, we are going to present the technical reliability of the direct disposal by resolving the challenges/issues.

Oral presentation

Effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on a disposal of spent nuclear fuel

Kitamura, Akira

no journal, , 

The Japanese geological disposal program has started researching disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SF) in deep geological strata (hereafter "direct disposal of SF") as an alternative management option other reprocessing followed by vitrification and geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In the case of direct disposal of SF, specific examples of the possible effects of radiation include: generation of oxidizing chemical species in conjunction with decomposition of groundwater and accompanying oxidation of reducing groundwater; and increase in the dissolution rate of SF and the solubility of radionuclides. Focusing especially on the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation in safety assessment, this study has reviewed research into the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on the spent nuclear fuel, canisters and environment outside the canisters, and safety assessments in countries other than Japan that are planning direct disposal of SF. It was found that the effects of $$alpha$$-radiation on SF disposal are not significant due to suppression of water radiolysis by hydrogen gas generated from canister corrosion according to the latest research.

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