Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kadowaki, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Katsunori
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.980 - 1001, 2023/08
It is essential to establish a method for reconstructing the source term and spatiotemporal distribution of radionuclides released into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident for emergency countermeasures. We examined the dependency of a source term estimation method based on Bayesian inference using atmospheric dispersion simulation and environmental monitoring data on the availability of various monitoring data. Additionally, we examined the applicability of this method to a real-time estimation conducted immediately after an accident. A sensitivity analysis of the estimated source term during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident for combinations of various monitoring data indicated that using monitoring data with a high temporal and spatial resolution and the concurrent use of air concentration and surface deposition data is effective for accurate estimation. A real-time source term estimation experiment assuming the situation of monitoring data acquisition during the FDNPS accident revealed that this method could provide the necessary source term for grasping the overview of surface contamination in the early phase and evaluating the approximate accident scale. If the immediate online acquisition of monitoring data and regular operation of an atmospheric dispersion simulation are established, this method can provide the source term in near-real time.
Terada, Atsuhiko; Nagaishi, Ryuji
Nuclear Science and Engineering, 197(4), p.647 - 659, 2023/04
In order to understand dispersion of hydrogen leaked in a partially open space practically, which can be considered as a basic model for all processes of transfer, treatment, storage and disposal of radioactive materials containing fuel debris in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities after a severe accident, by using a CFD code, the effects of vent size and outer wind on the H dispersion were analytically studied by adopting the experimental Hallway model, which has H release hole on the ceiling, one vent on the Roof vent and Door vent. Air flowed in the model from the Door vent, while H was discharged outside from the Roof vent. The discharged amount of H increased in conjunction with the air inflow when the size of Roof and or Door vents was increased. The effect of wind depended on the direction to the Door vent: wind from the same direction as the Door vent promoted the H discharge, while wind from the opposite direction suppressed. The dispersion characteristics of indoor leaked H was clarified for comparing model tests with the same Froude number and different scales. It was found from the analysis results of comparing model tests with the same Froude number and different scales that when the H leaked into the room and diffused to the air, the flow generated by the buoyancy of mixed gas created the stack effect which caused the natural ventilation by drawing in the air from the outside through vent. In addition, it was speculated that the H concentration decreased after its leak by quickly mixing with the air which flowed in from the vents and reached to the floor due to the Coanda effect, which is the effect of the free jet being drawn to a nearby wall.
Nagai, Haruyasu; Furuta, Yoshihiro*; Nakayama, Hiromasa; Satoh, Daiki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 16 Pages, 2023/00
A novel monitoring method for the quantitative visualization of 3D distribution of a radioactive plume and source term estimation of released radionuclides is proposed and its feasibility is demonstrated by preliminary test. The proposed method is the combination of gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with the Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) and real-time high-resolution atmospheric dispersion simulation based on 3D wind observation with Doppler lidar. The 3D distribution of a specific radionuclide in a target radioactive plume is inversely reconstructed from line gamma-ray images from each radionuclide by several ETCCs located around the target by harmonizing with the air concentration distribution pattern of the plume predicted by real-time atmospheric dispersion simulation. A prototype of the analysis method was developed, showing a sufficient performance in several test cases using hypothetical data generated by numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion and radiation transport.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*
JAEA-Review 2022-010, 155 Pages, 2022/06
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the technology for preventing radioactive particles' dispersion during the fuel debris retrieval" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to clarify the behavior of microparticles in gas and liquid phases in order to steadily confine radioactive microparticles during fuel debris retrieval in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, TEPCO. As measures to prevent dispersion of microparticles, (1) a method to suppress the dispersion with minimum amount of water utilizing water spray etc., and (2) a method to suppress the dispersion by solidifying ...
Soler, J. M.*; Neretnieks, I.*; Moreno, L.*; Liu, L.*; Meng, S.*; Svensson, U.*; Iraola, A.*; Ebrahimi, K.*; Trinchero, P.*; Molinero, J.*; et al.
Nuclear Technology, 208(6), p.1059 - 1073, 2022/06
The SKB Task Force is an international forum on modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. The WPDE experiments are matrix diffusion experiments in gneiss performed at the ONKALO underground facility in Finland. Synthetic groundwater containing several conservative and sorbing tracers was injected along a borehole interval. The objective of Task 9A was the predictive modelling of the tracer breakthrough curves from the WPDE experiments. Several teams, using different modelling approaches and codes, participated in this exercise. An important conclusion from this exercise is that the modelling results were very sensitive to the magnitude of dispersion in the borehole opening, which is related to the flow of water. Focusing on the tails of the breakthrough curves, which are more directly related to matrix diffusion and sorption, the results from the different teams were more comparable.
Togawa, Orihiko; Okura, Takehisa; Kimura, Masanori; Nagai, Haruyasu
JAEA-Review 2021-021, 61 Pages, 2021/11
Triggered by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, there have been a lot of arguments among various situations and levels about utilization of atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Most of these arguments, however, were alternative and extreme discussions on whether predictions by computational models could be applied or not for protective measures in a nuclear emergency, and it was hard to say that these arguments were politely conducted, based on scientific verification in an emergency response. It was known, on the other hand, that there were not a few potential users of atmospheric dispersion models and/or calculation results by the models within the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and outside. However, they seemed to have a lack of understanding and a misunderstanding on proper use of different kinds of atmospheric dispersion models. This report compares an outline of models and calculation method in atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response, with a central focus on the models which have been developed and used in the JAEA. Examples of calculations by these models are also described in the report. This report aims at contributing to future consideration and activities for potential users of atmospheric dispersion models within the JAEA and outside.
Insights Concerning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, Vo.2; Environmental Effects and Remediation for Restoration, p.37 - 46, 2021/07
Radioactive materials were released into the environment due to the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which is operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. This release immediately led to the performance of an internal exposure dose assessment of iodine and other nuclides with a short halflife. To determine the necessary dose estimation, the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric concentration of radioactive materials was reassessed by performing dispersion simulations with I, I, Te, and Cs with due consideration given to their contribution to the internal exposure doses. A database of the spatial-temporal distribution of the concentration was developed based on the results obtained from the calculations performed for each defined time at a horizontal interval of 3 km near the ground surface.
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Tachi, Yoshiaki
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 547, p.152833_1 - 152833_7, 2021/04
In order to evaluate the stability of nano-sized oxide particles and matrix structure of ODS cladding tube, which are the determinants of their high temperature strength, the microstructural observation was carried out after internal pressurized creep test at 700C for over 45,000 hours. The specimens were the as-received and crept specimens of 9Cr-ODS steel with tempered martensite and 12Cr-ODS steel with recrystallized ferrite. Small platelet was cut out from the crept pressurized tube, then thinned to foil. Microstructural observation was conducted with TEM JEOL 2010F. As a result of the observation, it was confirmed that the size and number density of the nano-sized particles were almost unchanged even after the creep test. In addition, the tempered martensite structure, which is one of the determinants of the creep strength of 9Cr-ODS steel, was not significantly different between the as-received and crept specimen, indicating the stability of their matrix structure.
Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 56(1), p.17 - 25, 2021/03
The Tokai Reprocessing Plant is the first reprocessing plant in Japan which started hot test in 1977, and had reprocessed 1140 tons of spent nuclear fuel by May 2007. The gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes has been discharged to the environment. Since iodine-129 (I) is one of the most important nuclides for environmental impact assessment. Therefore, I in the exhaust and effluent has been controlled, and a precise analysis method of I in the environmental samples was developed, and the concentration of 129I in the environment was investigated. This report presents an overview of these activities. Not limited to I on reprocessing facilities, it is essential for nuclear operators to reduce the amount released to the environment in the spirit of ALARA, and to continuously develop the further upgrading environmental monitoring methods and evaluation methods in order to foster a sense of safety and security among residents living in the vicinity of the facilities.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Osaka University*
JAEA-Review 2020-030, 55 Pages, 2020/12
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of hydrogels for prevention of radioactive dust dispersion during fuel debris retrieval" conducted in FY2019. In this study, we propose coating fuel debris with thixotropic gel materials to suppress dust dispersion during debris retrieval. Hectorite clay mineral - borax composite gel was selected based on the viscosity, the transparency and the radiation resistance. Simulated cutting tests confirm that the gel coating effectively suppress the dust dispersion.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 62(11), p.635 - 639, 2020/11
It is important to predict the dispersion of radioactive materials released into the ocean due to nuclear accidents in the surrounding ocean of the east Asian countries. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) based on an oceanic dispersion model. STEAMER quickly predicts the oceanic dispersion of radioactive materials in the surrounding ocean of the east Asian countries using the online prediction data of oceanic condition. We validated the predictability of the oceanic dispersion and demonstrated the improvement of the predictability using an ensemble prediction method. Moreover, we developed a high resolution model in the coastal region using a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).
Sato, Yosuke*; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi*; Fang, S.*; Kajino, Mizuo*; Qurel, A.*; Qulo, D.*; Kondo, Hiroaki*; Terada, Hiroaki; Kadowaki, Masanao; Takigawa, Masayuki*; et al.
Atmospheric Environment; X (Internet), 7, p.100086_1 - 100086_12, 2020/10
The third model intercomparison project for investigating the atmospheric behavior of Cs emitted during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident (FDNPP-MIP) was conducted. A finer horizontal grid spacing (1 km) was used than in the previous FDNPP-MIP. Nine of the models used in the previous FDNPP-MIP were also used, and all models used identical source terms and meteorological fields. Our analyses indicated that most of the observed high atmospheric Cs concentrations were well simulated, and the good performance of some models improved the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The analyses also confirmed that the use of a finer grid resolution resulted in the meteorological field near FDNPP being better reproduced. The good representation of the wind field resulted in the reasonable simulation of the narrow distribution of high deposition amount to the northwest of FDNPP and the reduction of the overestimation over the area to the south of FDNPP. In contrast, the performance of the models in simulating plumes observed over the Nakadori area, the northern part of Gunma, and the Tokyo metropolitan area was slightly worse.
Sanada, Yukihisa; Ochi, Kotaro; Ishizaki, Azusa
JAEA-Research 2020-006, 60 Pages, 2020/07
At the accident of nuclear facilities, a prediction of the behavior of released radioactive plume is indispensable to make a decision on a refuge plan of inhabitants. Currently, prediction system which is based on atmospheric dispersion simulation has been implemented as a tool of the atomic energy disaster prevention. However, the direct measurement method of the radioactive plume has not existed. In this study, some component technologies were developed for the establishment of direct measurement methods of radioactive plume using unmanned aerial vehicle whose technological innovation is remarkable. In addition, the spray test using mock aerosol was conducted to obtaining the deposition rate to the airplane body. The algorism of making a flight plan was developed based on a prediction model of the radioactive plume. This report summarized the outcome of the last year of the three-year plan.
El-Asaad, H.*; Nagai, Haruyasu; Sagara, Hiroshi*; Han, C. Y.*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 141, p.107292_1 - 107292_9, 2020/06
Atmospheric dispersion simulations can provide crucial information to assess radioactive plumes in the environment for nuclear emergency preparedness. However, it is a difficult and time-consuming task to make simulations assuming many possible scenarios and to derive data from a vast number of results. Therefore, an interface was developed to assist users in conveying characteristics of plumes from simulation results. The interface uses a large database that contains WSPEEDI-II simulations for the first 20-days of radioactive release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and it displays essential quantitative data to the user from the database. The user may conduct sensitivity analysis with the help of the interface by changing release condition to generate many different case scenarios.
Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tanaka, Atsunori*; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Kadowaki, Masanao
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.745 - 754, 2020/06
We have estimated source term and analyzed processes of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident by the Worldwide version of System for Environmental Emergency Dose Information. On the basis of this experience, we developed an dispersion calculation method that can respond to various needs in a nuclear emergency and provide useful information for emergency-response planning. By this method, if a release point is known, it is possible to immediately obtain the prediction results by applying provided source term to the database of dispersion-calculation results prepared in advance. With this function, it is easy to compare results by applying various source term with monitoring data, and to find out the optimum source term, which was applied for the source term estimation of the FDNPS accident. By performing this calculation with past meteorological-analysis data, it is possible to immediately get dispersion-calculation results for various source term and meteorological conditions. This database can be used for pre-accident planning, such as optimization of a monitoring plan and understanding of events to be supposed in considering emergency countermeasures.
Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takuya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.472 - 485, 2020/04
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of the Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) to predict the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides in the ocean around Japan. The purpose of this study is to validate the predictability of STEAMER using oceanographic forecast and reanalysis data, which were saved for past several years. Results of oceanic dispersion simulations that are driven by oceanographic reanalysis data are assumed to be true solutions. Oceanic dispersion simulations are conducted for Cs-137 released hypothetically from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The predictability of STEAMER is quantitatively examined for the length of the forecast period. Ensemble forecast simulations are also conducted to successfully improve the predictability of STEAMER.
Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Furuno, Akiko; Kadowaki, Masanao; Kakefuda, Toyokazu*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 213, p.106104_1 - 106104_13, 2020/03
In order to assess the radiological dose to the public resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan, the spatial and temporal distribution of radioactive materials in the environment is necessary to be reconstructed by computer simulations with the atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition model (ATDM) and source term of radioactive materials discharged into the atmosphere is essential. In this study, we carried out refinement of the source term and improvement of ATDM simulation by using an optimization method based on Bayesian inference with various measurements (air concentration, surface deposition, and fallout). We also constructed the spatiotemporal distribution of some major radionuclides in the air and on the surface (optimized dispersion database) by using the optimized release rates and ATDM simulations which is used for the comprehensive dose assessment by coupling with the behavioral pattern of evacuees from the accident.
Oba, Takashi*; Ishikawa, Tetsuo*; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tokonami, Shinji*; Hasegawa, Arifumi*; Suzuki, Gen*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.3639_1 - 3639_11, 2020/02
Internal doses of residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been reconstructed. In total 896 behaviour records in the Fukushima Health Management Survey were analysed to estimate thyroid doses via inhalation, using a spatiotemporal radionuclides concentration database constructed by atmospheric dispersion simulations. After a decontamination factor for sheltering and a modifying factor for the dose coefficient were applied, estimated thyroid doses were close to those estimated on the basis of direct thyroid measurement. The median and 95th percentile of thyroid doses of 1-year-old children ranged from 1.2 to 15 mSv and from 7.5 to 30 mSv, respectively.
Iwasaki, Toshiki*; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi*; Nakajima, Teruyuki*; Watanabe, Akira*; Suzuki, Yasushi*; Kondo, Hiroaki*; Morino, Yu*; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Takigawa, Masayuki*; et al.
Atmospheric Environment, 214, p.116830_1 - 116830_11, 2019/10
The utilization of numerical atmospheric dispersion prediction (NDP) models for accidental discharge of radioactive substances was recommended by a working group of the Meteorological Society of Japan. This paper is to validate the recommendation through NDP model intercomparison in the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Emission intensity is assumed to be constant during the whole forecast period for the worst-case scenario unless time sequence of emission is available. We expect to utilize forecasts of surface air contaminations for preventions of inhalations of radioactive substances, and column-integrated amounts for mitigation of radiation exposure associated with wet deposition. Although NDP forecasts have ensemble spread, they commonly figure out relative risk in space and time. They are of great benefit to disseminating effective warnings to public without failure. The multi-model ensemble technique may be effective to improve the reliability.
Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji; Iimoto, Takeshi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.372 - 375, 2019/10
The Ministry of the Environment has indicated the policy of recycling the contaminated soil generated by decontamination activity after the Fukushima accident. By recycling to coastal reclamation which is one of effective recycling application, dissolved radiocesium and absorbed radiocesium on soil particles will flow out to the ocean by construction, therefore evaluating radiocesium transition in ocean considering the both types of radiocesium is important for safety assessment. In this study, the radiocesium outflow during constructing and after constructing is modeled, and radiocesium transition in ocean is evaluated by Sediment model suggested in OECD/NEA. The adaptability of sediment model is confirmed by reproducing evaluation of the coastal area of Fukushima. We incorporate the sediment model to PASCLR2 code system to evaluate the doses from radiocesium in ocean.