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Journal Articles

Toward mechanistic evaluation of critical heat flux in nuclear reactors, 2; Recent studies and future challenges toward mechanistic and reliable CHF evaluation

Okawa, Tomio*; Mori, Shoji*; Liu, W.*; Ose, Yasuo*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ono, Ayako

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(12), p.820 - 824, 2021/12

The evaluation method of the critical heat flux based on the mechanism is needed for the efficient design and development of fuel in reactors and the appropriate safety evaluation. In this paper, the current researches relating to the mechanism of the critical heat flux are reviewed, and the issue to be considered in the future are discussed.

Journal Articles

Flow regime and void fraction predictions in vertical rod bundle flow channels

Han, X.*; Shen, X.*; Yamamoto, Toshihiro*; Nakajima, Ken*; Sun, Haomin; Hibiki, Takashi*

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 178, p.121637_1 - 121637_24, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0(Thermodynamics)

Journal Articles

Thermal-neutron capture cross-section measurement of tantalum-181 using graphite thermal column at KUR

Nakamura, Shoji; Shibahara, Yuji*; Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(10), p.1061 - 1070, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:53.73(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In a well-thermalized neutron field, it is principally possible to drive a thermal-neutron capture cross-section without considering an epithermal neutron component. This was demonstrated by a neutron activation method using the graphite thermal column (TC-Pn) of the Kyoto University Research Reactor. First, in order to confirm that the graphite thermal column was a well-thermalized neutron field, neutron irradiation was performed with neutron flux monitors: $$^{197}$$Au, $$^{59}$$Co, $$^{45}$$Sc, $$^{63}$$Cu, and $$^{98}$$Mo. The TC-Pn was confirmed to be extremely thermalized on the basis of Westcott's convention, because the thermal-neutron flux component took a constant value regardless of the sensitivity of each flux monitor to epithermal neutrons. Next, as a demonstration, the thermal-neutron capture cross section of $$^{181}$$Ta(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{182m+g}$$Ta reaction was measured using the graphite thermal column, and then derived to be 20.5$$pm$$0.4 barn, which supported the evaluated value of 20.4$$pm$$0.3 barn. The $$^{181}$$Ta nuclide could be useful as a flux monitor that complements the sensitivity between $$^{197}$$Au and $$^{98}$$Mo monitors.

Journal Articles

Macrolayer formation model for prediction of critical heat flux in saturated and subcooled pool boiling

Ono, Ayako; Sakashita, Hiroto*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Heat Transfer Engineering, 42(21), p.1775 - 1788, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:17.77(Thermodynamics)

In this study, the macrolayer formation model is proposed to predict the critical heat flux in the saturated and subcooled pool boiling based on the macrolayer dryout model. This model concept is based on the results of the previous experiments. In the model, the nucleation site is assumed to distribute based on the Poisson distribution. Combining the proposed macrolayer formation model and macrolayer dryout model, the CHFs up to subcooling 40K were predicted and they are successfully good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the concept of the model was confirmed by the numerical simulation using the TPFIT.

JAEA Reports

Survey on the radioactive substance in the coastal areas near Fukushima Prefecture in FY2019 (Contract research)

Misono, Toshiharu; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shiribiki, Takehiko; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Urabe, Yoshimi*

JAEA-Research 2020-008, 166 Pages, 2020/10

JAEA-Research-2020-008.pdf:13.11MB
JAEA-Research-2020-008(errata).pdf:0.92MB

After the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), marine monitoring survey on radioactive substances have been conducted with financially supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency from FY2019. Results obtain in the project in FY2019 are presented in this report. Based on scientific grounds, the concept necessary for "progress of sea area monitoring" was arranged for the future medium- to long-term investigation of radiocesium concentrations. As basic information of survey frequency revise, a seabed topography and sediment distribution survey was conducted, and an attempt was made to understand the relationship between the seabed topography and the grain size distribution of bottom sediment. A columnar core sample was collected in the coastal area and analyzed for radioactive cesium concentration. In order to understand the dynamics of radioactive cesium contained in suspended matter flowing in from a river, suspended solids was collected using a sediment trap and the concentration of radioactive cesium was measured. We re-analyzed the towed monitoring data that had been implemented since 2013, and tried to improve the accuracy of the radioactive cesium distribution estimation map in the coastal area.

Journal Articles

Compton scattering of quasi-monochromatic $$gamma$$-ray beam

Omer, M.; Shizuma, Toshiyuki*; Hajima, Ryoichi*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 951, p.162998_1 - 162998_6, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Study on the two-phase flow in simulated LWR fuel bundle by CFD code

Ono, Ayako; Yamashita, Susumu; Suzuki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.666 - 677, 2019/08

An evaluation methodology of critical heat fluxes (CHFs) based on a mechanism for fuel assemblies in light water reactors (LWRs) is needed in order to design and evaluate the safety for the fuel assemblies in LWRs. In our study, the numerical simulation with surface-tracking will be applied for the two-phase flow in fuel assemblies in order to obtain the detail data relating to the size and velocity of bubbles in the subchannel, which is needed to predict the CHF based on the mechanism. In this study, the numerical simulation of two-phase flow in 4$$times$$4 bundle was implemented by using JUPITER in order to establish the evaluation method of the size and velocity of bubbles by the numerical simulation, which is the multi-physics simulation code and enable to track the gas-liquid surface. The simulation results are validated by the curve of flow regime for air-water under the adiabatic condition. The bubble and velocity of bubbles obtained by simulation results are analyzed.

Journal Articles

Numerical study on effect of nucleation site density on behavior of bubble coalescence by using CMFD simulation code TPFIT

Ono, Ayako; Suzuki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2018/10

The mechanism of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) remains to be clarified, even though it is important to evaluate the CHF for super high heat flux components such as light water reactors (LWRs). Some theoretical models to predict the CHF is proposed so far. A macrolayer formation model which is proposed in order to predict the CHF based on the macrolayer dryout model. In this model, it is assumed that the liquid is captured inside vapor mass at coalescence. In this study, the verification of the assumption of a macrolayer formation model by the numerical simulation of CMFD code, TPFIT, from the view point of hydrodynamics.

Journal Articles

ROSA/LSTF test on nitrogen gas behavior during reflux condensation in PWR and RELAP5 code analyses

Takeda, Takeshi; Otsu, Iwao

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 5(4), p.18-00077_1 - 18-00077_14, 2018/08

Journal Articles

Numerical study on effect of pressure on behavior of bubble coalescence by using CMFD simulation

Ono, Ayako; Suzuki, Takayuki*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2018/07

The mechanism of critical heat flux (CHF) for higher system pressure remains to be clarified, even though it is important to evaluate the CHF for the light water reactor (LWR) which is operated under the high pressure condition. In this study, the process of bubble coalescence was simulated by using a computational multi-fluid dynamics (CMFD) simulation code TPFIT under various system pressure in order to investigate the behavior of bubbles as a basic study. The growth of bubbles was simulated by blowing of vapor from a tiny orifice simulating bubble bottom. One or four orifices were located on the bottom surface in this simulation study. The numerical simulations were conducted by varying the pressure and temperature.

Journal Articles

Axial flow characteristics of bubbly flow in a vertical large-diameter square duct

Shen, X.*; Sun, Haomin; Deng, B.*; Hibiki, Takashi*; Nakamura, Hideo

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09

An experimental study on the upward bubbly air-water flows in a vertical large-diameter square duct have been performed by using four-sensor probes. The four-sensor probe were applied in the local measurements at 3 axial positions along the flow direction to obtain interfacial area concentration, 3-D bubble velocity vector and bubble diameter. The obtained void fraction, interfacial area concentration, 3-D bubble velocity vector and bubble diameter provided valuable insight into the flow structure and will serve as a valuable database to develop the mechanistic models for interfacial area transport equation sources and sinks.

Journal Articles

ROSA/LSTF test on nitrogen gas behavior during reflux cooling in PWR and RELAP5 post-test analysis

Takeda, Takeshi; Otsu, Iwao

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2017/07

Journal Articles

R&D of active neutron NDA techniques for nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear security, 3; Validation of neutron transport code for design of NDA system

Maeda, Makoto; Komeda, Masao; Tobita, Hiroshi; Ozu, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Bogucarska, T.*; Crochemore, J. M.*; Varasano, G.*; Pedersen, B.*

Dai-37-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nihon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/02

JAEA and EC/JRC are carrying out collaborative research to develop NDA techniques that can be utilized for quantification of high radioactive special nuclear materials such as spent fuel and next generation minor actinide fuels. In the research, reliability of neutron transport codes is important because it is utilized for design and development of a demonstration system of next-generation Differential Die-away (DDA) technique in JAEA. In order to evaluate the reliability, actual neutron flux distribution in a sample cavity was examined in PUNITA device using JRC type DDA technique and JAWAS-T device using JAEA type DDA technique, and then the measurement results were compared with the simulation results obtained by the neutron transport codes. The neutron flux distribution in the target matrix was also examined in the PUNITA and compared with the simulation results. We report on the measurement and simulation results of the neutron flux distribution and evaluation results of the reliability of the neutron transport codes.

Journal Articles

Comparison between simulation and experimental results for neutron flux in DDA systems

Maeda, Makoto; Komeda, Masao; Ozu, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Toh, Yosuke; Bogucarska, T.*; Crochemore, J. M.*; Varasano, G.*; Pedersen, B.*

EUR-28795-EN (Internet), p.694 - 701, 2017/00

Journal Articles

Evaluation of neutron flux distribution in the JAEA type and JRC type DDA systems

Maeda, Makoto; Komeda, Masao; Tobita, Hiroshi; Ozu, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Bogucarska, T.*; Crochemore, J. M.*; Varasano, G.*; Pedersen, B.*

Proceedings of INMM 57th Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2016/07

The JAEA and EC/JRC have started collaborative research to develop a technique that can be utilized for quantification of high radioactive special nuclear materials such as next generation minor actinide fuels. In the study of a Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, which is one of the techniques to be improved in the collaborative research, JRC type and JAEA type DDA techniques are compared. In the JRC type DDA technique, large amount of thermal neutron is generated using D-T neutron generator and graphite moderator to accomplish high detection sensitivity for small amount of fissile material. On the other hand, in JAEA type, relatively hard neutron spectrum and moderation of neutron in the target matrix are utilized to minimize position dependence of detection efficiency. Estimation of the neutron field is important to evaluate the performance of the system in DDA technique. The purpose of this study is to validate simulation results by experimental results and evaluate neutron flux distribution in the system by the simulation and the experiment. In this paper, we present the evaluation results of the neutron flux distributions in PUNITA which utilizes JRC type DDA technique and JAWAS-T which utilizes JAEA type DDA technique obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and activation method.

Journal Articles

Gas-liquid bubbly flow structure in a vertical large-diameter square duct

Shen, X.*; Sun, Haomin; Deng, B.*; Hibiki, Takashi*; Nakamura, Hideo

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 89, p.140 - 158, 2016/05

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:86.79(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An experimental study was performed on the local structure of upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large diameter square duct by using a four-sensor probe. The four-sensor probe method classifying spherical and non-spherical bubbles was applied as a key measurement way to obtain local parameters such as 3-D bubble velocity vector, bubble diameter and interfacial area concentration. Both the local void fraction and interfacial area concentration indicated radial core-peak and wall-peak distributions at low and high liquid flow rates respectively. The 2 components of the bubble velocity vector in the cross-section revealed that there exists a rotating secondary flow in the octant symmetric triangular area and the magnitude of the rotating secondary flow increases with the liquid flow rate. Some of constitutive correlations of drift-flux model and interfacial area concentration are reviewed to study their predictabilities against the present data.

JAEA Reports

Influence of fuel assembly loading pattern and fuel burnups upon leakage neutron flux spectra from light water reactor core (Joint research)

Kojima, Kensuke; Okumura, Keisuke; Kosako, Kazuaki*; Torii, Kazutaka*

JAEA-Research 2015-019, 90 Pages, 2016/01

JAEA-Research-2015-019.pdf:1.95MB

At the decommissioning of light water reactors (LWRs), it is important to evaluate an amount of radioactivity in the ex-core structures such as a reactor containment vessel, radiation shieldings, and so on. It is thought that the leakage neutron spectra in these radioactivation regions, which strongly affect the induced radioactivity, would be changed by different reactor core configurations such as fuel assembly loading pattern and fuel burnups. This study was intended to evaluate these effects. For the purpose, firstly, partial neutron currents on the core surfaces were calculated for some core configurations. Then, the leakage neutron flux spectra in major radioactivation regions were calculated based on the provided currents. Finally, influence of the core configurations upon the neutron flux spectra was evaluated. As a result, it has been found that the influence is small on the spectrum shapes of neutron fluxes. However, it is necessary to pay attention to the facts that intensities of the leakage neutron fluxes are changed by the configurations and that intensities and spectrum shapes of the leakage neutron fluxes are changed depending on the angular direction around the core.

Journal Articles

Development of residual thermal stress-relieving structure of CFC monoblock target for JT-60SA divertor

Tsuru, Daigo; Sakurai, Shinji; Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Ozaki, Hidetsugu; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1403 - 1406, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:30.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Progress of ITER full tungsten divertor technology qualification in Japan

Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Seki, Yohji; Mori, Kensuke; Yokoyama, Kenji; Escourbiac, F.*; Hirai, Takeshi*; Kuznetsov, V.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1281 - 1284, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:95.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now devoting to development of Full-W ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, PFU that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20MW/m$$^{2}$$. JAEA have succeeded in demonstrating that the soundness of a bonding technology is sufficient for the full-W ITER divertor. For the development of bonding technology, the load carrying capability test on the W monoblock with a leg attachment to an OVT support structure was carried out and shows that the attachment can withstand against the uniaxial load more than 20 kN which is three times higher than the IO requirement. JAEA manufactured 6 small-scale mock-ups and tested under the repetitive heat load of 10 and 20 MW/m$$^{2}$$ to examine the durability of the divertor structure including W tile bonding and the cooling tube. All of the mock-ups could survived 5000 cycles at 10 MW/m$$^{2}$$ and 1000 cycles 20 MW/m$$^{2}$$ with no failure such as debonding of the W tile and water leak from the cooling tube. The number of cycles at 20 MW/m$$^{2}$$ is three times longer than the requirement of ITER divertor.

Journal Articles

Particle simulation of the transient behavior of one-dimensional SOL-divertor plasmas after an ELM crash

Takizuka, Tomonori; Hosokawa, Masanari*

Contributions to Plasma Physics, 46(7-9), p.698 - 703, 2006/09

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:43.47(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Enhanced heat and particle fluxes to the divertor plates after an ELM crash in H-mode plasmas are the crucial issues for the tokamak reactor operation. Kinetic effect in the transient behaviour of SOL-divertor plasmas for this case is not yet well known. We investigate above problems with an advanced particle simulation code, PARASOL. Dependence of the particle and heat propagations on the collisionality is studied systematically. Effect of the particle recycling is also studied.

234 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)