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Journal Articles

Effects of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*

Materials Transactions, 62(8), p.1239 - 1246, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings were manufactured and Vickers hardness, ring tensile tests and TEM observations of these claddings were performed to investigate the effects of thermal aging at 450 $$^{circ}$$C for 5,000 and 15,000 h. The age-hardening of all FeCrAl-ODS alloy cladding was found. In addition, the significant increase in tensile strength was accompanied by much larger loss of ductility. It was suggested that this age-hardening behavior was attributed to the (Ti, Al)-enriched phase ($$beta$$' phase) and the $$alpha$$' phase precipitates (content of Al is $$<$$ 7 wt%). In comparison with FeCrAl-ODS alloys with almost same chemical compositions, there was significant age-hardening in both alloys. However, the extrusion bar with no-recrystallized structures was keeping good ductility. It was suggested that this different behavior of reduction ductility was attributed to the effects of grain boundaries, dislocation densities and specimen preparation direction.

Journal Articles

Solid-solution strengthening by Al and Cr in FeCrAl oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys

Ukai, Shigeharu*; Yano, Yasuhide; Inoue, Toshihiko; Sowa, Takashi*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 812, p.141076_1 - 141076_11, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:68.56(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

FeCrAl oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising materials for accident tolerant fuels for light water reactors (LWRs). In these alloys, Al and Cr are key elements with important synergistic effects: enhancement of the formation of oxidation-resistant Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ phase by Cr addition and suppression of the formation of the embrittling Cr-rich $$alpha$$' phase by Al addition. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The Al and Cr contents were systematically varied from 9-16 at.% and 10-17 at.%, respectively, and tensile tests were conducted at 298 K, 573 K and 973 K in the as-annealed condition. The solid solution strengthening increased linearly, 20 MPa per 1 at.% Al and 5 MPa per 1 at.% Cr, at the typical LWR operational temperature of 573 K. The conventional Fleischer-Friedel and Labusch theories cannot explain this level of solid-solution strengthening. It was shown that Suzuki's double kink theory for screw dislocations reasonably predicts the solid solution strengthening by Al and Cr as well as the inverse dependency on the absolute temperature and linear dependency on the Al and Cr content.

Journal Articles

FEMAXI-7 analysis for modeling benchmark for FeCrAl

Yamaji, Akifumi*; Susuki, Naomichi*; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

IAEA-TECDOC-1921, p.199 - 209, 2020/07

The thermo-physical models and irradiation behavior of FeCrAl as defined by the benchmark organizer have been implemented to FEMAXI-7. Analyses were carried out firstly for the specified normal operation condition. Then, some sensitivity analyses were carried out with different assumptions and model parameters. Under the normal operating condition, the predicted FeCrAl cladded fuel performance was similar to that of Zry cladded fuel with notable, but not major difference regarding late gap closure. Under the simulated LOCA conditions, the burst pressure could be evaluated. The predicted cladding creep strain at burst was mainly attributed to creep strain with negligible plastic strain. Overall, FEMAXI-7 analyses have demonstrated excellent robustness and flexibility in modeling FeCrAl-UO$$_{2}$$ system under normal and LOCA conditions.

Journal Articles

Overview of accident-tolerant fuel R&D program in Japan

Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ioka, Ikuo; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kawanishi, Tomohiro; Kurata, Masaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Fukahori, Tokio; Nozawa, Takashi*; Sato, Daiki*; Murakami, Nozomu*; et al.

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.206 - 216, 2019/09

After the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant, research and development (R&D) program for establishing technical basis of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) started from 2015 in Japan. Since then, both experimental and analytical studies necessary for designing a new light water reactor (LWR) core with ATF candidate materials are being conducted within the Japanese ATF R&D Consortium for implementing ATF to the existing LWRs, accompanying with various technological developments required. Until now, we have accumulated experimental data of the candidate materials by out-of-pile tests, developed fuel evaluation codes to apply to the ATF candidate materials, and evaluated fuel behavior simulating operational and accidental conditions by the developed codes. In this paper, the R&D progresses of the ATF candidate materials considered in Japan are reviewed based on the information available such as proceedings of international conference and academic papers, providing an overview of ATF program in Japan.

Journal Articles

Benchmark of fuel performance codes for FeCrAl cladding behavior analysis

Pastore, G.*; Gamble, K. A.*; Cherubini, M.*; Giovedi, C.*; Marino, A.*; Yamaji, Akifumi*; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Van Uffelen, P.*; Veshchunov, M.*

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.1038 - 1047, 2019/09

Oxidation-resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) steels have been proposed for application as cladding materials in light water reactor fuel rods with improved accident tolerance. Within the Coordinated Research Project ACTOF of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a fuel performance modeling benchmark for FeCrAl cladding behavior was conducted. During this effort, calculations were performed with various fuel performance codes for a set of fuel rod problems with FeCrAl steel as cladding material, and results were compared to each other.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behaviour of FeCrAl-ODS steels in nitric acid solutions with several temperatures

Takahatake, Yoko; Ambai, Hiromu; Sano, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Koizumi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/10

The corrosion behaviour of FeCrAl-ODS steels for the accident tolerant fuel cladding of LWRs were investigated in nitric acid solutions for the reprocessing process of spent fuels. The corrosion tests were carried out at 60$$^{circ}$$C, 80$$^{circ}$$C and the boiling point of the solutions, and the specimens were then analysed by XPS. The corrosion remarkably progressed at the boiling point, and the highest corrosion rate was 0.22 mm/y. In the oxide film, the atomic concentration of Fe was lower, than that in the base material, and those of Cr and Al were higher. The results show that the corrosion of FeCrAl-ODS steels in hot nitric acid solution is not severe because of the high corrosion resistance of the oxide film formed on the material; hence, the corrosion resistance of the new cladding materials in the dissolution process of spent fuel is acceptable for reprocessing operations.

Journal Articles

Technical basis of accident tolerant fuel updated under a Japanese R&D project

Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa; Kurata, Masaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Seiichi*; Kirimura, Kazuki*; Kakiuchi, Kazuo*; Kondo, Takao*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; et al.

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

In Japan, the research and development (R&D) project on accident tolerant fuel and other components (ATFs) of light water reactors (LWRs) has been initiated in 2015 for establishing technical basis of ATFs. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has coordinated and carried out this ATF R&D project in cooperation with power plant providers, fuel venders and universities for making the best use of the experiences, knowledges in commercial uses of zirconium-base alloys (Zircaloy) in LWRs. ATF candidate materials under consideration in the project are FeCrAl steel strengthened by dispersion of fine oxide particles(FeCrAl-ODS) and silicon carbide (SiC) composite, and are expecting to endure severe accident conditions in the reactor core for a longer period of time than the Zircaloy while maintaining or improving fuel performance during normal operations. In this paper, the progresses of the R&D project are reported.

Journal Articles

Analytical study of the applicability of FeCrAl-ODS cladding for BWR

Takano, Sho*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; Goto, Daisuke*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

We focused on one of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) materials, Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe-Cr-Al Steel (FeCrAl-ODS). There is a reasonable prospect that FeCrAl-ODS is applied to BWRs, but relatively high neutron absorption should be compensated. To decrease adverse neutron economic impact, thin FeCrAl-ODS cladding was designed, and we evaluated characteristics of a core into which 9$$times$$9 Advanced BWR (ABWR) bundles with thin FeCrAl-ODS claddings were loaded. Thin FeCrAl-ODS water rods and channel boxes were also applied. We confirmed that FeCrAl-ODS core reactivity was sufficient by increasing enrichment of UO$$_{2}$$ fuel under the limit of 5 wt%. Moreover, some representative FeCrAl-ODS core characteristics were comparable to zircaloy core. We also confirmed that fuel thermal-mechanical behaviors of thin FeCrAl-ODS cladding at normal operation and transient conditions were acceptable. These results led to a conclusion that FeCrAl-ODS was applicable to BWR in the analysis range of this study.

Journal Articles

Overview of Japanese development of accident tolerant FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings for BWRs

Sakamoto, Kan*; Hirai, Mutsumi*; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kimura, Akihiko*; Yamaji, Akifumi*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; Kondo, Takao*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2017/09

This paper will show the overview of current status of development of accident tolerant FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings for BWRs (boiling water reactors) in the program sponsored and organized by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan. This program is being carried out to create the technical basis for the practical use of the accident tolerant fuels and the other components in LWRs through multifaceted activities. In the development of FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings both the experimental and the analytical studies have been performed. The acquisition and accumulation of key material properties of FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings were conducted by using bar, sheet and tube shaped FeCrAl-ODS materials fabricated in this program to support the evaluations in the analytical studies. A neutron irradiation test was also started in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to examine the effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties.

Journal Articles

Purification of uranium products in crystallization system for nuclear fuel reprocessing

Takeuchi, Masayuki; Yano, Kimihiko; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Sambommatsu, Yuji*; Nakamura, Kazuhito*; Chikazawa, Takahiro*; Hirasawa, Izumi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(4), p.521 - 528, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:23.29(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock; FY2014 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Sato, Toshinori; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Takayama, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2015-025, 31 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Research-2015-025.pdf:13.0MB

It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior. On the other hand, it was revealed that the chemical reaction of groundwater in a rock had an influence on the long-term behavior. An evaluation of the microcracks to have an influence on these mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena should be worked on chiefly. In fiscal year 2014, this study performed numerical analysis to examine the supersonic scattering attenuation decrement behavior in the crystalline rock and a measurement sequentially last year. The measurement of the head and surface waves were carried out. As a result, group speed was provided. On the other hand, the spread scattering analysis of the elastic wave by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time-Domain) method made a numerical analysis. However, a laboratory finding is different from expectation of the simulation, and crystal anisotropic influence of a microcrack and rock-forming minerals is thought about as a cause of this estrangement. Therefore it was revealed that it was necessary to examine these two points of influence more in future.

Journal Articles

Measurement of ion species in high current ECR H$$^+$$/D$$^+$$ ion source for IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility)

Shinto, Katsuhiro; Sen$'e$e, F.*; Ayala, J.-M.*; Bolzon, B.*; Chauvin, N.*; Gobin, R.*; Ichimiya, Ryo; Ihara, Akira; Ikeda, Yukiharu; Kasugai, Atsushi; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02A727_1 - 02A727_3, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:45.08(Instruments & Instrumentation)

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock; FY2013 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Sato, Toshinori; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Kazumichi

JAEA-Research 2014-027, 25 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Research-2014-027.pdf:16.92MB

The rock and the rock mass are known to show time-dependent behavior such as creep and the stress-relaxation. It is to evaluate long-term rock mechanics stability that the important theme understanding the property. From the research study until now, it is rock mechanics and chemical coupled phenomenon to have an influence on the long-term behavior. It is a theme to develop technique to model this coupled phenomenon, and to analyze. About an evaluation of the microcrack to have an influence on this coupled phenomenon, it is the theme that we should work on in a long-term rock mass behavior study chiefly. This study developed numerical analysis to check the ultrasonic scattering decrement behavior by the microcrack of the crystalline rock and the measurement technique. The FDTD method which modelled a crack was used for numerical analysis by split node. It depends on the simulation technique that it developed that useful knowledge was provided by elastic wave modeling. On the other hand, the ultrasonic measurement in a rock sample was measured by the water immersion method. As a result, we understood that we could acquire useful information to evaluate the scattering decrement of an elastic wave in a rock sample.

Journal Articles

Development of beam generation and irradiation technology for electrostatic accelerators

Chiba, Atsuya; Uno, Sadanori; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Yamada, Keisuke; Saito, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Takuro; Sato, Takahiro; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi

JAEA-Review 2005-001, TIARA Annual Report 2004, p.358 - 360, 2006/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of beam generation and irradiation technology for electrostatic accelerators

Chiba, Atsuya; Uno, Sadanori; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Yamada, Keisuke; Saito, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Takuro; Sato, Takahiro; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi

JAEA-Review 2005-001, TIARA Annual Report 2004, p.358 - 360, 2006/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Compact antenna for two-dimensional beam scan in the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating/current drive system

Moriyama, Shinichi; Kajiwara, Ken*; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Seki, Masami; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; JT-60 Team

Review of Scientific Instruments, 76(11), p.113504_1 - 113504_6, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:30.73(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A compact antenna has been designed and fabricated to enable millimeter wave beam scan in the toroidal and the poloidal directions of the JT-60U Tokamak, for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) experiments. It consists of fast movable flat mirror mounted on the Tokamak vacuum vessel, and rotary focusing mirror attached at the end of the waveguide supported from outside of the vacuum vessel. This separate support concept enables compact structure in the shallow port (0.68 m $$times$$ 0.54 m $$times$$ 0.2m) sharing with a sub-port for an independent diagnostic system. The flat mirror is driven during a shot by a servo-motor with a 3 m long drive shaft to refuse influence of the high magnetic field to the motor. The focusing mirror is rotated by a simple mechanism with a push rod and an air cylinder. The antenna has been operated reliably for 3 years after small improvement in the rotary mechanism. It has been contributing ECH and ECCD experiments especially current profile control, in JT-60U.

Journal Articles

Status of the ECR ion source for TRIAC

Nakanoya, Takamitsu; Matsuda, Makoto; Fujii, Yoshio*

Proceedings of 2nd Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan and 30th Linear Accelerator Meeting in Japan, p.729 - 730, 2005/07

TRIAC (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex) facility can accelerate both radioactive and stable ion beams up to 1.1Mev/u. In this facility, an ECR ion source is used for production of stable ion beams. Stable ion beams are used mainly as a pilot beam for radioactive ion beam. ECR ion source is required to produce many kinds of ion species, not only gas state elements. So, we developed a high temperature oven for obtaining metal ion beams. This paper describes the design and detail of the oven and experimental results.

Journal Articles

Intelligible seminor on fusion reactors, 3; Plasma heating system to generate high temperature fusion palsmas

Inoue, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keishi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 47(2), p.120 - 127, 2005/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Operational progress of the 110GHz-4MW ECRF heating system in JT-60U

Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Seki, Masami; Moriyama, Shinichi; Terakado, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yokokura, Kenji; JT-60 Team

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 25, p.45 - 50, 2005/00

The JT-60U electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) is utilized to realize high performance plasma. Its output power is 4 MW at 110 GHz. By controlling the anode voltage of the gyrotron used in the JT-60U ECRF heating system, the gyrotoron output can be controlled. Then, the anode voltage controller was developed to modulate the injected power into plasmas. This low cost controller achieved the modulation frequency 12 - 500 Hz at 0.7 MW. This controller also extended the pulse width from 5s to 16 s at 0.5 MW. For these long pulses, temperature rise of the DC break made of Alumina ceramics is estimated. Its maximum temperature becomes $$sim$$ 140 deg. From the analysis of this temperature rise, DC break materials should be changed to low loss materials for the objective pulse width of 30 s. The stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) was demonstrated by ECRF heating using the real-time system in which the ECRF beams are injected to the NTM location predicted from ECE measurement every 10 ms.

Journal Articles

Characteristics of severe accidents of Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR)

Yonomoto, Taisuke; Akie, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Noboru; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uchikawa, Sadao; Iwamura, Takamichi

Proceedings of 6th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operations and Safety (NUTHOS-6) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2004/10

Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a light-water cooled high-conversion reactor that is being developed by JAERI with collaboration from the Japanese industries. Since RMWR utilizes the highly enriched plutonium, the safety concern for RMWR includes the possibility of recriticality during severe accidents as is the case with the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. In order to clarify this concern, characteristics of severe accidents of RMWR are analyzed in this study. The results obtained so far indicate that (1) the mechanical impact of recriticality in the core, if occurs, is supposed to be insignificant due to the absence of water, (2) the mixture of the fuel and cladding debris in the lower plenum does not cause recriticality when they are well mixed and distributed flatly, and (3) if requires, the installation of neutron-absorption material with realistic geometry can effectively prevent recriticality in the lower plenum even for the conservatively-assumed spherical accumulation of core debris.

147 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)