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Journal Articles

Atmospheric dispersion simulations for the assessment of radiological dose to the public; Reassessment of the atmospheric concentration distribution of radioactive materials in the immediate aftermath of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Nagai, Haruyasu

Insights Concerning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, Vo.2; Environmental Effects and Remediation for Restoration, p.37 - 46, 2021/07

Radioactive materials were released into the environment due to the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which is operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. This release immediately led to the performance of an internal exposure dose assessment of iodine and other nuclides with a short halflife. To determine the necessary dose estimation, the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric concentration of radioactive materials was reassessed by performing dispersion simulations with $$^{131}$$I, $$^{133}$$I, $$^{132}$$Te, and $$^{137}$$Cs with due consideration given to their contribution to the internal exposure doses. A database of the spatial-temporal distribution of the concentration was developed based on the results obtained from the calculations performed for each defined time at a horizontal interval of 3 km near the ground surface.

Journal Articles

Comprehensive exposure assessments from the viewpoint of health in a unique high natural background radiation area, Mamuju, Indonesia

Nugraha, E. D.*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Kusdiana*; Untara*; Mellawati, J.*; Nurokhim*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Ikram, A.*; Syaifudin, M.*; Yamada, Ryohei; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.14578_1 - 14578_16, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:94.07(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Mamuju is one of the regions in Indonesia which retains natural conditions but has relatively high exposure to natural radiation. The goals of the present study were to characterize exposure of the entire Mamuju region as a high natural background radiation area (HNBRA) and to assess the existing exposure as a means for radiation protection of the public and the environment. A cross-sectional study method was used with cluster sampling areas by measuring all parameters that contribute to external and internal radiation exposures. It was determined that Mamuju was a unique HNBRA with the annual effective dose between 17 and 115 mSv, with an average of 32 mSv. The lifetime cumulative dose calculation suggested that Mamuju residents could receive as much as 2.2 Sv on average which is much higher than the average dose of atomic bomb survivors for which risks of cancer and non-cancer diseases are demonstrated. The study results are new scientific data allowing better understanding of health effects related to chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposure and they can be used as the main input in a future epidemiology study.

JAEA Reports

Effective dose coefficients for internal exposure dose assessment in accordance with ICRP 2007 recommendations (Contract research)

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru

JAEA-Review 2020-068, 114 Pages, 2021/03


Radiation safety regulations have been currently established based on the 1990Recommendation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Japan. Meanwhile, ICRP released the 2007 Recommendation that replaces the 1990 Recommendation. Thus, the Radiation Council, which is established under the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), has made discussions to incorporate the purpose of the 2007 Recommendation into Japanese regulations for radiation safety. As ICRP also has published effective dose coefficients for internal exposure assessment in accordance with the 2007recommendation, the technical standards are to be revised for the internal exposure assessment method in Japan. Currently, not all of the effective doses have been published to revise concentration limits for internal exposure protections of workers and public. The published effective dose coefficients are applied to radionuclides which are important in radiation protection for internal exposure of a worker. Thus, we review new effective dose coefficients as well as basic dosimetry models and data based upon Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) parts 2, 3 and 4 that have been published from 2016 to 2019 by ICRP. In addition, issues are sorted out to provide information for revision of the technical standards for internal exposure assessment based on the 2007 Recommendations in future.

Journal Articles

Iodine-129 in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant and the environment

Nakano, Masanao

Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 56(1), p.17 - 25, 2021/03

The Tokai Reprocessing Plant is the first reprocessing plant in Japan which started hot test in 1977, and had reprocessed 1140 tons of spent nuclear fuel by May 2007. The gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes has been discharged to the environment. Since iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) is one of the most important nuclides for environmental impact assessment. Therefore, $$^{129}$$I in the exhaust and effluent has been controlled, and a precise analysis method of $$^{129}$$I in the environmental samples was developed, and the concentration of 129I in the environment was investigated. This report presents an overview of these activities. Not limited to $$^{129}$$I on reprocessing facilities, it is essential for nuclear operators to reduce the amount released to the environment in the spirit of ALARA, and to continuously develop the further upgrading environmental monitoring methods and evaluation methods in order to foster a sense of safety and security among residents living in the vicinity of the facilities.

Journal Articles

Refinement of source term and atmospheric dispersion simulations of radionuclides during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Furuno, Akiko; Kadowaki, Masanao; Kakefuda, Toyokazu*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 213, p.106104_1 - 106104_13, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:42 Percentile:94.74(Environmental Sciences)

In order to assess the radiological dose to the public resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan, the spatial and temporal distribution of radioactive materials in the environment is necessary to be reconstructed by computer simulations with the atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition model (ATDM) and source term of radioactive materials discharged into the atmosphere is essential. In this study, we carried out refinement of the source term and improvement of ATDM simulation by using an optimization method based on Bayesian inference with various measurements (air concentration, surface deposition, and fallout). We also constructed the spatiotemporal distribution of some major radionuclides in the air and on the surface (optimized dispersion database) by using the optimized release rates and ATDM simulations which is used for the comprehensive dose assessment by coupling with the behavioral pattern of evacuees from the accident.

JAEA Reports

Case studies of radiation dose assessment in emergency situation of nuclear facilities

Kawasaki, Masatsugu; Nakajima, Junya; Yoshida, Keisuke; Kato, Saori; Nishino, Sho; Nozaki, Teo; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Tsunoda, Junichi; Sugaya, Yuki; Hasegawa, Rie; et al.

JAEA-Data/Code 2017-004, 57 Pages, 2017/03


In emergency situation of nuclear facilities, we need to estimate the radiation dose due to radiation and radioactivity to grasp the influence range of the accident in the early stage. Therefore, we prepare the case studies of dose assessment for public exposure dose and personal exposure dose and contribute them to emergency procedures. This document covers about accidents of nuclear facilities in Nuclear Science Research Institute and past accident of nuclear power plant, and it can be used for inheritance of techniques of emergency dose assessment.

Journal Articles

Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and measurement with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter for dose distributions in biological samples

Furuta, Takuya; Maeyama, Takuya*; Ishikawa, Kenichi*; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa*; Fukasaku, Kazuaki*; Takagi, Shu*; Noda, Shigeho*; Himeno, Ryutaro*; Hayashi, Shinichiro*

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 60(16), p.6531 - 6546, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:59.3(Engineering, Biomedical)

Low reproducibility of dose distribution in inhomogeneous regions such as soft matter near bones is known with the simple dose analysis currently adopted in treatment planning of particle cancer therapy. Therefore a treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo simulation having better accuracy is highly desired. In order to assess the simulation accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation code in situations closely related to medical application, we performed a comparison of dose distribution in a biological sample obtained by experiment and that by simulation. In particular, we irradiate a carbon beam on a biological sample composed of fresh chicken meat and bones, with a PAGAT gel dosimeter placed behind it, and compare the complex dose distribution in the gel dosimeter created by the beam passing through the inhomogeneous sample. Monte Carlo simulation using PHITS code was conducted by reconstructing the biological sample from its computed tomography images. The simulation accurately reproduced the experimental distal edge structure of the dose distribution with an accuracy under about 2 mm.

Journal Articles

Development of dose assessment code for accidental tritium releases; ACUTRI

Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kurosawa, Naohiro*

Hoken Butsuri, 40(4), p.376 - 384, 2005/12

A computer code named ACUTRI has been developed to assess tritium doses due to inhalation to the general public. ACUTRI can calculate the radiological impact of tritium gas (HT) and tritiated water (HTO) released accidentally to the atmosphere. The models in this code consist of a tritium transfer model including the oxidation of HT to HTO and the reemission of HTO from soil to the atmosphere and a dose calculation model. The atmospheric dispersion of the primary HT and HTO plumes and secondary HTO plume, which is reemitted from soil to the atmosphere, is calculated by using the Gaussian plume model. In this calculation, it is possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guideline of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. Tritium concentrations in air and their resultant doses were calculated using the ACUTRI code under some conditions. In order to validate the model, calculations were compared with experimental results.

Journal Articles

Examination for neutron dose assessment method from induced sodium-24 in human body in criticality accidents

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(4), p.378 - 383, 2005/04

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:18.04(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Experiments were made to verify a dose assessment method from activated sodium in body in criticality accidents. A phantom containing sodium chloride solution was irradiated in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility to simulate activation of sodium. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain quantitative relation between the activity of induced Na-24 and neutron dose in the phantom. In the previous work, conversion coefficients from specific activity of induced Na-24 to neutron dose had been analyzed with the MCNP-4B code concerning neutron spectra at some hypothesized configurations. One of the prepared coefficients was applied to evaluate neutron dose from the measured activity. The estimated dose agreed with the dose analyzed by the Monte Carlo calculation in the present study within an acceptable uncertainty, which is indicated by the IAEA. In addition, the dose calculated with the prepared coefficient was close to the result measured with dosimeters. These results suggest that the prepared coefficients can be applied to dose assessments from induced Na-24 in body.

JAEA Reports

Development of Environmental Dose Assessment System (EDAS) code for PC version

Taki, Mitsumasa; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hideo*; Yamaguchi, Takenori

JAERI-Data/Code 2003-006, 99 Pages, 2003/05


A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in case of normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are “Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor", “ Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor" and “Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor". This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are prepared moreover. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessment with JAERI.

Journal Articles

Study of particle size distribution and formation mechanism of radioactive aerosols generated in high-energy neutron fields

Endo, Akira; Sato, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Iida, Takao*; Furuichi, Shinya*; Kanda, Yukio*; Oki, Yuichi*

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 256(2), p.231 - 237, 2003/05

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:46.45(Chemistry, Analytical)

Size distributions of $$^{38}$$Cl, $$^{39}$$Cl, $$^{82}$$Br and $$^{84}$$Br aerosols generated by irradiations of argon and krypton gases containing di-octyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols with 45MeV and 65MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were measured to study the formation mechanism of radioactive particles in high energy radiation fields. Effects of the size distribution of the radioactive aerosols on the size of added DOP aerosols, the energy of irradiation neutrons and the kinds of nuclides were studied. The observed size distributions of the radioactive particles were explained by attachment of the radioactive atoms generated by the neutron-induced reactions to the DOP aerosols.

JAEA Reports

ACUTRI: A Computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Ryufuku, Susumu*; Sasaki, Toshihisa*; Kurosawa, Naohiro*

JAERI-Data/Code 2002-022, 87 Pages, 2002/11


Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion on licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: inhalation from a primary plume (HT and/or HTO) released from the facilities and inhalation from a secondary plume (HTO) reemitted from the ground following deposition of HT and HTO. This report describes an outline of the ACUTRI code, a user guide and the results of test calculation.

JAEA Reports

OSCAAR calculations for the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS theme 2

Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsunaga, Takeshi

JAERI-Research 2000-059, 63 Pages, 2001/01


no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

External doses in the environment from the Tokai-mura criticality accident

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Yoshizawa, Michio; Tsuda, Shuichi

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 93(3), p.207 - 214, 2001/00

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:44.6(Environmental Sciences)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of dose assessment code for accidental tritium releases

Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi

Proceedings of 10th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA-10) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2000/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of dose assessment code for accidental releases of activation products

Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

Proceedings of 10th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA-10) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2000/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Study of actinide decay chains on the environmental effect of a geologic disposal of rock-like oxide fuels and uranium-plutonium oxide fuels

Kimura, Hideo; Takano, Hideki; Muromura, Tadasumi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 274(1-2), p.197 - 205, 1999/00

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:45.87(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of a dose assessment code for acute tritium releases

Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

KURRI-KR-30, p.204 - 209, 1998/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A model of tritium dose assessment to the public:TRIDOSE

Noguchi, Hiroshi

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 73(12), P. 1360, 1997/12

no abstracts in English

34 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)