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JAEA Reports

Investigation of the core neutronics analysis conditions for evaluation of burn-up nuclear characteristics of the next-generation fast reactors

Takino, Kazuo; Oki, Shigeo

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-003, 26 Pages, 2023/05

JAEA-Data-Code-2023-003.pdf:1.66MB

Since next-generation fast reactors aim to achieve a higher core discharge burn-up than conventional reactors do, core neutronics design methods must be refined. Therefore, a suitable analysis condition is required for the analysis of burn-up nuclear characteristics to accomplish sufficient estimation accuracy while maintaining a low computational cost. We investigated the effect of the analysis conditions on the accuracy of estimation of the burn-up nuclear characteristics of next-generation fast reactors in terms of neutron energy groups, neutron transport theory, and spatial mesh. This study treated the following burn-up nuclear characteristics: criticality, burn-up reactivity, control rod worth, breeding ratio, assembly-wise power distribution, maximum linear heat rate, sodium void reactivity, and Doppler coefficient for the equilibrium operation cycle. As a result, it was found that the following conditions were the most suitable: 18-energy-group structure, 6 spatial meshes per assembly with diffusion approximation. Additionally, these conditions should apply to correction factors for energy group structure, spatial mesh and transport effects.

Journal Articles

Development of adjusted nuclear data library for fast reactor application

Yokoyama, Kenji

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00004_1 - 00004_10, 2023/03

In Japan, development of adjusted nuclear data library for fast rector application based on the cross-section adjustment method has been conducted since the early 1990s. The adjusted library is called the unified cross-section set. The first version was developed in 1991 and is called ADJ91. Recently, the integral experimental data were further expanded to improve the design prediction accuracy of the core loaded with minor actinoids and/or degraded Pu. Using the additional integral experimental data, development of ADJ2017 was started in 2017. In 2022, the latest unified cross-section set AJD2017R was developed based on JENDL-4.0 by using 619 integral experimental data. An overview of the latest version with a review of previous ones will be shown. On the other hand, JENDL-5 was released in 2021. In the development of JENDL-5, some of the integral experimental data used in ADJ2017R were explicitly utilized in the nuclear data evaluation. However, this is not reflected in the covariance data. This situation needs to be considered when developing a unified cross-section set based on JENDL-5. Preliminary adjustment calculation based on JENDL-5 is performed using C/E (calculation/experiment) values simply evaluated by a sensitivity analysis. The preliminary results will be also discussed.

Journal Articles

Chapter 5, Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs)/ Chapter 12, Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan

Kubo, Shigenobu; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition, p.173 - 194, 2023/03

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition is a fully revised and updated comprehensive resource on the latest research and advances in generation IV nuclear reactor concepts. Editor Igor Pioro and his team of expert contributors have updated every chapter to reflect advances in the field since the first edition published in 2016. JAEA contributes to Chapter 5; Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) and Chapter 12; Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan. Major characteristics and current technology developments including safety enhancement were described in Chapter 5. Chapter 12 shows design activities of SFR. Innovative technology developments, and update of the Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor design with lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

JAEA Reports

Experimental study on prevention of high cycle thermal fatigue at the core outlet of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor; Characteristics of temperature fluctuations and countermeasures to mitigate temperature fluctuations at a bottom of upper internal structure

Kobayashi, Jun; Aizawa, Kosuke; Ezure, Toshiki; Nagasawa, Kazuyoshi*; Kurihara, Akikazu; Tanaka, Masaaki

JAEA-Research 2022-009, 125 Pages, 2023/01

JAEA-Research-2022-009.pdf:29.22MB

The design studies of an advanced loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor (Advanced- SFR) have been carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). At the core outlet, temperature fluctuations occur due to mixing of hot sodium from the fuel assembly with cold sodium from the control rod channels and radial blanket assembly. These temperature fluctuations may cause high cycle thermal fatigue around a bottom of Upper Internal Structure (UIS) located above the core. Therefore, we conducted a water experiment using a 1/3 scale 60 degree sector model that simulated the upper plenum of the advanced loop-type sodium-cooled reactor. And we proposed some countermeasures against large temperature fluctuations that occur at the bottom of the UIS. In this report, we have summarized that the effect of the countermeasure structure to mitigate the temperature fluctuation generated at the bottom of UIS is confirmed, and the Reynolds number dependency of the countermeasure structure and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuation on the control rod surface.

Journal Articles

A 3D particle-based simulation of heat and mass transfer behavior in the EAGLE ID1 in-pile test

Zhang, T.*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Kamiyama, Kenji

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 179, p.109389_1 - 109389_10, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:58.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Evaluation of fuel reactivity worth measurement in the prototype fast reactor Monju

Ohgama, Kazuya; Takegoshi, Atsushi*; Katagiri, Hiroki; Hazama, Taira

Nuclear Technology, 208(10), p.1619 - 1633, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:58.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Investigation on natural circulation behavior for decay heat removal in reactor vessel of sodium-cooled fast reactor under severe accident condition, 1; Effect of decay-heat conditions on natural circulation behavior under dipped-type DHX operation conditions

Tsuji, Mitsuyo; Aizawa, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Kurihara, Akikazu

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2022/10

In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), decay heat removal after a core disruptive accident (CDA) is an important issue for the safety enhancement. Therefore, water experiments using a 1/10 scale experimental apparatus (PHEASANT) that simulates the reactor vessel of an SFR are conducted to investigate the natural circulation phenomena in the reactor vessel. In this study, experiments under the operation of the dipped-type DHX were conducted to investigate the effect of the heat generation ratio between the fuel debris on the core catcher in lower plenum and the reactor core remnant on the natural circulation behavior in the reactor vessel. The temperature distribution and the velocity distribution were measured under two heat generation conditions. Thus, the effect of the heat generation ratio between the fuel debris in the lower plenum and the reactor core remnant on the natural circulation behavior was quantitatively grasped under the dipped-type DHX operating conditions.

Journal Articles

Preliminary deformation analysis of the reactor vessel due to core debris accumulation onto the reactor vessel bottom for sodium-cooled fast reactor

Onoda, Yuichi; Yamano, Hidemasa

Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/10

In Japan, sodium-cooled fast reactor design takes In-Vessel Retention (IVR) strategy to stably cool damaged core materials in the reactor vessel during a severe accident with various design measures. Although a possibility to fail IVR is extremely low, a probabilistic risk assessment study needs a wide variety of scenarios including the IVR failure. Therefore, in order to study a wide range of event spectra related to stable cooling of debris in the reactor vessel, this study numerically investigated the deformation and failure behavior of the reactor vessel due to the debris deposited onto the skirt of the core catcher using the FINAS-STAR structural analysis code. The analyses are conducted in two cases of power density with the aim of investigating failure conditions of the bottom of the reactor vessel. Reactor vessel deforms significantly when the temperature reaches about 1100 $$^{circ}$$C and the reactor vessel reaches the failure criteria in high-power-density case.

Journal Articles

Development of safety design criteria and safety design guidelines for Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors

Futagami, Satoshi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Sofu, T.*; Ammirabile, L.*; Gauthe, P.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety; Strengthening Safety of Evolutionary and Innovative Reactor Designs (TIC 2022) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of annular dispersed flow in simplified subchannel of light water cooled fast reactor RBWR

Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Ono, Ayako; Furuichi, Hajime*; Katono, Kenichi*

Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2022/08

Journal Articles

Hydrogen release reaction from sodium hydride with different sample quantities

Doi, Daisuke

Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2022/08

Journal Articles

Development of evaluation method of gas entrainment on the free surface in the reactor vessel in pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactors; Gas entrainment judgment based on three-dimensional evaluation of vortex center line and distribution of pressure decrease

Matsushita, Kentaro; Ezure, Toshiki; Imai, Yasutomo*; Fujisaki, Tatsuya*; Tanaka, Masaaki

Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/08

Development of evaluation method for cover gas entrainment (GE) by vortices generated at free surface in upper plenum of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is required. GE evaluation tool, named StreamViewer, based on method using numerical results of three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis for loop-type SFRs has been developed. In this study, modification of evaluation method of StreamViewer to rationalize conservativeness in evaluation results was examined by identifying vortex center lines and calculating three-dimensional distribution of pressure decrease along vortex center lines. The applicability of modified method was checked using water experimental result in rectangular open channel where unsteady vortices are generated. As the result, it was indicated that evaluation results on gas core depth which were excessive in current method were improved in modified method, and it is confirmed that modified method may discriminate onset of GE with appropriate criteria.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of sodium mist behavior in turbulent Rayleigh-B$'e$nard convection using new developed mist models

Ohira, Hiroaki*; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Ezure, Toshiki

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 172, p.109075_1 - 109075_10, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to evaluate the mist behavior in the cover gas region of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in good accuracy, turbulent model for Rayleigh-B$'e$nard convection (RBC) was selected, and the Reynolds-averaged number density and momentum equations for mist behavior were developed and incorporated into the OpenFOAM code. In the first stage, the RBC in a simple parallel channel was calculated using Favre-averaged k-$$omega$$ SST model. The average temperature and flow characteristics agreed well with results from DNS, LES, and experiments. Then the basic heat transfer experiment simulating the cover gas region of SFRs was calculated using this turbulent model and new mist models. The calculated average temperature distribution in the height direction and the mist mass concentration agreed well with the experimental results. We developed a method that could simulate the mist behavior in turbulent RBC environments and the cover gas region of SFRs with high accuracy.

Journal Articles

Development of dynamic PRA methodology for external hazards (Application of CMMC method to severe accident analysis code)

Li, C.-Y.; Watanabe, Akira*; Uchibori, Akihiro; Okano, Yasushi

Dai-26-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/07

Identifying accident scenarios that could lead to severe accidents and evaluating their frequency of occurrence are essential issues. This study aims to establish the methodology of the dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors that can consider the time dependency and the interdependence of each event. Specifically, the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo (CMMC) method is newly applied to the SPECTRA code, which analyzes the severe accident conditions of nuclear reactors, to develop an evaluation methodology for typical external hazards. Currently, a fault-tree model of air coolers of decay heat removal system is implemented as the CMMC method, and a series of preliminary analysis of the plant's transient characteristics under the scenario of volcanic ashfall has been conducted.

Journal Articles

Integral experiment of $$^{129}$$I(n, $$gamma$$) using fast neutron source in the "YAYOI" reactor

Nakamura, Shoji; Toh, Yosuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Hatsukawa, Yuichi*; Harada, Hideo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(7), p.851 - 865, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The present study performed integral experiments of $$^{129}$$I using a fast-neutron source reactor "YAYOI" of the University of Tokyo to validate evaluated nuclear data libraries. The iodine-129 sample and flux monitors were irradiated by fast neutrons in the Glory hole of the YAYOI reactor. Reaction rates of $$^{129}$$I were obtained by measurement of decay gamma-rays emitted from $$^{130}$$I. The validity of the fast-neutron flux spectrum in the Glory hole was confirmed by the ${it C/E}$ ratios of the reaction rates of flux monitors. The experimental reaction rate of $$^{129}$$I was compared with that calculated with both the fast-neutron flux spectrum and evaluated nuclear data libraries. The present study revealed that the evaluated nuclear data of $$^{129}$$I cited in JENDL-4.0 should be reduced as much as 18% in neutron energies ranging from 10 keV to 3 MeV, and supported the reported data by Noguere ${it et al.}$ below 100 keV.

Journal Articles

Study on initiating phase of core disruptive accident (Validation study of SAS4A code for the unprotected transient overpower accident)

Ishida, Shinya; Fukano, Yoshitaka

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 88(911), p.21-00304_1 - 21-00304_11, 2022/07

In previous studies, the reliability and validity of the SAS4A code was enhanced by applying Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) approach to the Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF). SAS4A code has been developed to analyze the early stage of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), which is named Initiating Phase (IP). In this study, PIRT approach was applied to Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP), which was one of the most important and typical events in CDA as well as ULOF. The phenomena were identified by the investigation of UTOP event progression and physical phenomena relating to UTOP were ranked. 8 key phenomena were identified and the differences in ranking between UTOP and ULOF were clarified. The code validation matrix was completed and an SAS4A model, which was not validated in ULOF, was identified and validated. SAS4A code became applicable to various scenarios by using PIRT approach to UTOP and the reliability and validity of SAS4A code were significantly enhanced.

Journal Articles

Boundary condition free homogenization and evaluation of its performance in fast reactor core analysis

Maruyama, Shuhei

Proceedings of International Conference on Physics of Reactors 2022 (PHYSOR 2022) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/05

This paper proposes a new homogenization method, "Boundary Condition Free Homogenization (BCFH)". The traditional homogenization method separates the core calculation and the cell (assembly) calculation by assuming a specific boundary condition or a peripheral region in the cell calculation. Nevertheless, there are ambiguities and approximation in these assumptions, and they can also cause a decline in accuracy. BCFH aims to avoid these problems and improve the accuracy in the cell calculation such as homogenization. We imposed the conditions that the physical quantities in the cell related to the reaction rate preservation is preserved for any incoming partial current, during the homogenization. That is, the response matrices of cell average (or total) flux and outgoing partial current, to be the same form between heterogeneous and homogeneous system. As a result, homogenized parameters, such as cross-sections, superhomgenization factors, and discontinuity factors, are no longer dependent on a specific boundary condition. The new homogenized parameters obtained in this way are extended from the conventional vector form to the matrix form in BCFH. To investigate the performance of BCFH, numerical tests are done for the simplified models which originates in 750MW-class sodium-cooled fast reactor with MOX fuel core in Japan. It is found that BCFH is particularly effective in evaluating control rod reactivity worth and reaction rate distribution, compared to the traditional method. We conclude that the BCFH can be a promising homogenization concept for core neutronic analysis.

Journal Articles

Material data acquisition activities to develop the material strength standard for sodium-cooled fast reactors

Toyota, Kodai; Onizawa, Takashi; Wakai, Takashi; Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/04

Journal Articles

French-Japanese experimental collaboration on fuel-coolant interactions in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Johnson, M.*; Delacroix, J.*; Journeau, C.*; Brayer, C.*; Clavier, R.*; Montazel, A.*; Pluyette, E.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04

Fuel-coolant interactions in the event of molten fuel discharge to the lower plenum of a sodium cooled fast reactor is under investigation as part of a French-Japanese experimental collaboration on severe accidents. The MELT facility enables the X-ray visualisation of the quenching of molten core material jets in sodium at kilogram-scale. The SERUA facility, currently under preparation, is presented for the investigation of boiling heat transfer at elevated melt-coolant interface temperatures. In this article, the status of the collaboration using these facilities is presented.

JAEA Reports

Development of the unified cross-section set ADJ2017R

Yokoyama, Kenji; Maruyama, Shuhei; Taninaka, Hiroshi; Oki, Shigeo

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-019, 115 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-019.pdf:6.21MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2021-019-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:435.94MB

In JAEA, several versions of unified cross-section set for fast reactors have been developed so far; we have developed a new unified cross-section set ADJ2017R, which is an improved version of the unified cross-section setADJ2017 for fast reactors. The unified cross-section set is used for reflecting information of C/E values (analysis / experiment values) obtained by integral experiment analyses in reactor core design via the cross-section adjustment methodology; the values are stored in the standard database for FBR core design. In the methodology, the cross-section set is adjusted by integrating the information such as uncertainty (covariance) of nuclear data, uncertainty of integral experiment / analysis, sensitivity of integral experiment with respect to nuclear data. ADJ2017R basically has the same performance as ADJ2017, but we conducted an additional investigation on ADJ2017 and revised the following two points. The first is to unify the evaluation method of the correlation coefficient of uncertainty caused by experiments (hereinafter referred to as the experimental correlation coefficient). Because it was found that the common uncertainty used in the evaluation of the experimental correlation coefficient was evaluated by two different methods, the experimental correlation coefficients were revised for all experimental data, and the evaluation method was unified. The second is the review of the integral experiment data used for the cross-section adjustment calculation. It was found that one of the experimental values of composition ratio after irradiation of the Am-243 sample has a problem in uncertainty evaluation because its experimental uncertainty is extremely small compared to the others. The cross-section adjustment calculation was, therefore, redone by excluding the experimental value. In the creation of ADJ2017, a total of 719 data sets were analyzed and evaluated, and eventually adopted 620 integral experimental data sets. In contrast, a total of 61

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