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Phase analysis of simulated nuclear fuel debris synthesized using UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and stainless steel and leaching behavior of the fission products and matrix elements

頓名 龍太郎*; 佐々木 隆之*; 児玉 雄二*; 小林 大志*; 秋山 大輔*; 桐島 陽*; 佐藤 修彰*; 熊谷 友多; 日下 良二; 渡邉 雅之

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 55(4), p.1300 - 1309, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

UO$$_{2}$$・Zr・ステンレス鋼を出発物質として模擬デブリを合成し、形成された固相の分析と浸漬試験を行った。主要なU含有相は合成条件に依存し、不活性雰囲気下・1473KではUO$$_{2}$$相が維持されていた。1873Kでは(U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$固溶体相の形成が観測された。酸化性雰囲気では、1473Kの場合にはU$$_{3}$$O$$_{8}$$と(Fe,Cr)UO$$_{4}$$相の混合物が得られ、1873Kでは(U,Zr)O$$_{2}$$が形成された。浸漬試験により金属イオンの溶出挙動を調べるため、中性子照射により核分裂生成物を導入する、もしくは出発物質への添加によりその安定同位体を導入する処理を行った。試験の結果、Uの溶出挙動は、模擬デブリの性状や浸漬液の液性に依存することが確認された。CsやSr, Baは模擬デブリの固相組成に依存せず顕著な溶出を示した。一方で、多価イオンとなるEuとRuの溶出は抑制されることが観測され、模擬デブリ中でウラン相に固溶ないしは包含されたことによる影響が推察される。


福島第一発電所2、3号機の事故進展シナリオに基づくFP・デブリ挙動の不確かさ低減と炉内汚染状況・デブリ性状の把握(委託研究); 令和3年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東京工業大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-053, 89 Pages, 2023/02


日本原子力研究開発機構(JAEA)廃炉環境国際共同研究センター(CLADS)では、令和3年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業(以下、「本事業」という)を実施している。本事業は、東京電力ホールディングス株式会社福島第一原子力発電所の廃炉等を始めとした原子力分野の課題解決に貢献するため、国内外の英知を結集し、様々な分野の知見や経験を、従前の機関や分野の壁を越えて緊密に融合・連携させた基礎的・基盤的研究及び人材育成を推進することを目的としている。平成30年度の新規採択課題から実施主体を文部科学省からJAEAに移行することで、JAEAとアカデミアとの連携を強化し、廃炉に資する中長期的な研究開発・人材育成をより安定的かつ継続的に実施する体制を構築した。本研究は、研究課題のうち、令和3年度に採択された「福島第一発電所2、3号機の事故進展シナリオに基づくFP・デブリ挙動の不確かさ低減と炉内汚染状況・デブリ性状の把握」の令和3年度の研究成果について取りまとめたものである。本研究では、シールドプラグ下高線量の原因究明、事故時のCs移行経路や、Csの構造材付着・堆積状態の解明および先行溶落したと推定される金属リッチデブリ特性評価を行うため、事故進展最確シナリオ評価に基づく材料科学的アプローチとして、3項目((1)Cs分布評価の不確かさの低減、(2)金属デブリの酸化変質評価、(3)総合評価)に取り組んでいる。本年度は各要素技術法に関する実験的研究シミュレーション研究を進める上で必要な基盤の整備及び予備実験などに着手するとともに、本研究で抽出したBackward Analysisの2個の課題について、Forward Analysis専門家との相互連携による現象理解と炉内状況把握の精緻化に向けての方針の検討を行った。その結果、事故進展最確シナリオを参照して、燃料デブリとセシウムの化学状態変化と移行経路について認識を共有することができ、今後の研究展開について展望した。


合金相を含む燃料デブリの安定性評価のための基盤研究(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-009, 73 Pages, 2022/06




In-depth analysis for uncertain phenomena on fission product transport in the OECD/NEA ARC-F project

Lind, T.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Sonnenkalb, M.*; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2022/03

The accident progression and fission product release from the three damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were systematically investigated in the OECD/NEA BSAF project phases 1 and 2. As a result of those investigations, a good progress was achieved in establishing defendable accident scenarios and the corresponding fission product releases to the environment. Nonetheless, there are some areas requiring further work, particularly concerning fission product behavior. They are addressed in the OECD/NEA project "Analysis of Information from Reactor Buildings and Containment Vessels of Fukushima Daiichi NPS" (ARC-F). Based on the outcome of the BSAF project, several focus areas were selected for further investigations in the ARC-F project, one of them being the behavior of fission products and source term. In this paper, five topics which were ranked with a high significance as open issues based on the BSAF project regarding fission product behavior are discussed: i) fission product speciation, ii) iodine chemistry, iii) pool scrubbing, iv) fission product transport and behavior in the buildings, and v) uncertainty analysis and variant calculations. Significant progress has been made in these five topics in the ARC-F project. In this paper, background is given for choosing these topics for specific investigations based on the outcome of the BSAF project. The topics are described and the approach to study them in the ARC-F given along with some exemplary, preliminary results. Finally, the readers' attention is drawn to open issues which are not included in the ARC-F work scope and could need further attention.


Development and testing of a delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy instrument utilizing Cf-252 neutrons evaluated for nuclear safeguards applications

Rodriguez, D.; Abbas, K.*; 小泉 光生; Nonneman, S.*; Rossi, F.; 高橋 時音

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1014, p.165685_1 - 165685_10, 2021/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:42.93(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Under the MEXT subsidy on research for improving nuclear security related development, we designed the Delayed Gamma-ray Californium Test (DGCT) instrument. From He-3 count-rate experiments performed in collaboration with the European Commission Joint Research Centre, we show the effective neutron flux entering the sample space. Further, we show delayed gamma-ray spectra of both U and Pu samples as well as a comparison to the background from Cf activation of the environment. Finally, we make comparisons to earlier spectra obtained using PUNITA, including relative fission capability, spectral signature, and mass correlations.


Overview and outcomes of the OECD/NEA benchmark study of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS (BSAF), Phase 2; Results of severe accident analyses for unit 3

Lind, T.*; Pellegrini, M.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Sonnenkalb, M.*; 西 義久*; 玉置 等史; Cousin, F.*; Fernandez Moguel, L.*; Andrews, N.*; Sevon, T.*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 376, p.111138_1 - 111138_12, 2021/05

 被引用回数:13 パーセンタイル:94.94(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Evaluation of high-energy delayed gamma-ray spectra dependence on interrogation timing patterns

Rodriguez, D.; Bogucarska, T.*; 小泉 光生; Lee, H.-J.; Pedersen, B.*; Rossi, F.; 高橋 時音; Varasano, G.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 997, p.165146_1 - 165146_13, 2021/05

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:24.48(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Under the MEXT subsidy to strengthen nuclear security related research, the ISCN is developing delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy (DGS) for nuclear safeguards. Here we present results from experiments using the PUNITA instrument in collaboration with JRC-Ispra to evaluate the gamma-ray spectral dependence on interrogation time patterns and number of cycles. Specifically, we investigated the observable gamma rays useful to quantify the $$^{239}$$Pu and $$^{235}$$U contributions. Of the time patterns tested in this study, we determined that irradiating the sample for 60-$$s$$ followed by a gamma-ray measurement of 60-$$s$$ was the best for a comparable one-hour total interrogation time.


Phenomena identification ranking tables for accident tolerant fuel designs applicable to severe accident conditions

Khatib-Rahbar, M.*; Barrachin, M.*; Denning, R.*; Gabor, J.*; Gauntt, R.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Hobbins, R.*; Jacquemain, D.*; 丸山 結; Metcalf, J.*; et al.

NUREG/CR-7282, ERI/NRC 21-204 (Internet), 160 Pages, 2021/04

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to accept anticipated licensing applications for the commercial use of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) in commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. It is the objective of the NRC to evaluate the effects of ATF designs on severe accident behavior, and to determine potential changes to the NRC severe accident analysis computer codes that would simulate plant conditions using ATFs commensurate with the accuracy in accident analyses involving conventional fuels. This report documents the development of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) for near-term ATFs under severe accident conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The PIRTs were developed by a panel of experts for various near-term ATF design concepts (i.e., FeCrAl cladding, zirconium alloy cladding coated with chromium, and Cr$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ dopants in uranium dioxide fuels) in addition to the impacts from fuel enrichment and burnup. Panel members also considered the severe accident implications of the longer-term ATF concepts. The main figures-of-merit considered in this ranking process are the amount of fission products released into the containment and the quantity of combustible gases generated during an accident. Special focus is given to whether existing severe accident codes and models would be sufficient as applied to LWRs employing these fuels, and whether additional experimental studies or model development would be warranted.


合金相を含む燃料デブリの安定性評価のための基盤研究(委託研究); 令和元年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2020-032, 97 Pages, 2021/01




合金相を含む燃料デブリの安定性評価のための基盤研究(委託研究); 平成30年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉国際共同研究センター; 東北大学*

JAEA-Review 2019-035, 61 Pages, 2020/03




Influence of chemical speciation in reactor cooling system on pH of suppression pool during BWR severe accident

塩津 弘之; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(4), p.363 - 373, 2018/04

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:56.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The influences of chemical speciation for Cs-I-Te-Mo-Sn-B-C-O-H system, simulating a state in the reactor cooling system (RCS) of BWR, on pH of the suppression chamber (S/C) water pool were analytically investigated with PHREEQC code. Major conditions were chosen on the basis of the outputs from a BWR severe accident analysis by THALES2 code and chemical thermodynamic analysis with VICTORIA2.0 code. The chemical thermodynamic analysis showed that the chemical speciation of important volatile FPs, Cs and I, was strongly influenced by Mo and B$$_{4}$$C control material. As a consequence, pH of the S/C water pool was predicted to range from approximately 6 to 10, depending on the fraction of volatile FPs transported from the RCS to the S/C water pool and the H$$_{2}$$/H$$_{2}$$O ratio associated with the oxygen potential. It was implied that the formation of volatile I species such as I$$_{2}$$ in the S/C water pool was larger by 3 orders at the lowest pH than that at the highest pH.


Bayesian optimization analysis of containment-venting operation in a Boiling Water Reactor severe accident

Zheng, X.; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 49(2), p.434 - 441, 2017/03

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:39.36(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Containment venting is one of essential measures to protect the integrity of the final barrier of a nuclear reactor during severe accidents, by which the uncontrollable release of fission products can be avoided. The authors seek to develop an optimization approach, from a simulation-based perspective, to the venting operations by using an integrated severe accident code, THALES2/KICHE. The effectiveness of containment venting strategies needs to be verified via numerical simulations based on various settings of venting conditions. The number of iterations, however, needs to be controlled for cumbersome computational burden of integrated codes. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization approach. By using Gaussian process regression, a surrogate model of the "black-box" code is constructed. It can be updated simultaneously whenever new simulation results are acquired. With predictions via the surrogate model, upcoming locations of the most probable optimum can be revealed. The sampling procedure is adaptive. The number of code queries is largely reduced for the optimum finding, compared with pure random searches. One typical severe accident scenario of a boiling water reactor is chosen as an example. The research demonstrates the applicability of the Bayesian optimization approach to the design and establishment of containment-venting strategies during severe accidents.


Experimental investigation of the influence of Mo contained in stainless steel on Cs chemisorption behavior

Di Lemma, F. G.; 中島 邦久; 山下 真一郎; 逢坂 正彦

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 484, p.174 - 182, 2017/02

 被引用回数:21 パーセンタイル:90.12(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)



Bayesian optimization analysis of containment venting operation in a BWR severe accident

Zheng, X.; 石川 淳; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of 13th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (PSAM-13) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2016/10

Containment venting is one of essential measures to protect the integrity of the final barrier of a nuclear reactor, by which the uncontrollable release of fission products can be avoided. The authors seek to develop an optimization approach to the planning of containment-venting operations by using THALES2/KICHE. Factors that control the activation of the venting system, for example, containment pressure, amount of fission products within the containment and pH value in the suppression chamber water pool, will affect radiological consequences. The effectiveness of containment venting strategies needs to be confirmed through numerical simulations. The number of iterations, however, needs to be controlled for cumbersome computational burden of severe accident codes. Bayesian optimization is a computationally efficient global optimization approach to find desired solutions. With the use of Gaussian process regression, a surrogate model of the "black-box" code is constructed. According to the predictions through the surrogate model, the upcoming location of the most probable optimum can be revealed. The number of code queries is largely reduced for the optimum finding, compared with simpler methods such as pure random search. The research demonstrates the applicability of the Bayesian optimization approach to the design and establishment of containment-venting strategies under BWR severe accident conditions.


Boron release kinetics from mixed melts of boron carbide, stainless steel and Zircaloy; A Literature review on the behavior of control rod materials under severe accidents

Di Lemma, F. G.; 三輪 周平; 逢坂 正彦

JAEA-Review 2016-007, 27 Pages, 2016/03




原研における群分離に関する研究開発; 4群群分離プロセス開発までのレビュー

森田 泰治; 久保田 益充*

JAERI-Review 2005-041, 35 Pages, 2005/09




Analysis of pressure- and temperature- induced steam generator tube rupture during PWR severe accident initiated from station blackout

日高 昭秀; 丸山 結; 中村 秀夫

Proceedings of 6th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operations and Safety (NUTHOS-6) (CD-ROM), 15 Pages, 2004/00




小杉山 真一; 武井 正信; 滝塚 貴和; 高田 昌二; Yan, X.; 國富 一彦

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 2(4), p.532 - 545, 2003/12



The JAERI-KEK joint RIB project

竹内 末広

AIP Conference Proceedings 680, p.229 - 236, 2003/00



Conceptual design study of the transmutation experimental facilities

佐々 敏信; 大井川 宏之; 菊地 賢司; 池田 裕二郎

Proceedings of American Nuclear Society Conference "Nuclear Applications in the New Millennium" (AccApp-ADTTA '01) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2002/00


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