Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Tachi, Yoshiaki
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 547, p.152833_1 - 152833_7, 2021/04
In order to evaluate the stability of nano-sized oxide particles and matrix structure of ODS cladding tube, which are the determinants of their high temperature strength, the microstructural observation was carried out after internal pressurized creep test at 700C for over 45,000 hours. The specimens were the as-received and crept specimens of 9Cr-ODS steel with tempered martensite and 12Cr-ODS steel with recrystallized ferrite. Small platelet was cut out from the crept pressurized tube, then thinned to foil. Microstructural observation was conducted with TEM JEOL 2010F. As a result of the observation, it was confirmed that the size and number density of the nano-sized particles were almost unchanged even after the creep test. In addition, the tempered martensite structure, which is one of the determinants of the creep strength of 9Cr-ODS steel, was not significantly different between the as-received and crept specimen, indicating the stability of their matrix structure.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*
JAEA-Review 2020-048, 49 Pages, 2021/01
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "The study of oxidative stress status in the organs exposed to low dose/low dose-rate radiation". This study investigates the biological effects of low dose/low dose-rate radiation exposure, which is of great social interest, on the oxidative stress status of individual organs and will contribute to the collection of scientific data in a dose range to be required. An interdisciplinary collaborative study discussed the correlation between radiation dose and the biological effect by analyzing the samples of wild Japanese macaques exposed to radiation due to the accident of Fukushima nuclear power station and of animal experiments.
Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*
Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08
Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.
Kuroda, Kenta*; Arai, Yosuke*; Rezaei, N.*; Kunisada, So*; Sakuragi, Shunsuke*; Alaei, M.*; Kinoshita, Yuto*; Bareille, C.*; Noguchi, Ryo*; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro*; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 11, p.2888_1 - 2888_9, 2020/06
Matsuda, Shinya*; Ota, Joji*; Nakaima, Kenri*; Iha, Wataru*; Gochi, Jun*; Uwatoko, Yoshiya*; Nakashima, Miho*; Amako, Yasushi*; Honda, Fuminori*; Aoki, Dai*; et al.
Philosophical Magazine, 100(10), p.1244 - 1257, 2020/04
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Kyoto University*
JAEA-Review 2019-036, 65 Pages, 2020/03
JAEA/CLADS, had been conducting the Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2018. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Quantitative Analysis Method for Radiation Distribution in High Radiation Environment by Gamma-ray Image Spectroscopy". Electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) has been developed originally for nuclear gamma-ray astronomy, and also applied to medical use as a technology that greatly improves the resolution of conventional Compton camera by measuring three-dimensional tracking of electrons using a gaseous 3-dimensional position detector (so called Time Projection Chamber) in the first stage. In the present study, based on the ETCC that has been developed for medical use, we produce a prototype of light weight ETCC with the emphasis on the operability at the site, and evaluate its practicability by field tests.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(2), p.025001_1 - 025001_2, 2020/02
Good correspondence of the and - coupling scheme can be realized in the -electron states of the heavy-fermion superconductor NpPdAl and the isostructural family. The rare-earth and actinide elements are under a common strong uniaxial point charge potential with tetragonal point symmetry . The systematic development of the -electron states can be understood in the coupling scheme of configuration (the number of electrons ). We can find the corresponding states in - coupling scheme with three -orbitals , and determined from CePdAl with configuration.
Okumura, Taiga*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Dohi, Terumi; Iijima, Kazuki; Kogure, Toshihiro*
Microscopy, 68(3), p.234 - 242, 2019/06
Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), consisting substantially of silicate glass, were released to the environment during the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. We investigated a total of nine CsMPs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inferred the atmosphere in the reactors during the accident. From elemental mapping using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fe and Zn showing radial inhomogeneities were found in the CsMPs, in addition to the Cs that had been previously reported. Four of the CsMPs included submicron crystals, which were identified as chromite, franklinite, acanthite, molybdenite, and hessite. The chromium-containing spinels, chromite and franklinite, indicated the presence of ferrous iron (Fe), suggesting that the inside of the reactors was reductive to some extent. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy also confirmed that the CsMPs did not contain boron, and therefore the atmosphere in which they were formed might be boron-free.
Tagomori, Hisaya; Dohi, Terumi; Ishii, Yasuo; Kanaizuka, Seiichi*; Fujiwara, Kenso; Iijima, Kazuki
JAEA-Technology 2019-001, 37 Pages, 2019/03
An efficient methodology for separating the radiocaesium-bearing micro particles (CsMPs) released by the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident is required to investigate their spatial distribution and physicochemical properties. In this report we developed an efficiency separation method for CsMP from litters since the radiocaesium in litter may affect the radiocaesium cycling in forest ecosystem. One CsMP separation from litter containing lots of soil particles was attained within three days using electron microscopic analysis with digestion treatment of organic matter. This methodology is expected as CsMPs efficient separation method for not only forest floor litter but also barks and leaves of living tree, and other organic materials in the forested environment.
Amemiya, Yutaro*; Nakada, Nobuo*; Morooka, Satoshi; Kosaka, Makoto*; Kato, Masaharu*
Tetsu To Hagane, 105(2), p.314 - 323, 2019/02
For deeper understanding of a dynamic accommodation mechanism of internal stress in pearlite originated from the lattice misfit between ferrite and cementite phases, the lattice parameter ratios of cementite were locally analyzed in detail by using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The EBSD analysis has revealed that lattice parameter ratios of cementite lamellae obviously differ from those of spheroidized cementite particles, which demonstrates that pearlite has a certain amount of internal stress as long as it maintains lamellar structure. The internal stress in pearlite gradually decreased during isothermal holding at 923 K after pearlitic transformation due to interfacial atomic diffusion of iron atoms. However, comparing with theoretical values under Pitsch-Petch orientation relationship, it was understood that large amount of internal stress had been already accommodated upon pearlitic transformation by introduction of misfit dislocations and structural ledges on ferrite/cementite lamellar interfaces. That is, the internal stress of pearlite is dynamically reduced by two different processes; built-in accommodation upon pearlitic transformation and additional time-dependent relaxation after pearlitic transformation. On the other hand, EBSD analysis and neutron diffraction technique gave remarkably different lattice parameters of cementite. From this result, it is concluded that various crystallographic orientation relationships between ferrite and cementite coexist in pearlite. Furthermore, elastic strain energy analysis suggests that the invariant-line criterion on ferrite/cementite interface plays an important role for the selection of orientation relationships in pearlite.
Okuchi, Takuo*; Tomioka, Naotaka*; Purevjav, N.*; Shibata, Kaoru
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 51, p.1564 - 1570, 2018/12
It is demonstrated that quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is a novel and effective method to analyse atomic scale hydrogen transport processes occurring within a mineral crystal lattice. The method was previously characterized as sensitive for analysing the transport frequency and distance of highly diffusive hydrogen atoms or water molecules in condensed matter. Here are shown the results of its application to analyse the transport of much slower hydrogen atoms which are bonded into a crystal lattice as hydroxyls. Two types of hydrogen transport process were observed in brucite, Mg(OH) : a jump within a single two-dimensional layer of the hydrogen lattice and a jump into the next nearest layer of it. These transport processes observed within the prototypical structure of brucite have direct implications for hydrogen transport phenomena occurring within various types of oxides and minerals having layered structures.
Hatsukawa, Yuichi*; Hayakawa, Takehito*; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki*; Sato, Tetsuya; Asai, Masato; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru*; Sonoda, Shinya*; Kabuki, Shigeto*; et al.
PLOS ONE (Internet), 13(12), p.e0208909_1 - e0208909_12, 2018/12
Imaging of Tc radioisotope was conducted using an electron tracking-Compton camera (ETCC). Tc emits 204, 582, and 835 keV rays, and was produced in the Mo(p,n)Tc reaction with a Mo-enriched target. The recycling of the Mo-enriched molybdenum trioxide was investigated, and the recycled yield of Mo was achieved to be 70% - 90%. The images were obtained with each of the three rays. Results showed that the spatial resolution increases with increasing -ray energy, and suggested that the ETCC with high-energy -ray emitters such as Tc is useful for the medical imaging of deep tissue and organs in the human body.
Metoki, Naoto; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Matsuda, Masaaki*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(11), p.114712_1 - 114712_9, 2018/11
The localized 5 states with 5 () configuration of U ion have been revealed in UPdAl. We found that the low-lying states are the same as PrPdAl flat orbitals with large are stabilized by a two-dimensional CEF potential in the unique crystal structure. The present study involves the valence crossover from tetravalent to trivalent in a series of AnPdAl, demonstrated by lattice and/or transport anomaly as well as many body effects in the vicinity of the boundary. The valence instability plays important role for the unusual heavy fermion superconductivity in NpPdAl.
Metoki, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki*; Kitazawa, Hideaki*; Hagihala, Masato*; Masuda, Takatsugu*; Aczel, A. A.*; Chi, S.*; Hong, T.*; Matsuda, Masaaki*; et al.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(9), p.094704_1 - 094704_8, 2018/09
The -electron states of PrPdAl were revealed by neutron inelastic scattering. The flat -orbitals with large become stable under the two-dimensional CEF potential of unique crystal structure, which is the origin of the Ising anisotropy. A systematic understanding is possible in RPdAl based on this CEF potential. Especially the -type anisotropy in NpPdAl can be qualitatively understood with the positive Stevens factors. It mean that the local property is important for the physical properties of RPdAl including the heavy fermion superconductivity in NpPdAl.
Metoki, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki*; Kitazawa, Hideaki*; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiko*; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Inamura, Yasuhiro
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(8), p.084708_1 - 084708_7, 2018/08
Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out in order to study the -electron states of NdPdAlThe CEF levels at 0K, 35.4K, 88.3K, 101.5K, and 198.8K were clarified from the excitation spectra. The ground state contains the orbital with as a main component due to a large negative BK, which is the origin of the strong uniaxial anisotropy. The estimated magnetic moment, the calculated susceptibility, magnetization curve, and specific heat are in good agreement with the experimental data. The existence of a common charge distribution with CePdAl and PrPdAl. Indicates that a localized character is important even in actinide-based iso-structural compounds as actually observed in UPdAl and also NpPdAl, in which the valence crossover plays important role for the heavy fermion superconductivity.
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 16, p.230 - 237, 2018/08
Nara, Yoshitaka*; Kuwatani, Ryuta*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Kashiwaya, Koki*
Zairyo, 67(7), p.730 - 737, 2018/07
Information of confining ability of rock is important for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. To maintain or improve the confining ability of rocks, it is important to seal pores and cracks. In this study, we investigated the precipitation of minerals on the rock surface. As rock samples, we used Berea sandstone and Toki granite in this study. It was shown that precipitation occurred on the surface of rock specimens kept in calcium hydroxide solution for 1 month if the concentration was high. Specifically, if the concentration of calcium hydroxide solution was higher than 300 mg/l, the precipitation occurred obviously. After keeping rock specimens in calcium hydroxide solution, the weight of the rock samples increased and the concentration of calcium ion decreased by the precipitation. It is considered that the calcium ion in water was used for the precipitation on rock surfaces. Since the precipitation has been recognized for rock surfaces, it is possible to seal pores and cracks in rocks. Therefore, it is also possible to keep or decrease the permeability of rocks by the precipitation of calcium compounds.
Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Maeyama, Shinya*; Ogawa, Yuichi*
Physics of Plasmas, 24(4), p.042303_1 - 042303_13, 2017/04
Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.
Baba, Yuji; Shimoyama, Iwao
Photon Factory Activity Report 2016, 2 Pages, 2017/00
In order to elucidate the adsorption states of radioactive Sr-90 in soil, chemical bonding states of non-radioactive strontium adsorbed on layered oxide (mica) have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Since the number of atoms in radioactive Sr-90 is extremely small, the XPS and XANES were measured under total reflection condition of the incident X-rays. The detection limit in total reflection XPS was about 150 pg/cm, which corresponds to 300 Bq of Sr-90. The Sr 2p core-level energy in XPS shifted to lower energy with the decrease in the thickness of Sr layer. Also, the Sr 2p Sr 4d resonance energy in XANES shifts to lower energy with the decrease in the thickness. On the basis of a simple point charge model, it was elucidated that the chemical bond between Sr and mica surface becomes ionic with the decrease in the adsorbed amount of strontium.
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Onuma, Masato*
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.346 - 352, 2016/12